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					  Nov-09
NOTES:

           The papers listed here have been obtained by search SPE and IPTC papers post 2005 on the SPE's OnePetro
           The papers relating to reservoir engineering have been catergorised for inclusion on the   reservoirengineering.org.uk website
           The affiiations searched were;

                                                                    Total No Papers     Reservoir Engineering Related
                      BP                                                   551                      175
                      Shell                                                575                      279
                      Chevron                                              482                      238
                      ConocoPhillips                                       191                       68
                      Marathon                                             55                        37
                      Total                                                255                      129
                      Schlumberger                                        1130                      563
                      Imperial College, London                             95                        53
                      Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh                    235                      175
                      (Anywhere in Article)
                                                      Total               3569                          1717



                      Total number of papers published post 2005 =             10,000

                                                                   35% of papers published categorised
                                Paper
Organisation             Source No.       Chapter                    Section
SCHLUMBERGER               SPE    97889   Heavy Oil                 Artificial Lift
SCHLUMBERGER               SPE   117682   Heavy Oil                 Artificial Lift
TOTAL                      SPE   109831   Heavy Oil                Assisted HM
TOTAL                      SPE   102094   Heavy Oil               Bitumen sands
TOTAL                      SPE   103000   Heavy Oil               Bitumen sands
Heriot Watt University     SPE   107163   Heavy Oil            CO2/Water Injection
CONOCO                     SPE   100065   Heavy Oil               Complex Wells
CONOCO                     SPE   112638   Heavy Oil               Complex Wells
Heriot Watt University     SPE   117479   Heavy Oil              Depressuriziation
TOTAL                      SPE   117479   Heavy Oil              Depressuriziation
BP                         SPE   117087   Heavy oil          Development Optimisation
MARATHON                   SPE   117693   Heavy Oil          Electro Magnetic Heating
SCHLUMBERGER              IPTC    12536   Heavy Oil                  EOR/IOR
SCHLUMBERGER               SPE   117689   Heavy Oil                  EOR/IOR
CONOCO                     SPE   113173   Heavy Oil                     ESP

CHEVRON                   SPE    114196   Heavy Oil                Fluid Description
SHELL                     SPE    102970   Heavy Oil              Inflow Performance
SHELL                     SPE    112876   Heavy Oil         Insitu Combustion Recovery

Imperial College          IPTC   12710    Heavy Oil     Mechanism - Diffusion and Dispersion

CHEVRON                   SPE     97671   Heavy Oil Mechanism - High Mobility Ratio Waterflooding
SCHLUMBERGER              SPE    103841   Heavy Oil              Minor Reservoirs
SHELL                     SPE    120428   Heavy Oil      Modelling - Fractured Carbonate
SHELL                     SPE    107201   Heavy Oil         Modelling - History Matching

CHEVRON                   SPE    122922   Heavy Oil            Modelling - Streamline
TOTAL                     SPE    110468   Heavy Oil                Porous Flow
SHELL                     SPE    112558   Heavy Oil           Productivity Improvement
Heriot Watt University    SPE    113409   Heavy Oil             Reservoir Description
TOTAL                     SPE    113409   Heavy Oil             Reservoir Description




CHEVRON                   SPE    120423   Heavy Oil             Reservoir Description
SCHLUMBERGER              SPE    120423   Heavy Oil             Reservoir Description

CHEVRON                   SPE     93831   Heavy Oil             Reservoir Description
SCHLUMBERGER              SPE    102460   Heavy Oil             Reservoir Description
SCHLUMBERGER              SPE    104163   Heavy Oil            Reservoir Development
SCHLUMBERGER              SPE    104520   Heavy Oil            Reservoir Development
TOTAL                     SPE    117531   Heavy Oil              Reservoir Modelling
CONOCO                    SPE    117792   Heavy Oil              Reservoir Modelling
CONOCO                    SPE    117571   Heavy OIl                    SAGD
MARATHON                  SPE    117571   Heavy Oil                    SAGD
Heriot Watt University    SPE    113234   Heavy Oil                    SAGD
CHEVRON        SPE    103782   Heavy Oil        Sand Control



CHEVRON        SPE    84197    Heavy Oil      Solution Gas Drive

CHEVRON         SPE    87226   Heavy Oil     Solution Gas Drive
CHEVRON        IPTC    12426   Heavy Oil     State of the Nation
SHELL           SPE   113461   Heavy Oil       Steam Injection
SHELL           SPE   102876   Heavy Oil       Steam Injection
SCHLUMBERGER    SPE   116746   Heavy Oil          Stimulation
SCHLUMBERGER    SPE   105327   Heavy Oil         Surveillence
CONOCO          SPE   105392   Heavy Oil      Thermal Recovery
SCHLUMBERGER    SPE   104046   Heavy Oil      Thermal Recovery
TOTAL           SPE   110479   Heavy Oil      Thermal Recovery
BP              SPE   117327   Heavy Oil   Waterflood Developments




CHEVRON        SPE    110492   Heavy Oil   Waterflood Management

CHEVRON        SPE    121521   Heavy Oil      Well Deliverability

CHEVRON        SPE    106908   Heavy Oil       Well Intervention
SCHLUMBERGER   SPE    117285   Heavy Oil        Well Testing
SCHLUMBERGER   SPE    117562   Heavy Oil        Well Testing
TOTAL          SPE    117562   Heavy Oil        Well Testing
         Subject
        Cavity Pumps
      Downhole Heaters

    Reserves evaluation
    Reservoir Description
          Alaska
      Flow Behaviour

   Pore Network Modelling
   Pore Network Modelling
        Thin Oil Rim

  Assisted Gravity drainage
            SAG


        Asphaltenes
       Horizontal wells
        Development

       VAPEX Process

           Prediction
         Development
       Integrated Study
        Steam Injection

     Technique Evaluation
Lab testing - Bubble Nucleation
        Acid Treatment
    Anisotropic Rel. Perms
    Anisotropic Rel. Perms




     Carbonate Reservoir
     Carbonate Reservoir

        Mobility Data
            WFT
      Horizontal wells
       Steam Injection
      Foamy Oil Effect
Reaction-Diffusion Processes
    Expanding Solvent
    Expanding Solvent
   Performance Analysis
   Composition Effect


Carbonates - Middle East
  Fractured Reservoirs
      Geochemical
   Chemical Treatment
   Production Logging
  Carbonate Reservoir
      Development
Progressive Cavity Pumps
     Statistical Study




    Integrated Study

  Chemical Treatment

     Water Shut off
    Multiphase Meter
    Multiphase Meter
    Multiphase Meter
                                              Title
Producing Extra-Heavy Oil from the Orinoco Belt, Cerro Negro Area, Venezuela, Using Bottom-Drive Progressive Cavity Pump
Feasibility of using Electrical Downhole Heaters in Faja Heavy Oil Reservoirs
More Rapid and Robust Multiple History Matching With Geological and Dynamic Uncertainties: Heavy-Oil Case Study
Quantifying Resources for the Surmont Lease with 2D Mapping and Multivariate Statistics
Facies Analysis and Architectural Elements Within a Fluvio-Estuarine Sedimentary System: The Lower Cretaceous Bituminous
Heavy Oil Recovery by Liquid CO2/Water Injection
Rate-Time Flow Behavior of Heavy Oil From Horizontal and Multilateral Wells
The Use of Multilateral Well Designs for Improved Recovery in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs
Dynamic Pore Network Simulator for Modelling Buoyancy-Driven Migration during Depressurisation of Heavy-Oil Systems
Dynamic Pore Network Simulator for Modelling Buoyancy-Driven Migration during Depressurisation of Heavy-Oil Systems
Van-Yogan Field: Evaluation of the Optimal Development Strategy for a Thin Viscous Oil Rim with a Large Gas Cap
Electro-Magnetic Heating in Viscous Oil Reservoir
Microwave Assisted Gravity Drainage of Heavy Oils
Horizontal Alternating Steam Drive Process for the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt in Eastern Venezuela
ESP Operation, Optimization, and Performance Review: ConocoPhillips China Inc. Bohai Bay Project
Correlation of Cold Production Behavior with Acid/Base Number and Asphaltene Content of Heavy
Oil
Choked Flow in HVO Recovery: Injection and Production in Horizontal Wells
A Thermal Recovery Method for Medium-Heavy Oil Reservoirs
An Experimental Investigation into the Influence of Diffusion and Dispersion on Heavy Oil Recovery
by VAPEX

High-Mobility-Ratio Waterflood Performance Prediction: Challenges and New Insights
Development of Small Size-Heavy-Oil Field With Innovative Technology
From Data Acquisition to Simulator: Fracture Modeling a Carbonate Heavy-Oil Reservoir (Lower Shuaiba, Sultanate of Oman)
Realistic History Matching of Cyclic Steam Stimulation Performance of Several Groups of Multilateral Wells in the Peace River

Evaluation of Streamline Simulation Application to Heavy Oil Waterflood
Gas Bubble Nucleation of Extra-Heavy Oils in Porous Media: A New Computerized Tomography Technique and Physical Appro
Increasing Production in a Brownfield With Heavy Crude and Fine Problems by Application of New HF-Acid System: Case Histo
Anisotropic Relative Permeabilities for Characterising Heavy-Oil Depletion Experiment
Anisotropic Relative Permeabilities for Characterising Heavy-Oil Depletion Experiment




Characterization of Complex Carbonate Heavy Oil Reservoir—A Case Study
Characterization of Complex Carbonate Heavy Oil Reservoir—A Case Study
Interrelationship of Temperature and Wettability on the Relative Permeability of Heavy Oil in
Diatomaceous Rocks (includes associated discussion and reply)
A Technique for Measuring Permeability Anisotropy and Recovering PVT Samples in a Heavy Oil Reservoir in North West Sibe
Developing Heavy Oil Field By Well Placement - A Case Study
Optimizing Horizontal-Well Steam-Stimulation Strategy for Heavy-Oil Development
The Slender Bubble Model for Very Slow Degassing in Porous Media and Cold Production
Accurate Numerical Simulation of Reaction-Diffusion Processes for Heavy Oil Recovery
Expanding Solvent SAGD in Heavy Oil Reservoirs
Expanding Solvent SAGD in Heavy Oil Reservoirs
Performance Analysis of SAGD Wind-Down Process With CO2 Injection
Design and Implementation of Retention/Filtration Media To Improve Heavy Oil Production



An Investigation of the Effect of Oil Composition on Heavy-Oil Solution Gas Drive

Heavy-Oil Solution Gas Drive in Consolidated and Unconsolidated Rock
An Overview of Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Carbonate Reservoirs in the Middle East
Heavy-Oil Recovery By Steam Injection In Fractured Reservoirs
Making Sense of the Geomechanical Impact on the Heavy-Oil Extraction Process at Peace River Based on Quantitative Analys
Smart Chemical Systems for the Stimulation of High-Water-Cut Heavy Oil Wells
Horizontal-Well-Production Logging Experience in Heavy-Oil Environment With Sand Screen: A Case Study From Kuwait
Application of Thermal Recovery Processes in Heavy Oil Carbonate Reservoirs
Thermal Simulation and Economic Evaluation of Heavy-Oil Projects
World's First Metal PCP SAGD Field Test Shows Promising Artificial-Lift Technology for Heavy-Oil Hot Production: Joslyn Field
Increasing Oil Recovery from Heavy Oil Waterfloods



Water-Injection Optimization for a Complex Fluvial Heavy-Oil Reservoir by Integrating Geological,
Seismic, and Production Data

Cost-Effective Production-Enhancement Solution for Heavy Oil

Applicability of Water Shutoff Treatment for Horizontal Wells in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs
Case Study in Venezuela: Performance of Multiphase Meter in Extra Heavy Oil
Methodology of Calibration for Nucleonic Multiphase Meter Technology for SAGD Extra Heavy Oil
Methodology of Calibration for Nucleonic Multiphase Meter Technology for SAGD Extra Heavy Oil
                                Author                                      Abstract
                                                                              Summary The traditional means of artificial lift
M.A. Ramos and J.C. Brown, Petr�leos de Venezuela S.A.; M. Rojas, O. Kuyucu, and J.G. Flores, SPE, Schlumberger pro
                                                                              Abstract The
Ra�l Rodr�guez, Jos� Luis Bashbush and Adafel Rinc�n, SPE, Schlumberger Orinoco Belt (Faja) in Venezuela con
J. Poncet, G. Vincent, M. Inizan, P. Henriquel and P. Jannes, Total           Abstract The generation of reservoir simulation mo
                                                                              Summary The McMurray formation consists of he
Weishan Ren, SPE, ConocoPhillips Canada; Clayton V. Deutsch, SPE, University of Alberta; David Garner, SPE, Chevron Can
                                                                               and O. In north-eastern Mines (Canada)
J. Bailleul, Ecole des Mines de Paris/Total E&P; V. Delhaye-Prat, Total E&P;AbstractParize, Ecole des Albertade Paris the flu
A. Al-Quraini, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), and M. Sohrabi and M.Abstract Alaska’s North Slope reservoirs conta
                                                                               Jamiolahmady, Heriot-Watt U.
                                                                              Abstract This Switch Consulting; behavior of hea
M.D. Fetkovich, SPE, and G.E. Petrosky Jr., SPE, ConocoPhillips; C.B. Hughesman, SPE, paper examines theand�R.P. Saw
                                                                              Abstract There are now a variety of ways to achiev
Steven Fipke, Halliburton, Sperry Drilling Services; and Adriano Celli, Petrozuata
                                                                              Abstract number of vertically-oriented
C.C. Ezeuko and S.R. McDougall, Heriot-Watt University; I. Bondino, TOTAL E&P UKALtd; G. Hamon, TOTAL S.A heavy oil d
                                                                              Abstract number of vertically-oriented
C.C. Ezeuko and S.R. McDougall, Heriot-Watt University; I. Bondino, TOTAL E&P UKALtd; G. Hamon, TOTAL S.A heavy oil d
                                                                              ABSTRACT
Ildar Shaykhutdinov, Vadim Galimordanov, Valeriy Bardin, TNK-BP Management, Jsc. This paper is devoted to the issues re
Swapan Das, SPE, Marathon Oil Corporation                                     Abstract Formation resistive heating commonly kn
                                                                              Abstract Akin, METU
Berna Hascakir, METU; Cagdas Acar, Schlumberger; Birol Demiral, UTP; and Serhat Conventional EOR methods like steam-in
Edgar A. Fernandez R. and Jos� Luis Bashbush, Schlumberger                  Abstract The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt (Faja) has be
                                                                              Abstract ConocoPhillips China Inc. (COPC) opera
Zhizhuang Jiang, SPE, ConocoPhillips China Inc., and Bassam Zreik, SPE, Schlumberger
J. Peng, SPE, Stanford U; G-Q. Tang, Chevron; and A.R. Kovscek, SPE,
Stanford U.                                                                   Abstract So-called “foamy oil (heavy-oil solutio
                                                                              Abstract
A. Burtsev, B. Kuvshinov, E. de Rouffignac, and A.M. Mollinger, Shell Intl. E&P b.v. The problem of multiphase flows in choke
                                                                              Abstract The A.D. Brooks, and J. van Dorp, Shell
A.H. de Zwart, P. Bakker and C.A. Glandt, Shell International Exploration and Production, primary recovery of a medium-heavyT

                                                                         Abstract This paper investigates the role SPE, Im
Abdullah Alkindi, SPE, Imperial College London; Yahya Al-Wahaibi, SPE, Sultan Qaboos University; Ann Muggeridge,of convec
Mridul Kumar, SPE, Viet Hoang, SPE, Cengiz Satik, SPE, Chevron Energy
Technology Co.; and Danny Rojas, SPE, Stanford University                Summary This paper presents the results of a com
                                                                         Abstract and Sivaraman Naganathan of Heavy oil
Raj Deo Tewari and Mirghani Malik, GNPOC; Mohamed Ahmed Hassan Idris, OEPA;Exploration and development and Dmitry P
                                                                         Abstract A dedicated appraisal campaign and mod
Georg M.D. Warrlich, SPE, Pascal D. Richard, SPE, Timothy E. Johnson, Petroleum Development Oman, L. Bart M. Wassing,
Paul Frantisek Koci and Junaid Ghulam Mohiddin, Shell Intl. E&P Inc.     Abstract With 8 billion barrels of bitumen in place a

I. Osako, M. Kumar, V. Hoang, and G. Balasubramanian, Chevron ETC          Abstract Lack of analogs and the nature of high m
                                                                           Abstract The F. Franco, D. Mauduit, pore Monte
V. Meyer, J. Pilliez, P. Creux, and A. Graciaa, UMR 5150 Total-CNRS-UPPA, and F. Luck,study of multiphase flowand F.level p
                                                                           Abstract Increasing well production without compro
Folorunso Afolabi, SPE, Austa Opusunju, SPE, and Jaspers Henri, SPE, SPDC; Cletus Onyekwere, SPE, and Chris�Onyekw
                                                                           Abstract and G. years TOTAL S.A.
C.C. Ezeuko and S.R. McDougall, Heriot-Watt University; I. Bondino, TOTAL E&P UK;In recentHamon,the use of pore-scale net
                                                                           Abstract and G. years TOTAL S.A.
C.C. Ezeuko and S.R. McDougall, Heriot-Watt University; I. Bondino, TOTAL E&P UK;In recentHamon,the use of pore-scale net
Afzal Iqbal, John Smith, Ali Reza Zahedi, Deemer Arthur, and Falah M. Al-
Yami, Saudi Arabian Chevron; W. Scott Meddaugh, SPE, Chevron Energy
Technology Company; Mansoor A. Rampurawala, SPE, Bingjian Li, and
Ihsan Gok, Schlumberger Oilfield Services; and Talal Al Enazi, Kuwait Gulf
Oil Company                                                                Abstract The Paleocene/Eocene age 1st Eocene R
                                                                           Abstract The Paleocene/Eocene age Meddaugh,
Afzal Iqbal, John Smith, Ali Reza Zahedi, Deemer Arthur, and Falah M. Al-Yami, Saudi Arabian Chevron; W. Scott1st Eocene R
J.M. Schembre, SPE, G.-Q. Tang, SPE, and A.R. Kovscek, SPE, Stanford
U.                                                                         Summary The evaluation of thermal-recovery proc
                                                                           Abstract
Achourov V., SPE, Schlumberger, and Khamitov I. and Yatsenko V., SPE, Rosneft Wireline formation testers provide the me
                                                                           Abstract Fula is a heavy oil field
Pan You li, Luo Hui Hong, and Abdel Mageed Sharara, CNPCIS, and Sivaraman Naganathan, Schlumberger located in Muglad
Shanqiang Luo, SPE, and Andy Baker, SPE, Schlumberger                                  Oil Development
                                                                           Abstract The world still contains tremendous heav
                                                                           Abstract Cold production
Mehdi Chraibi, TOTAL, St�phane Zaleski, SPE, Univ-Paris 06, and Fabienne Franco, SPE, TOTALof oil leads to degassing
                                                                           Abstract Many examples of reaction-diffusion proc
Pradeep Ananth Govind and Sanjay Srinivasan, SPE, The University of Texas at Austin
                                                                           Abstract In recent Company, Sanjay Srinivasan, S
Pradeep Ananth Govind, SPE, ConocoPhillips Canada Ltd., Swapan Das, SPE, ConocoPhillipsyears several Steam Assisted G
                                                                           Abstract In recent Company, Sanjay Srinivasan, S
Pradeep Ananth Govind, SPE, ConocoPhillips Canada Ltd., Swapan Das, SPE, ConocoPhillipsyears several Steam Assisted G
A.S. Bagci, SPE, S. Olushola, and E. Mackay, SPE, Heriot-Watt University Abstract Thermal recovery methods involving stea
David R. Underdown, Chevron Energy Technology Co., and Sam Hopkins,
Purolator Facet Inc.                                                Abstract The factors that control the performance o

G.-Q. Tang,�SPE, T. Leung, SPE, and L.M. Castanier, SPE, Stanford
U.; A. Sahni, SPE, F. Gadelle,�SPE, and M. Kumar,�SPE, Chevron
Corp. E&P Technology Co.; and A.R. Kovscek, SPE, Stanford U.                Summary This study probes experimentally the m
G.-Q. Tang, SPE, Stanford U.; A. Sahni, SPE, F. Gadelle, SPE, and M.
Kumar, SPE, Chevron Corp.; and A.R. Kovscek, SPE, Stanford U.               Summary Solution gas drive is effective to recove
John W. Buza, SPE, Chevron Corporation                                      Abstract Global heavy oil resources in carbonate
                                                                            Abstract Using analytical results and thermal rese
A.P.G. van Heel, Shell International B.V.; J.J. van Dorp, Shell Oman; and P.M. Boerrigter, Shell
                                                                             Bourne, The steam injection rates in the Shell Intl
Peter R. McGillivray and Simon Brissenden, Shell Canada Ltd., and StephenAbstract Karel Maron, and Peter Bakker, CSS ope
                                                                            and Mohamed Jemmali, SPE, in the Gulf of
Mohamed Ahmed Samir and Islam Elnashar, Scimitar, and Mathew Samuel Abstract The Nukhul formation SchlumbergerSuez
                                                                            Abstract Murat Gok, Murat With Sand Screen: Aa
                                                                                        Oil Environment Zeybek, Koksal Cig,
Ricardo U. Oosthuizen, Ahmed Al Naqi, and Khalaf Al-Anzi, Kuwait Oil Co., and Ihsan Because flow regimes in highly deviated C
Swapan Das, ConocoPhillips                                                  Abstract As the demand for oil grows the petroleu
                                                                             Energy, Mexico; S. recent hydrocarbon discoverie
E.R. Rangel-German, SPE, Natl. Autonomous U. of Mexico and Secretary of� Abstract Many Camacho-Romero, SPE, and
Jean-Louis Beauquin and Felix Ndinemenu, Total E&P; Gilles Chalier, Total Abstract Finding a reliable artificial lift pumping sys
                                                                            E&P Canada; Lionel Lemay and Laurent Seince, P
                                                                            Abstract A statistical study of 166 western Canadia
Bradley W. Brice, SPE, BP Exploration, and G. Renouf, Saskatchewan Research Council
Xin Feng, China National Offshore Oil Company; Xian-Huan Wen, Chevron
International E&P Company; Bo Li and Ming Liu, China National Offshore
Oil Company; Dengen Zhou and Michael Q. Ye, Chevron International E&P
Company; and Dongmei Hou, Qinghong Yang, and Lichuan Lan, China
National Offshore Oil Company                                               Abstract BZ25-1s field in Bohai Bay China is char
Tim Gorham, SPE, Samuel E. Rodriguez, Chevron, John Wise, SPE,
Michael Ripley, SPE, and Richard J. Dyer, Enova                             ABSTRACT Heavy oil oil < 17o API accounts for
Francesco Verre and�Martin Blunt, Imperial College London, and Alan
Morrison and Tony McGarva, Chevron                                          Abstract The applicability of water shut-off treatme
Ana Marin, PDVSA, Onerazan Bornia, and Bruno Pinguet, Schlumberger          Abstract The objective is to present accurately the
                                                                            Vincent ARENDO, Mark SHAFFER, Jose Steam-
Bruno PINGUET, Philippe PECHARD, Elsie GUERRA - SCHLUMBERGER, Abstract: Metering of bitumen produced byCONTR
                                                                            Vincent ARENDO, Mark SHAFFER, Jose Steam-
Bruno PINGUET, Philippe PECHARD, Elsie GUERRA - SCHLUMBERGER, Abstract: Metering of bitumen produced byCONTR
onal means of artificial lift production for vertical and deviated wells in the Orinoco oil belt in eastern Venezuela used to be rod pumping and
   Belt (Faja) in Venezuela contains one of the largest resources of heavy and extra-heavy oil in the world. Due to the production decline of co
 ion of reservoir simulation models that match field production data has been and is still a long-time industry challenge not only for the time s
urray formation consists of heterogeneous Cretaceous-bitumen-saturated sands. The reservoirs are thick and laterally extensive in the main
  tern Alberta (Canada) the fluvio-estuarine McMurray Formation constitutes the main bitumen accumulation of the Athabasca Heavy Oil Prov
s North Slope reservoirs contain a massive heavy oil resource. There has been some success producing the less viscous crudes in the West
  examines the behavior of heavy oil reservoirs developed with horizontal and multilateral wells.�Advanced decline curve analyses were us
ow a variety of ways to achieve higher recovery factors from heavy oil reservoirs but most of them involve the injection of thermal energy or c
   vertically-oriented heavy oil depletion experiments have been conducted in recent years in an attempt to investigate the impact of gravitation
   vertically-oriented heavy oil depletion experiments have been conducted in recent years in an attempt to investigate the impact of gravitation
  er is devoted to the issues related to the strategy of development of an oil-and-gas accumulation of Cenomanian age. Vanyogan field is take
esistive heating commonly known as EM (Electro-Magnetic) heating has been considered as a potential thermal recovery method in the visc
al EOR methods like steam-injection are usually not cost effective for deep wells and wells producing from thin pay zones due to excessive
   Heavy Oil Belt (Faja) has been exploited under primary recovery techniques using mainly horizontal fishbone and multilateral wells. This co
  ips China Inc. (COPC) operates the Penglai 19-3 oil field located offshore in Bohai Bay the People’s Republic of China. COPC holds a

 œfoamy oil (heavy-oil solution gas drive) is influenced by a number of factors including chemical and compositional characteristics of the cru
m of multiphase flows in chokes presents an interesting problem for steam injection and hydrocarbon production. In both cases it is important
 recovery of a medium-heavy oil reservoir with a strong bottom aquifer is generally poor. The introduction of horizontal wells that are drilled a

nvestigates the role of convective dispersion on oil recovery by VAPEX using an analogue fluid system of ethanol and glycerol in well-charac

r presents the results of a comprehensive study to improve our understanding of high-mobility-ratio waterflood (HMRWF) and to improve per
and development of Heavy oil fields in Muglad Basin in Northern Africa started with conventional vertical wells and as time progressed this m
 appraisal campaign and modeling study was carried on a heavy-oil fractured Shuaiba field in the north of the Sultanate of Oman to assess t
n barrels of bitumen in place and more than 30 years of thermal piloting and demonstration projects Peace River offers an excellent growth o

 logs and the nature of high mobility ratio waterflood conditions pose many difficulties for reliable performance forecasts for heavy oil waterflo
 f multiphase flow pore level physic has scientific appeal as well as many applications mainly in oil reservoir engineering. In this work we sho
well production without compromising reservoir management and well integrity in an environmentally friendly manner is a common objective w
 ars the use of pore-scale network models has greatly advanced our understanding of solution gas drive processes by accounting for the com
 ars the use of pore-scale network models has greatly advanced our understanding of solution gas drive processes by accounting for the com




ene/Eocene age 1st Eocene Reservoir is the shallowest producing interval of Wafra Field in the Partitioned Neutral Zone (PNZ) Saudi Arabia
ene/Eocene age 1st Eocene Reservoir is the shallowest producing interval of Wafra Field in the Partitioned Neutral Zone (PNZ) Saudi Arabia

ation of thermal-recovery processes requires relative permeability functions as well as information about the effects of temperature on these
mation testers provide the measurements for the determination of formation pressure gradient in-situ effective oil mobility profile in-situ dow
avy oil field located in Muglad basin in Sudan. Aradeiba reservoir in the field consists of highly heterogeneous sandstone that is thinly bedded

tion of oil leads to degassing of the light species and the formation of a bubbly phase sometimes called the “foamy oil effect. This bubbly
ples of reaction-diffusion processes are encountered in enhanced heavy oil recovery applications. A typical instance of such a process is whe
ars several Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen and Expandin
ars several Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen and Expandin
covery methods involving steam injection have long been considered as an effective means of extracting heavy oil resources. In addition the
 hat control the performance of sand control screens that use woven metal mesh as the filter media; i.e commonly called “premium scre



 probes experimentally the mechanisms of heavy-oil solution gas drive through a series of depletion experiments employing two heavy crude

as drive is effective to recover heavy oil from some reservoirs. Characterization of the relevant recovery mechanisms however remains an o
avy oil resources in carbonate rocks have been estimated to be on the order of 1.6 trillion barrels1 of which about one-third may occur in the
 tical results and thermal reservoir simulations we study the heating of - and oil recovery from - a vertical stack of matrix blocks. The stack is
 njection rates in the CSS operation for the extraction of the Peace River bitumen can be significantly increased by operating at a pressure ab
 formation in the Gulf of Suez is highly fractured depleted reservoir producing 9 to 10 API gravity heavy oil at water cuts up to 98%. Stimulatio
 nment With Sand Screen: A Case Study From Kuwait
and for oil grows the petroleum industry is expanding the technology envelope to access and exploit many unconventional resources.� Th
  ecent hydrocarbon discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico are heavy and extra-heavy oils. Additionally given the imminent decline of lighter crude
 liable artificial lift pumping system for heavy oil thermal recovery has been a challenge mainly due to the high operating temperatures (>150Ë
study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering heavy and medium gravity oils revealed new findings about best operating practices fo




ld in Bohai Bay China is characterized as a complex fluvial channelized reservoir where small meandering channels (100-300m wide and 50

l oil < 17o API accounts for a growing percentage of the production and reserve portfolios of North American Oil Producing Companies. A k

bility of water shut-off treatment for horizontal wells in heavy oil reservoirs is analyzed in this study considering two different treatments: inorg
e is to present accurately the performance of the combination of a venturi and multi energy gamma ray in a case study in Venezuela. The foc
 bitumen produced by Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) induces many issues arising from high operating temperatures (150-200 C)
 bitumen produced by Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) induces many issues arising from high operating temperatures (150-200 C)
 ezuela used to be rod pumping and top-drive progressive cavity pumps (PCPs) particularly for wells with production rates ranging from 200
 . Due to the production decline of conventional light crude projects must focus on increasing the recovery of heavy and extra-heavy oils usin
                                                                                      OnePetro
stry challenge not only for the time spent on history matching studies but also because of the non-uniqueness of the solution. This paper pre
 k and laterally extensive in the main fairways. Many commercial projects are in the early stages of development. Resources too deep to mine
ation of the Athabasca Heavy Oil Province. Deposited within the fluvial-to-marine transition zone the McMurray clastic succession is characte
g the less viscous crudes in the West Sak formation by waterflooding and water-alternating-gas injection. CO2 injection could also have pote
 nced decline curve analyses were used to characterize flow regimes and estimate the time to pseudosteady-state.� Reservoir and well p
                                                                                      OnePetro
ve the injection of thermal energy or chemicals to reduce the oil viscosity. While these techniques have been highly successful they can also
 o investigate the impact of gravitational forces on gas evolution during solution gas drive. Although some experimental result indirectly sugge
                                                                                       drive. Although some experimental result indirectly sugge
 o investigate the impact of gravitational forces on gas evolution during solution gasOnePetro
  omanian age. Vanyogan field is taken as an example (West Siberia). Results of the conducted well tests and pilot work to develop a thin an
 l thermal recovery method in the viscous oil reservoirs for almost three decades. In situ viscosity reduction by the heat generated in the form
om thin pay zones due to excessive heat loss to the overburden.� For such wells minimizing heat losses can be achieved by using microw
 hbone and multilateral wells. This cold development can only recover between 6% and 9 % of the considerable original oil in place existing in
™s Republic of China. COPC holds a production sharing agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC). The Penglai 19-

 mpositional characteristics of the crude oil. Measurements of the concentration of organic acid and base groups as well as asphaltene conte
oduction. In both cases it is important to evaluate the maximum possible mass fluxes through a perforation. Several models are used in the o
                                                                                         recovery. OnePetro
n of horizontal wells that are drilled at the top of the oil column has improved the oilOnePetro However even horizontal wells suffer from fast

 f ethanol and glycerol in well-characterized glass bead packs. Laboratory studies of VAPEX in porous media result in significantly high produ

 rflood (HMRWF) and to improve performance prediction. Published data on heavy-oil water-injection field projects are limited. Several succe
  wells and as time progressed this matured into drilling of horizontal and high angle wells. Typically drilling challenges in this area include dri
of the Sultanate of Oman to assess the feasibility of steamassisted gas-oil gravity drainage (SAGOGD) EOR. In this field key to a successfu
ace River offers an excellent growth opportunity for Shell’s ultra-heavy oil portfolio. In support of this initiative integrated geological and r

                                                 OnePetro
mance forecasts for heavy oil waterflood.� In many cases although numerical simulation is the method of choice for forecasting it also fac
 voir engineering. In this work we show that micro-tomography is an effective tool to extract the structure of many solid systems in a non-des
ndly manner is a common objective within the producing companies. This philosophy has led to the development and introduction of many inn
e processes by accounting for the complex dynamics operating at the microscopic scale. Moreover it has also been demonstrated that a por
e processes by accounting for the complex dynamics operating at the microscopic scale. Moreover it has also been demonstrated that a por




 ed Neutral Zone (PNZ) Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Characterization of this heavy oil reservoir is challenging due to observed variations in oil v
 ed Neutral Zone (PNZ) Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Characterization of this heavy oil reservoir is challenging due to observed variations in oil v

t the effects of temperature on these functions. There are significant challenges encountered when estimating relative permeability from labo
 fective oil mobility profile in-situ downhole fluids analysis (DFA) as well as taken PVT samples and maintaining them in single phase conditi
neous sandstone that is thinly bedded unconsolidated bearing typical heavy oil. Bentiu reservoir is composed of massive sandstone uncons

 the “foamy oil effect. This bubbly phase is particularly observed with heavy oils combining high viscosity and asphaltenes. Presence an
cal instance of such a process is when a chemical diffuses through a fluid column and then undergoes reaction with another chemical specie
 heavy oil and bitumen and Expanding Solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have shown positive indications of improved performance. This pap
 heavy oil and bitumen and Expanding Solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have shown positive indications of improved performance. This pap
g heavy oil resources. In addition the high recovery performance of SAGD makes it a popular option for these non-conventional oil resources
 commonly called “premium screens are not generally well understood by the end user. The end user is provided a premium screen with



 eriments employing two heavy crude oils and two viscous mineral oils. Mineral oils were chosen with viscosity similar to crude oil at reservoir

 mechanisms however remains an open question. In this work we present an experimental study of the solution gas drive behavior of a 9ï¿
 ich about one-third may occur in the Middle East.� Published resources for specific fields and proprietary databases however suggest a
l stack of matrix blocks. The stack is surrounded by fractures where steam is injected at the top and oil recovered from the base of the fract
 reased by operating at a pressure above the vertical stress of 13 MPa. To improve the understanding of the CSS extraction process Shell C
oil at water cuts up to 98%. Stimulation is required to enhance oil production and extend the life of the field. An inherent problem with these w

any unconventional resources.� The current focus of all major oil companies is heavy oil in highly porous and permeable sandstone reserv
                                                                                        OnePetro
 the imminent decline of lighter crude oil fields such as Cantarell (the primary Mexican oil field) it seems that most of the crude oil production
e high operating temperatures (>150ËšC). Available options such as Rod Pumps and Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) which are well pr
 ngs about best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding. In classical light oil waterflooding operators are advised to start waterflooding




 ng channels (100-300m wide and 500 - >1000m long) were deposited at different geological times cross-cutting each other. There are many

erican Oil Producing Companies. A key challenge in the production of heavy oil is that its properties provide a greater likelihood of common d

dering two different treatments: inorganic gel and relative permeability modifier (RPM). In the first part of this paper a general description of
 n a case study in Venezuela. The focus will be on practical information knowledge sharing to overcome all classical problems due to fluid be
                                                                                     OnePetro
 operating temperatures (150-200 C) steam presence in the gas phase foaming emulsion and small density differences between bitumen a
                                                                                     OnePetro
 operating temperatures (150-200 C) steam presence in the gas phase foaming emulsion and small density differences between bitumen a
 h production rates ranging from 200 to 600 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) of extra-heavy oil (8�API gravity and viscosities of 2 000 cp at a
 ry of heavy and extra-heavy oils using thermal and non-thermal methods. Steam-based thermal recovery processes are more efficient in low

opment. Resources too deep to mine are considering steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) (Butler 1991). Detailed high-resolution 3D geo
Murray clastic succession is characterized by the lateral and vertical juxtaposition of a wide variety of depositional processes. This led to com
. CO2 injection could also have potential applications as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process with the added benefit of providing a solut
eady-state.� Reservoir and well parameters such as the OOIP Arps “b exponent decline rate reserves permeability and well produc

e experimental result indirectly suggest the occurrence of gas migration during these tests (especially at slow depletion rates) a major limitat

ts and pilot work to develop a thin and highly-viscous oil rim in PK1-2 reservoirs at Vanyogan field demonstrate that it is impossible to develo
on by the heat generated in the formation helps in the recovery process. The formation acts as a resistor in the current flow path. Numerous
ses can be achieved by using microwave heating assisted gravity drainage.� In this study the feasibility of this method was investigated.ï¿
derable original oil in place existing in the area. Owing to the high viscosities widely different formation thicknesses and heterogeneities foun
rporation (CNOOC). The Penglai 19-3 field is the second largest oil field in China with 3.8 billion bbl of oil in place discovered in May 1999 an

e groups as well as asphaltene content of crude oil are combined with data from laboratory-scale heavy-oil solution gas drive. We find that si
on. Several models are used in the oil industry for this purpose e.g. Ashford (1974) [1] Sachdeva et al. (1984) [2] and Perkins (1993) [3]. T


media result in significantly high production rates than predicted either by analytic models derived from Hele-Shaw experiments or numerical s

 ld projects are limited. Several successful HMRWF projects have been reported and they show significant oil recovery at high watercut. How
 ng challenges in this area include drilling of very reactive shale’s shallow kick off depths and high build rates. Unconsolidated sandstone
 EOR. In this field key to a successful SAGOGD is a well-connected fracture network which was investigated by a dedicated appraisal camp
  initiative integrated geological and reservoir modeling of two project areas was conducted. The key objectives were to improve predictive m


e of many solid systems in a non-destructive and classical manner. Recently X-ray computed tomography tools have been extended to the a
 lopment and introduction of many innovative technologies and strategies into the oil and gas industries. The need to improve brown field pro
 s also been demonstrated that a pore-network model when suitably anchored to core material is able to provide both qualitative and quantita
 s also been demonstrated that a pore-network model when suitably anchored to core material is able to provide both qualitative and quantita




 ng due to observed variations in oil viscosity heterogeneity related to complex mineralogy a possible dual porosity system and the presenc
 ng due to observed variations in oil viscosity heterogeneity related to complex mineralogy a possible dual porosity system and the presenc

mating relative permeability from laboratory data such as the accuracy of measurements and generalized assumptions in the interpretation t
ntaining them in single phase condition for lab analysis interval pressure transient testing (IPTT) for characterizing of permeability anisotropy
posed of massive sandstone unconsolidated and traped very high viscous oil. Production performance of vertical wells indicates that the res

 osity and asphaltenes. Presence and behavior of a foamy-oil effect appears to be critical to the cold production process. This process is not
eaction with another chemical species. The reaction products further diffuse through the porous media. The challenges involved in modeling
s of improved performance. This paper presents the results of a simulation study performed to investigate important aspects of the ES-SAGD
s of improved performance. This paper presents the results of a simulation study performed to investigate important aspects of the ES-SAGD
 these non-conventional oil resources. Steam processes are energy intensive and result in generation of emissions which are detrimental to h
er is provided a premium screen with a woven metal mesh with some weave type and told the sand control screen is better than the other pr



 cosity similar to crude oil at reservoir temperature. A specially designed aluminum coreholder allows visualization of gas phase evolution dur

e solution gas drive behavior of a 9�API crude oil with an initial solution gas/oil ratio (GOR) of 105 scf/STB and live-oil viscosity of 258 cp a
 tary databases however suggest a more modest STOOIP resource base of approximately 120 BBO.� Owing to its vast light oil reserves
 recovered from the base of the fracture system. We compare fine-grid single-porosity simulations with coarse-grid dual-permeability simula
f the CSS extraction process Shell Canada designed and implemented a monitoring program over the most recently drilled production pads
eld. An inherent problem with these wells is poor acid placement during matrix acidizing especially in reservoirs with high-permeability contra

ous and permeable sandstone reservoirs (oil sand) which presents a significant opportunity. However viscous oil trapped in carbonates (ove

sible Pumps (ESP) which are well proven in the industry are not particularly well suited to thermal production. While Rod Pumps offer high t
ors are advised to start waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. The study however produced surprising




s-cutting each other. There are many isolated small reservoir systems following channel distributions. Early production showed steep pressu

vide a greater likelihood of common damage mechanisms and result in a drop in production rates. Historically operators of heavy oil reservo

f this paper a general description of heavy oil reservoirs behavior is given investigating the suitability of the treatment for this type of reservo
  all classical problems due to fluid behavior met by multiphase metering device in extra heavy oil including classical separator. Heavy and E
avity and viscosities of 2 000 cp at a reservoir temperature of 133�F). After 1995 with the implementation of horizontal drilling technologie
ry processes are more efficient in low pressure reservoirs; however due to their depth the initial pressures of the reservoirs in the Faja are re

991). Detailed high-resolution 3D geostatistical modeling is useful for individual well-pair or pad flow simulation but is neither practical nor ne
positional processes. This led to complex lithofacies variations responsible for uncertainties in predicting reservoir heterogeneities. In this co
he added benefit of providing a solution to the problem of produced CO2 present in the associated gas. CO2 is generally in supercritical stat
eserves permeability and well productivity indices were also determined. Example analyses are presented for single dual and triple lateral

 slow depletion rates) a major limitation of such an interpretation is the difficulty in visualising the process in reservoir rock samples. In contr

nstrate that it is impossible to develop this oil accumulation without its separation from the gas cap. Gas breaks through immediately from th
 r in the current flow path. Numerous patents and reports have been published on this. Application in deep reservoir and negligible heat loss
ity of this method was investigated.� Heavy oil samples from conceptual reservoirs (Bati Raman (9.5 API) Garzan (12 API) and Camurlu
hicknesses and heterogeneities found the implementation of different thermal recovery methods is necessary. This project covers a feasibi
 l in place discovered in May 1999 and put on production in December 2002. Electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) were selected as the mo

 oil solution gas drive. We find that significant asphaltene content as well as substantial acid and base numbers are indicators of whether oil i
. (1984) [2] and Perkins (1993) [3]. This paper explains physical principles behind these theories and outlines their range of applicability. Th


ele-Shaw experiments or numerical simulations. Previous workers have obtained an improved match between experiment and simulation by

ant oil recovery at high watercut. However the range of reported recovery is large—waterflood recoveries of approximately 1 or 2% to 20%
uild rates. Unconsolidated sandstones and interbedded shale’s are sensitive to mud weight and are prone to lost circulation. First few h
gated by a dedicated appraisal campaign which included drilling one vertical and 3 near-horizontal wells. BHI sonic and resistivity logs were
ectives were to improve predictive modeling capability of cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) projects by history matching two groups of CSS mu


hy tools have been extended to the ability to contrast fluids in the pore space of core samples. As time required for collecting a CT image is
  The need to improve brown field productivity has given birth to many innovative technologies such as short-medium radius drilling 4D seism
o provide both qualitative and quantitative descriptions of relative permeability and hydrocarbon recovery. In contrast many so-called “exp
o provide both qualitative and quantitative descriptions of relative permeability and hydrocarbon recovery. In contrast many so-called “exp




ual porosity system and the presence of fractures at varying scales. This case study of the 1st Eocene reservoir characterization in the stea
ual porosity system and the presence of fractures at varying scales. This case study of the 1st Eocene reservoir characterization in the stea

ed assumptions in the interpretation techniques. A novel method is used here to estimate relative permeability and capillary pressure from in-
 racterizing of permeability anisotropy and in-situ minimum horizontal stress estimations. Pressure and fluid samples are obtained by setting
 of vertical wells indicates that the reservoirs are facing problems of low productivity bottom water conning and sand production. In his circum

oduction process. This process is not a well-understood production mechanism because a wide range of different petrophysical parameters a
 The challenges involved in modeling these processes are accurate representation of the propagation of the reaction front which is very locali
 e important aspects of the ES-SAGD process. In an ES-SAGD process a solvent is added to the injected steam that remains in the vapor p
 e important aspects of the ES-SAGD process. In an ES-SAGD process a solvent is added to the injected steam that remains in the vapor p
 emissions which are detrimental to humankind and the environment. The use of non-thermal processes involving CO2�as a miscible or im
 trol screen is better than the other premium sand control screens on the market. The end user is told that the premium sand control screen



ualization of gas phase evolution during depletion using X-ray computed tomography (CT). In addition a visualization cell was installed at the

 STB and live-oil viscosity of 258 cp at 178�F.�Constant rate depletions are conducted in a composite core (consolidated) and a sandpa
 ½ Owing to its vast light oil reserves documentation in the public domain on Middle Eastern heavy oil accumulations is not complete but eno
coarse-grid dual-permeability simulations (where the matrix-fracture interaction is modelled via shape-factors). We independently validate th
most recently drilled production pads. This program included microseismic surface time-lapse seismic (2D and sparse 3D) a time-lapse 3D
servoirs with high-permeability contrasts. Conventional acidizing results in the stimulation of water zones and misses targeted oil zones. The

iscous oil trapped in carbonates (over 1.6 trillion bbl)1 potentially a huge resource for future needs application of new technologies to be ex

uction. While Rod Pumps offer high temperature service they are limited in the flowrate they can deliver. ESPs on the other hand can handle
 study however produced surprising results for 2 parameters − among the 120 reservoir and operating parameters investigated − that ran




arly production showed steep pressure and production decline. Quick implementation of water injection is needed to arrest the fast productio

orically operators of heavy oil reservoirs have used several options to address the common damage mechanisms of asphaltene paraffin and

the treatment for this type of reservoir. The analysis is then applied to a real case the Captain field. Captain is a heavy oil largely homogene
ng classical separator. Heavy and Extra-Heavy Oil represents more than 50% of the worldwide oil reserves and large efforts have been spe
ation of horizontal drilling technologies for the construction of wells in unconsolidated sandstones electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) beca
es of the reservoirs in the Faja are relatively high in the range of 600 to 1 500 psi with viscosities typically greater than 2 000 cp. For the abo

 ulation but is neither practical nor necessary for resource assessment across large areas. A methodology for resource assessment is deve
g reservoir heterogeneities. In this context a realistic paleogeographic reconstitution is necessary to localize sandy reservoirs and optimize th
 CO2 is generally in supercritical state in normal reservoir conditions. However permafrost causes an unusually low reservoir temperature an
 nted for single dual and triple lateral wells from heavy oil fields located in Venezuela and Canada.�All wells exhibit a characteristic exten

 s in reservoir rock samples. In contrast experimental observations using transparent glass models have proved invaluable in this context an

 breaks through immediately from the gas cap to the producing wells. � One of the possible ways to develop this oil rim is barrier waterflo
ep reservoir and negligible heat loss in the overburden are the two most important features of this thermal recovery process. There are exam
 API) Garzan (12 API) and Camurlu (18 API)) in south east Turkey were used.� Using a novel graphite core holder packed with crushed li
essary. This project covers a feasibility study considering the Horizontal Alternating Steam Drive (HASD) process geared to increase the rec
mps (ESPs) were selected as the most economic artificial lift method to develop the field based on the reliability flexibility and robustness to

umbers are indicators of whether oil is foamy. The acid number is the amount of potassium hydroxide in mg needed to neutralize the acid gro
utlines their range of applicability. The task of the study is to choose a model that would provide the most general and accurate description o


etween experiment and simulation by artificially increasing the diffusion coefficient of the injected vapour into the oil. Justifications for this inc

es of approximately 1 or 2% to 20% of original oil in place (OOIP) have been reported for similar reservoirs. Higher viscosities result in lower
 prone to lost circulation. First few horizontal wells were drilled with traditional technology of positive displacement motor with Silicate mud. M
 BHI sonic and resistivity logs were run to understand static fracture characteristics; dynamic behavior was assessed with DSTs and PLTs.
tory matching two groups of CSS multilateral wells and develop a history matched physical representation that not only validates empirical


equired for collecting a CT image is much longer than almost flow time scales CT imaging must occur at static flow conditions to accurate g
hort-medium radius drilling 4D seismic water and fines control artificial lifting pressure maintenance and deep penetrating damage remova
. In contrast many so-called “experimental depletion drive relative permeabilities are not measured directly but are generally obtained by
. In contrast many so-called “experimental depletion drive relative permeabilities are not measured directly but are generally obtained by




reservoir characterization in the steam flood pilot area will improve our understanding of the range and distribution of formation properties wh
reservoir characterization in the steam flood pilot area will improve our understanding of the range and distribution of formation properties wh

ability and capillary pressure from in-situ aqueous-phase saturation profiles obtained from X-ray computerized tomography (CT) scanning du
 luid samples are obtained by setting a rubber packer and small diameter probe. The packer hydraulically isolates a small part of the formatio
ng and sand production. In his circumstance CNPCIS set itself a daunting task of tripling the production in less than a year. Horizontal wells

  different petrophysical parameters and experimental factors interact in a rather complex way. Over the past few years a number of efforts h
 the reaction front which is very localized and accurate depiction of diffusion which is one of the main transport mechanisms. We evaluate a s
ed steam that remains in the vapor phase in the SAGD steam chamber and condenses along the walls of the steam chamber. Thus the solv
ed steam that remains in the vapor phase in the SAGD steam chamber and condenses along the walls of the steam chamber. Thus the solv
s involving CO2�as a miscible or immiscible gas phase in combination with steam for heavy oil recovery is considered as a viable alternati
at the premium sand control screen uses such material as Dutch Dutch Twill or a Reverse Dutch Twill woven metal mesh and some cases



a visualization cell was installed at the outlet of the sandpack to monitor the flowing-gas-bubble behavior vs. pressure. Bubble behavior obser

site core (consolidated) and a sandpack (unconsolidated). The sandpack does not employ a confining pressure whereas the consolidated co
ccumulations is not complete but enough information is available to assemble a reasonable picture of the geological setting reservoir and oi
 ctors). We independently validate the simulation results with new analytical results for the recoveries due to thermal expansion and tempera
2D and sparse 3D) a time-lapse 3D VSP a surface tiltmeter array and InSAR. Joint interpretation of these data with production data has all
  and misses targeted oil zones. The high viscosity and low mobility of the Issran field heavy oil in contrast with the strong mobility and low v

lication of new technologies to be exploited economically. At present thermal processes like steam flooding and cyclic steam stimulation (CS

. ESPs on the other hand can handle high volumes of low viscosity fluids but are still limited in terms of maximum operating temperature. P
  parameters investigated − that ran counter to the recommended practices of classical light waterflooding. Delaying the start of waterfloodin




s needed to arrest the fast production decline and to stabilize reservoir pressure. While designing the water injection plan we faced a numb

chanisms of asphaltene paraffin and inorganic scale depositions as well as wettability changes in order to increase the production of their e

ptain is a heavy oil largely homogeneous reservoir exploited with horizontal wells. Due to the presence of many production wells with high wa
 ves and large efforts have been spent to overcome difficulties related to this kind of oil production. Venezuela has pone of the largest reserv
 cal submersible pumps (ESPs) became an alternative to handle higher production volumes (Ramos and Rojas 2001). More recently top-driv
 ly greater than 2 000 cp. For the above reasons it is important to decrease the pressure of the reservoirs with primary production techniques

ogy for resource assessment is developed from a geostatistical study on the Surmont lease. The uncertainty in more than 30 correlated varia
alize sandy reservoirs and optimize the exploitation of bituminous sandstones. The sedimentological study of the McMurray reservoir based
nusually low reservoir temperature and as a result CO2 will be in liquid state for these heavy oil fields. In this study we consider West Sak re
 ll wells exhibit a characteristic extended transient linear flow regime followed by an exponential decline.�Similar results were obtained wh

 e proved invaluable in this context and provide a sound physical basis for modelling gravitational gas migration in gas-oil systems. The exper

 develop this oil rim is barrier waterflooding. The system of development via the barrier waterflooding (water injection into the gas-oil contact)
mal recovery process. There are examples of few pilots in Canada Brazil and elsewhere. �This also has been proposed as an option to ac
 te core holder packed with crushed limestone premixed with crude oil and water effects of operational parameters like heating time and waiti
D) process geared to increase the recovery efficiency of heavy oil within the Faja reservoirs. The process is based on a repetitive pattern usin
  eliability flexibility and robustness to produce wells with high flow rates and lift heavy oil in an offshore environment. The first ESP installatio

 mg needed to neutralize the acid groups in 1 g of crude oil whereas the base number is the amount of potassium hydroxide in mg that is re
 t general and accurate description of a multiphase flow that can be used for implementation in a reservoir simulator. It is concluded that exis


 r into the oil. Justifications for this increase include convective dispersion an increased surface area due to the formation of oil films on sand

 oirs. Higher viscosities result in lower recovery. Mechanistic studies using fine-scale simulations show that the viscosity (or mobility) ratio prim
 placement motor with Silicate mud. Many of these wells faced hole cleaning challenges leading to pack off –excessive back reaming and s
 was assessed with DSTs and PLTs. Fracture models were built with forward modeling algorithms using Shell’s fracture modeling softwa
 tion that not only validates empirical models but can be deployed to optimize CSS designs for full field development. Detailed geological mo


 at static flow conditions to accurate geometrical information on fluid- fluid and solid – fluid interaction. Considering new decisive developm
 nd deep penetrating damage removal acid system. Minimising fines migration and improving high water cut well productivities via improved t
 directly but are generally obtained by history-matching laboratory production data with reservoir simulators often resulting in very low gas rel
 directly but are generally obtained by history-matching laboratory production data with reservoir simulators often resulting in very low gas rel




 istribution of formation properties which is critical for management of the current pilot project. This study presents several aspects of an inte
 istribution of formation properties which is critical for management of the current pilot project. This study presents several aspects of an inte

 erized tomography (CT) scanning during high-temperature imbibition experiments. Relative permeability and capillary pressure functions are
 y isolates a small part of the formation from the hydrostatic pressure while the probe enables communication between the tool and formatio
 in less than a year. Horizontal wells were considered as best option for improving the productivity in this small to medium sized heavy oil fiel

 past few years a number of efforts have been made in many institutions in order to understand and model the solution gas drive mechanism
nsport mechanisms. We evaluate a simulation model for the displacement of carbon dioxide in a simultaneous injection of carbon dioxide an
of the steam chamber. Thus the solvent will have enough time to dissolve/disperse in the bitumen in the mobile zone before steam condensa
of the steam chamber. Thus the solvent will have enough time to dissolve/disperse in the bitumen in the mobile zone before steam condensa
ery is considered as a viable alternative to limit the drawbacks of steam generation. These processes have the capability to enhance oil recov
woven metal mesh and some cases the manufacturer will promote the benefit of multiple layers of woven metal mesh filter media in the san



 vs. pressure. Bubble behavior observed at the outlet corroborates CT measurements of in-situ gas saturation vs. pressure. Both depletion r

ressure whereas the consolidated core does. The evolution of in-situ gas saturation vs. pressure is monitored in the sandpack using X-ray c
 e geological setting reservoir and oil quality issues and the status of cold and EOR production in the region.� Productive heavy oil carbon
e to thermal expansion and temperature-induced viscosity reduction. Our dual-permeability results show that the early-time heating of the m
ese data with production data has allowed us to build a conceptual model of the geomechanical response of the reservoir and its effect on th
ast with the strong mobility and low viscosity of the formation water makes the problem even more pronounced. To temporarily plug the wat

ding and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) are being used extensively for the recovery of moderately viscous heavy oil from sand stone reservo

maximum operating temperature. Progressing Cavity Pumps (PCP) with elastomeric stator is economic to run and have done well in heav
ng. Delaying the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered was found to be beneficial. Secondly v




ater injection plan we faced a number of challenges such as high mobility ratio (oil viscosity of ~200 cp) strong heterogeneity poor reservo

r to increase the production of their existing wells. However these options are generally limited to costly and resource consuming methods su

of many production wells with high water cut it has been considered a candidate for a water shut-off pilot project. Six different scenarios in a
ezuela has pone of the largest reserve of HO and EHO with more than currently 1.5 trillion of oil in place. Different set of technologies and m
d Rojas 2001). More recently top-drive PCPs have also been installed to produce extra-heavy oil at high rates. Hybrid artificial lift technologi
rs with primary production techniques to facilitate the economical implementation of steam injection based methods. The initial production o

ainty in more than 30 correlated variables is calculated on a dense 2D grid using all available information including wells seismic and geolog
 dy of the McMurray reservoir based on outcrops and subsurface data (cores well logs seismic profiles) has been undertaken along a 150
n this study we consider West Sak reservoir and investigate different injection strategies in which available water and CO2 can be utilized ind
 .�Similar results were obtained whether the analyses were performed on single dual or triple lateral wells.�Interference between later

gration in gas-oil systems. The experimental observations often exhibit somewhat contradictory trends however - some studies showing disp

ater injection into the gas-oil contact) may enable conditions preventing gas coning movement towards producing wells. However to create t
as been proposed as an option to accelerate SAGD start up. This paper presents the limitation of EM heating in the formation and its applic
arameters like heating time and waiting period as well as rock and fluid properties like porosity permeability wettability salinity and initial wa
 is based on a repetitive pattern using horizontal wells acting alternatively as oil producers and steam injectors. The recovery mechanism is
nvironment. The first ESP installations were challenged with high free gas and excessive sand production resulting in operational issues an

 potassium hydroxide in mg that is required to neutralize the titrant used in an acid titration of 1g of crude oil. The partitioning of acid and bas
oir simulator. It is concluded that existing models are very restricted. They are applicable to particular cases where the phase transition betw


e to the formation of oil films on sand grains imbibition of oil into those films and a greater dependence on drainage height. Convective dispe

hat the viscosity (or mobility) ratio primarily controls oil recovery response and that the recovery is lower at higher viscosity ratios. Further vis
off –excessive back reaming and stuck pipe incidences uneven build rates via sliding in interbedded formation leading to high borehole to
Shell’s fracture modeling software (SVS Fracture-Solution). They are based on fracture characterization that integrates the well data with
evelopment. Detailed geological models were created over two pad areas providing a geological framework large enough to have realistic b


 Considering new decisive developments of the visualization cell we claim to have developed a new petrophysical tool which might permit to
 cut well productivities via improved treatment fluid designs detailed candidate selection along with enhanced pumping methods are some o
ors often resulting in very low gas relative permeabilities that are difficult to explain from a physical viewpoint. Although pore-scale network m
ors often resulting in very low gas relative permeabilities that are difficult to explain from a physical viewpoint. Although pore-scale network m




 y presents several aspects of an integrated approach to characterize the 1st Eocene reservoir. The approach includes the quantification and
 y presents several aspects of an integrated approach to characterize the 1st Eocene reservoir. The approach includes the quantification and

 and capillary pressure functions are interpreted simultaneously including possible nonequilibrium effects. Results obtained show a systema
cation between the tool and formation. This conventional technique is well suited for thick and permeable formations. However for difficult co
 small to medium sized heavy oil field and controlling the sand production due to low drawdown pressure and increased exposure the reser

odel the solution gas drive mechanism in primary heavy oil recovery. Conventional simulations are not reliable for prediction forecast purpose
aneous injection of carbon dioxide and elemental sodium in a heavy oil reservoir. The main objective of using sodium in this process is the hi
 mobile zone before steam condensation occurs. Because the solvent blends with the bitumen it significantly lowers (up to 5 fold) the oil visc
 mobile zone before steam condensation occurs. Because the solvent blends with the bitumen it significantly lowers (up to 5 fold) the oil visc
 ve the capability to enhance oil recovery through CO2�utilization during production and also provide an avenue to dispose CO2�after p
en metal mesh filter media in the sand control screen to control the sand. All this information is interesting but the end user really does not un



uration vs. pressure. Both depletion rate and oil composition affect the size of mobile bubbles. At a high depletion rate (0.035 PV/hr) a foam-

nitored in the sandpack using X-ray computed tomography. The two different porous media allow us to develop a mechanistic perspective wh
gion.� Productive heavy oil carbonate fields can be grouped into two categories: 1) low matrix permeability fracture dependent and 2) mat
w that the early-time heating of the matrix cannot be captured using a constant shape-factor. We analytically derive the time-dependent (tran
 e of the reservoir and its effect on the production process. Dynamic reservoir simulations for Pad 40 were done with the aim to obtain a pred
 ounced. To temporarily plug the water zones and effectively stimulate oil zones with chemical diversion a new surfactant-based chemistry h

us heavy oil from sand stone reservoirs. Another thermal process SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) is being used for the recovery of

mic to run and have done well in heavy oil cold production. These elastomers are however limited in temperature (<150ËšC). Through resear
as found to be beneficial. Secondly varying the VRR was shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery periods of underinjection are n




 ) strong heterogeneity poor reservoir connectivity complex channel geometry and irregular well patterns. A workflow integrating geologica

and resource consuming methods such as cyclic steam injection and workover rig based liner or perforation washes. A cost effective alterna

 t project. Six different scenarios in a simulation study were considered with the reservoir properties of Captain in order to test the effectivene
 . Different set of technologies and methodologies have been used to overcome the technical production and monitoring challenges in these
 rates. Hybrid artificial lift technologies such as bottom-drive progressive cavity pumping which combine features of the ESP and the PCP
ed methods. The initial production of heavy and viscous oils can be accelerated by the adequate use of downhole heaters that by providing

n including wells seismic and geologic trends. The correlation structure between the variables is modeled under a multivariate Gaussian mo
) has been undertaken along a 150 km north (distal) - south (proximal) transect. Facies analysis permits to constrain depositional environm
 le water and CO2 can be utilized individually or combined for EOR and CO2 storage purposes. A three-phase three-dimensional black oil s
 wells.�Interference between laterals was not observed. Introduction The application of horizontal and multilateral wells is gaining mom

owever - some studies showing dispersed gas migration whilst others describe fingered channelised flow - and to date there appears to h

producing wells. However to create the water barrier will require significant overcompensation (200-250 %). Controlled gas production from
 eating in the formation and its applicability in few viscous oil reservoirs. It appears that in the EM heating process heat penetration is signific
bility wettability salinity and initial water saturation were studied.� Introduction Crude oils whose API gravity smaller than 20 are called h
 jectors. The recovery mechanism is a combination of horizontal steam flooding between wells and cyclic steam stimulation of each of the ho
  on resulting in operational issues and a number of failures. Even in this hostile environment production peaked at 37 800 BOPD during Nov

e oil. The partitioning of acid and base groups between the asphaltene fraction and deasphalted oil is also studied. Organic acid and base gro
ases where the phase transition between the liquid and gas phases is absent. A rigorous description of a multiphase flow with a phase transi


on drainage height. Convective dispersion seems to be the most plausible mechanism. A first contact miscible liquid-liquid system was used

 at higher viscosity ratios. Further viscous fingers dominate high-viscosity-ratio floods and mobile water can significantly reduce recovery. F
 ormation leading to high borehole tortuosity. It is significant to note that due to these difficulties one of the planned horizontal wells was sidet
ation that integrates the well data with 3D seismic field kinematic structural evolution and the regional understanding established by Petroleu
work large enough to have realistic boundary conditions including impact of surrounding wells. The geological models were imported into CM


ophysical tool which might permit to access experimentally to the visualization in quasi-static flow of the capillary phenomena and multiphase
 anced pumping methods are some of the many innovations that have yielded positive results in aged field production enhancement. Before
point. Although pore-scale network models have been successfully used in the past to match raw production data the steady-state relative p
point. Although pore-scale network models have been successfully used in the past to match raw production data the steady-state relative p




roach includes the quantification and distribution of the evaporite minerals and porosity analysis of a possible dual porosity system and eva
roach includes the quantification and distribution of the evaporite minerals and porosity analysis of a possible dual porosity system and eva

ts. Results obtained show a systematic shift toward increased water-wettability with increasing temperature for diatomite reservoir core. The
e formations. However for difficult conditions such as laminated formations or formations with low matrix permeability and formations satura
re and increased exposure the reservoir. This paper discusses about comprehensive geological study identification of target oil pools well

 liable for prediction forecast purposes. The reason is often that conventional modeling requires relative permeabilities tables that are not uni
using sodium in this process is the highly exothermic reaction of sodium with the in-situ water that results in the liberation of heat that in turn
 antly lowers (up to 5 fold) the oil viscosity. This process has the potential to accelerate recovery with less steam requirement per barrel of oil
 antly lowers (up to 5 fold) the oil viscosity. This process has the potential to accelerate recovery with less steam requirement per barrel of oil
an avenue to dispose CO2�after production. Numerical simulation studies have been carried out utilizing STARS (a three phase multi-com
g but the end user really does not understand the significance of the information. This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the



depletion rate (0.035 PV/hr) a foam-like flow of relatively small pore-sized bubbles dominates the gas and oil production of both crude oils. C

 evelop a mechanistic perspective whereby the effects of depletion rate and overburden pressure on heavy-oil solution gas drive are investiga
ability fracture dependent and 2) matrix permeability dependent production. Fracture enhanced low matrix permeability production is domina
cally derive the time-dependent (transient) shape-factor that captures the heating of the blocks for all time-scales. When this transient shape
ere done with the aim to obtain a predictive model. A dilation model from previous simulation work for Cold Lake CSS was applied on the bas
  a new surfactant-based chemistry has been introduced. When mixed in brine it forms a high viscous gel. The gel maintains its viscosity wh

ge) is being used for the recovery of higher viscosity heavy oil and bitumen from oil sand. Some of these processes are apparently very succ

perature (<150ËšC). Through research work conducted by PCM and TOTAL Metal PCP technology has been developed to meet the high te
overy periods of underinjection are needed although a cumulative VRR of 1 should be maintained. Ultimate recovery was correlated with th




ns. A workflow integrating geological well log seismic and dynamic production data was developed to optimize water injection plan for this f

 tion washes. A cost effective alternative production enhancement process to these types of well interventions has been implemented in the

aptain in order to test the effectiveness of the treatment on production wells. These are typical producer/injector configurations found in a he
 and monitoring challenges in these lifted or pumped wells. Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) at the opposite of Canada companies is curre
ne features of the ESP and the PCP systems have recently been successfully evaluated in the Orinoco belt to exploit extra-heavy oil reserve
 downhole heaters that by providing energy to the vicinity of the well decrease oil viscosity and increase the oil production rate. A consequen

 ed under a multivariate Gaussian model. The local distributions of uncertainty have been checked with cross validation and with more than 1
  s to constrain depositional environments within the McMurray Formation. We document in detail facies associations corresponding to contin
 phase three-dimensional black oil simulator was constructed accounting for the oil swelling and viscosity reduction due to dissolution of liqu
 and multilateral wells is gaining momentum worldwide due to their ability to drain reservoirs more effectively.�This advantage is even mo

 ow - and to date there appears to have been little systematic effort towards modelling the wide range of behaviours seen in or inferred from

  %). Controlled gas production from the gas cap is a possible way to produce oil reserves at immovable GOC (gas-oil contact) and lower vo
g process heat penetration is significantly lower than that of a steam based process. Simulation of electrical heating in the simulator is tricky.
 I gravity smaller than 20 are called heavy oil that can be produced by using thermal recovery techniques.� In these techniques heat is inje
c steam stimulation of each of the horizontal wells in the pattern. Properly implemented HASD could be more efficient than classical cyclic st
n peaked at 37 800 BOPD during November 2003 before declining as a consequence of reservoir pressure depletion. Moreover the lower re

 o studied. Organic acid and base groups are clearly present in the asphaltene fraction. We investigate the lifetime of single foam films of cru
 a multiphase flow with a phase transition does not seem feasible. The possibility of a phase transition introduces a large uncertainty in the flo


miscible liquid-liquid system was used in these experiments so that all mechanisms contributing to increased-mixing apart from convective dis

r can significantly reduce recovery. Field-scale simulation results indicate that heterogeneity plays a more important role for a HMRWF than c
he planned horizontal wells was sidetracked thrice after stuck pipe incidences and finally completed as a 30 deg deviated well with an AFE ov
nderstanding established by Petroleum Development Oman’s (PDO) long-term activities in the area. This integration makes the fracture
 logical models were imported into CMG’s STARS thermal reservoir simulator and a relatively fine grid was extended over each project a


 capillary phenomena and multiphase flows analysis in 3D form or in dynamic flow in 2D form. The in-situ measurements are realized in rese
eld production enhancement. Before 1996 Mud acid was the common Hydrofluoric acid (HF) system for damage removal in Niger Delta at la
ction data the steady-state relative permeabilities calculated from such models commonly predict much slower gas saturation build-up than t
ction data the steady-state relative permeabilities calculated from such models commonly predict much slower gas saturation build-up than t




 ssible dual porosity system and evaluation of permeability using a new porosity partitioning technique. Data used in this study includes conv
 ssible dual porosity system and evaluation of permeability using a new porosity partitioning technique. Data used in this study includes conv

 ure for diatomite reservoir core. The measured changes in relative permeability are linked to the effect of temperature on the adhesion of oil-
 x permeability and formations saturated with high viscosity fluids or fractured limestones application of a single probe technique is limited. U
  identification of target oil pools well design selection of fit for purpose technologies and the complete well placement cycle including detaile

 permeabilities tables that are not universal but depend at least on the depletion rate and possibly on other parameters. In this paper we kee
 s in the liberation of heat that in turn reduces the oil viscosity. Another important advantage of this process is the formation of sodium hydrox
 s steam requirement per barrel of oil produced. The important factors that control the performance of the ES-SAGD process are the solvent
 s steam requirement per barrel of oil produced. The important factors that control the performance of the ES-SAGD process are the solvent
 ing STARS (a three phase multi-components reservoir simulator) to optimize a baseline SAGD process and wind-down process with CO2ï¿
 he results of a study to evaluate the effect of different woven metal mesh weaves on the performance; i.e. dirt holding capacity and plugging



 nd oil production of both crude oils. Conversely at a low depletion rate (0.0030 PV/hr) foam-like flow is not observed in the less viscous crud

avy-oil solution gas drive are investigated. The results are striking. They show that the overburden pressure offsets partially the pore-pressure
 rix permeability production is dominant and occurs in Oman Iran Iraq Syria Turkey and Egypt and includes producing fields such as Qarn
me-scales. When this transient shape-factor is used in combination with an analytically derived viscosity correction (to capture the effect of th
old Lake CSS was applied on the basis of the monitoring analysis and incorporated into the simulations together with a relative-permeability-h
 el. The gel maintains its viscosity when contacting water and breaks down when contacting oil thus temporarily plugging the zones of high w

e processes are apparently very successful with ultimate recovery over 80%. Application of thermal processes to the carbonates poses a dif

s been developed to meet the high temperature requirement of SAGD and other thermal recovery processes. Three models of the Metal PCP
imate recovery was correlated with the primary recovery factor at the start of the waterflood. No trends appeared when the full set of 166 wat




optimize water injection plan for this field. Following the workflow the optimal water injection design for platforms D and E areas was develop

 ntions has been implemented in the Midway Sunset heavy oil field (Kern County California). This alternative production enhancement proce

 /injector configurations found in a heavy oil field exploited with horizontal wells. The aim is to analyze different water production mecha
 posite of Canada companies is currently producing most of the Heavy Oil from cold and therefore non thermal production methods due to his
belt to exploit extra-heavy oil reserves economically. A typical co
e the oil production rate. A consequential advantage of usi

ross validation and with more than 100 new wells drilled during the last two
associations corresponding to continental (fluvial/palustral/p
ty reduction due to dissolution of liquid CO2. The results indicate that
ively.�This advantage is even more pronounced in tight gas or

 f behaviours seen in or inferred from laboratory tests. To

e GOC (gas-oil contact) and lower voidage replacement ratio. Decrease in i
 ical heating in the simulator is tricky. The amount of estimated
 .� In these techniques heat is injected into the formation which r
 more efficient than classical cyclic steam injection and more effe
 ure depletion. Moreover the lower reservoir pressure increased the f

he lifetime of single foam films of crude-oil and asphaltene sol
roduces a large uncertainty in the flow parameters. This


 sed-mixing apart from convective dispersion were eliminated. Impr

e important role for a HMRWF than conventional waterfloods.
  30 deg deviated well with an AFE over run of 300
. This integration makes the fracture models more realistic than purely stochasti
 rid was extended over each project area. All available historical pr


u measurements are realized in reservoir conditions of extr
r damage removal in Niger Delta at large. Retarded acids like fluoboric acid wer
slower gas saturation build-up than that found experimentally. Some pr
slower gas saturation build-up than that found experimentally. Some pr




Data used in this study includes conventional open-hole we
Data used in this study includes conventional open-hole we

of temperature on the adhesion of oil-coated fines to rock surfaces and ul
a single probe technique is limited. Under these conditions
well placement cycle including detailed analysis on the dr

her parameters. In this paper we keep the conventional Darcy scale
 ss is the formation of sodium hydroxide that reduces the interfacial
he ES-SAGD process are the solvent type concentration operating pressure and the
he ES-SAGD process are the solvent type concentration operating pressure and the
s and wind-down process with CO2�Injection. The baseline process was operated until matur
 .e. dirt holding capacity and plugging tendency of media commonly used in san



 not observed in the less viscous crude oil; however foam-like f

 ure offsets partially the pore-pressure decline. This compaction in turn modif
 udes producing fields such as Qarn Alam in Oman and Issaran and Bakr-Amer i
 correction (to capture the effect of the temperature p
 ogether with a relative-permeability-hysteresis model. A good match of the inj
mporarily plugging the zones of high water saturation. Whe

cesses to the carbonates poses a different challenge. In general therma

 sses. Three models of the Metal PCP are now available to cover a wide range of flow rat
appeared when the full set of 166 waterfloods was inspected. H




 platforms D and E areas was developed and quickly implemented wi

 ative production enhancement process is based on a combination of candidate

fferent water production mecha
hermal production methods due to historical reasons. Recently Orocual fie

				
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