Psychology _ Human Experience _PSYC 2300_ Sec. 98_ Spring

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Psychology _ Human Experience _PSYC 2300_ Sec. 98_ Spring Powered By Docstoc
					Psychology & Human Experience (PSYC 2300, Sec. 98)   Spring, 2007     Dr.

Text: PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE (17th Ed.), Gerrig and Zimbardo (Required)
with Gerrig and
Zimbardo Psychology and Life, 17th Edition) (Required)

The 26 telecourse units, entitled Discovering Psychology, will be
presented on AETN (Channel 2) on Tuesdays from
4:00 to 5:00 a.m. beginning January 16 and ending April 17, 2007. Copies
of taped units (VCR tapes) are available for
loan or purchase through the Extended Programs Office located in the
Education Building, Room 101. Programs may
be viewed in the library’s Media Center, 5th floor. They may also be
viewed on the Annenberg CPB site:

Text material corresponding to material covered in each televised lesson
is given below. To get the most from the
televised programs, related material in the book should be read BEFORE
scheduled lesson times.
Use the course Student Guide to organize study, review, and self-pretest
to determine whether you have mastered the
material sufficiently. Tests will be multiple-choice, matching, and/or
essay. Test questions will be based on the Lesson
Objectives given below. Organize your study by outlining the information
called for in each of the Objectives.

Review and test sessions: Time: 1:00 - 4:00 p.m.
                  Place: Stabler Hall on the UALR Campus, Room 109

                    REVIEW AND TEST SCHEDULE

Jan. 20 - Introductory meeting

Feb. 10 - Review and Test - Televised Units 1 - 8 and corresponding
material in the text

Mar. 10 -Review and Test - Televised Units 9 - 16 and corresponding
material in the text

Apr. 21 - Review and Test - Televised Units 17 - 26 and corresponding
material in the text

May   5 - Final Exam The final exam will cover Units 1 - 26 and covered
portions of Chapters 1 - 18. Students
who have missed a test are required to take the final exam. Students who
have taken all three tests but wish to
improve their grade may take the final exam. No review will be given
prior to the final exam. Arrive promptly
at 1:00 p.m. to take the final.
you to miss one test, the
score will be prorated from your final exam. Prorating will be
accomplished by calculating the percentage correct on
your final exam and giving you that percentage of the points possible for
the test missed. For students who have taken
all three tests and opt to take the final, if the percentage correct on
the final exam is higher than the percentage correct
on the lowest test, the grade for that test will be prorated.

Dr. Nobles can be reached at 501-315-1309 between the hours of 8:00 a.m.
and 9:00 p.m. If no one answers, leave a
message. Messages left in the Psychology Office (501-569-3171) will be
picked up at irregular intervals. Information
concerning the course can be obtained from the Off-Campus Credit Office
at 501-569-8632.

Grades cannot be given over the telephone. Test grades will be available
during class sessions.
If you wish to have your grade sent to you, give Dr. Nobles a stamped,
self-addressed envelope.

One abstract of an article dealing with a topic covered in this course
can be turned in for up to 25 supplemental points.
Using PsycInfo in the UALR library, locate an article dealing with the
topic you select. The UALR library reference
staff (Telephone Number: 569-8806) can show you how to use PsycInfo. The
source of the article must be a recognized
psychological journal (one that is found in PsycInfo). The format for
the abstract will be described in class. Abstracts
are due March 10, 2007.

Supplemental points may also be earned by bringing in articles and
cartoons from newspapers and magazines. These are
to deal with topics and concepts covered in this course. Either
underline the term from the article that is used in this
course or include a brief explanation of how the item exemplifies a
course concept. Credit for as many as three will be
given. Up to 5 extra points will be given for each article/cartoon.

Do not think of supplemental points as optional. These points supplement
points you earn on tests. They can,
therefore, compensate for points missed on tests. It is suggested that
you turn in one article/cartoon per class meeting.
Items that are not turned in during class meetings should be mailed to:

                              Dr. B. H. Nobles
                                                      P.O. Box 824
                                                      Benton, AR 72018-

Disability Support Services: It is UALR’s policy to accommodate students
with disabilities, pursuant to federal and
state law. Any student with a disability who needs accommodation, for
example in seating, examinations, or note-
taking, should inform Dr. Nobles at the beginning of the course. It is
also the policy and practice of UALR to make
make web-based information accessible to students with disabilities. If
you, as a student with a disability, have difficulty
accessing any part of the online course materials for this class, Dr.
Nobles is available to discuss special needs on an
individual basis by telephone or before or after class meetings. UALR
makes web-based information accessible to
students with disabilities. If you have difficulty accessing any part of
the online course materials for this class, please
notify Dr. Nobles immediately. The Chair of the Psychology Department is
also available to assist with
accommodations. Students with disabilities are encouraged to contact the
Office of Disability Support Services,
telephone (501) 569-3143, and on the web at

Students are discouraged from bringing their children to class.

WEATHER POLICY: All radio and television stations in central Arkansas,
including the University’s public radio
station KUAR FM 89 and the University Channel (62 on Comcast Cable), will
be notified when UALR is closed. An
announcement will also be placed on the UALR Web page ( and
on the voice-mail message of the
University’s main telephone number (569-3000). If classes are to be
conducted and you feel that the weather makes it
risky for you to come to class, use your own judgment about whether to
attend class.

Lecture Units          Corresponding Chapters and Pages in Text
(Psychology and Life)
     1                 1, p. 1-21
     2                 2, p. 22-53 and 429-430
   3 & 4               3, p. 54-91 and 239-240
   5 10, p. 314-332
   6 10, p. 332-336
       7                                 4, p. 92-139
       8               6, p. 168-203
9     7, p. 204-243
    10                                   8, p. 244-283
    11                                   8, p. 273-280
    12                        11 & 12, p. 360-406
13 & 14                          5, p. 140-167
    15                        13, p. 434-469
    16                           9, p. 284-313
    17                        10 & 11, p. 351-353 & 374-382
    18                 10, p. 330-332 & 349-355
    19           17, p. 572-607
    20           16, p. 542-571
    21                          14, p. 470-507
    22                          15, p. 508-541
    23                          12, p. 406-433
    24                       5, 7 & 17, p. 151-154, 235-236, & 595-605
    25                       3, p. 62-95
    26                               13 & 17, p. 460-462 & 592-595

Course Objectives:

Unit 1: Past Present, and Promise p. 1-21
1. Define psychology. p. 3-4
2. Distinguish between the micro, molecular, and macro levels of
analysis. p. 5
3. Describe the major goals of psychology. p. 5-8
4. Describe what psychologists do and give some examples of the kinds of
questions they may be interested in
investigating. p. 16-18
5. Summarize the history of the major theoretical approaches to
psychology. p. 9-11
6. Describe 7 current psychological perspectives. p. 11-16
7. Describe how the concerns of psychologists have evolved with the
larger culture. p. 17

Unit 2: Understanding Research p. 22-53 and 429-430
1. Explain the concept of observer bias and cite some techniques
experimenters use to eliminate personal bias. p. –24-
2. Define placebo effect and explain how it might be avoided. p. 28-30
3. Define reliability and validity and explain the difference between
them. p. 34
4. Describe various psychological measurement techniques such as self-
report, behavioral and physiological measures.
p. 35-37
5. Define correlational methods and explain why they do not establish
cause and effect relationships. p. 30-33
6. Summarize the American Psychological Association’s ethical guidelines
for the treatment of humans and animals in
psychological experiments, and explain why these are necessary. p. 38-39
7. Discuss some ways to be a wiser consumer of research. p. 40
8. Describe how a hypothesis leads to a particular experimental design.
p. 24
9. Discuss how job burnout develops, how it can be studied, and how
psychologists can intervene to prevent or combat
it. p. 429-430

Unit 3: The Behaving Brain p. 54-91and 239-240
1. Explain the major concepts of evolutionary theory such as natural
selection and variation. p. 56-62
2. Identify several methods used to study the brain and give a
significant finding associated with each. p. 62-66
3. Identify the major structures and specialized functions of the brain.
p. 66-76
4. Cite examples of how the endocrine system affects mood and emotion. p.
5. List and describe the major divisions and subdivisions of the nervous
system and the functions of each. p. 66-76
6. Describe the structure of a neuron. p. 79-80
7. Explain the mechanism of neural transmission. p. 81-84
8. Describe the process of synaptic transmission and list the six
important neurotransmitters. p. 84-85
9. Describe hemispheric separation and individual differences pertaining
to it. p. 74-77
10. Explain how amnestic patients can be studied to understand normal
memory processes. p. 239-240

Unit 4: The Responsive Brain
1. Cite examples of the brain’s capacity to adapt to environmental
change. p. 57-62, 88
2. Explain how early experience can affect brain mechanisms that
influence stress tolerance in later life.
3. Cite research studies that contribute to an understanding of the role
enriched environments play in brain development.
p. 88-89
4. Describe the concept of critical periods of development and cite the
evidence that supports or contradicts it. p. 318-
5. Explain how individual maturation is controlled by social needs and
group behavior.
6. Describe the sociobiological approach to the explanation of behavior
and compare it to the explanation given by
proponents of human behavior genetics. p. 437, 61-62
7. Explain the value of observational studies of animals in their natural
habitats and how these studies complement
laboratory research. p. 36-37
8. Identify the specialized functions associated with each of the four
lobes of the brain. p. 71-74

Unit 5: The Developing Child p. 314-342
1. State the primary interest of Developmental Psychologists. p. 316-317
2. Describe the various ways that development is documented, including
longitudinal, cross-sectional and sequential. p.
3. Describe cognitive development across the lifespan. p. 324-332
4. Identify Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. p. 325-328
5. Describe some contemporary perspectives on early cognitive
development. p. 328-330
6. Describe physical development across the lifespan. p. 318-324
7. Describe how habituation studies can be used on infants to determine
what they can understand. p. 328
8. Describe several ways that we know infants are not born as blank
slates, but instead, come equipped with
temperaments, preferences, and biases.
9. Describe several ways that the environment is known to affect skills
and behaviors. p. 441-442

Unit 6: Language Development p. 332-336
1. Describe the structure of language, including syntax, grammar and
semantics. p. 333
2. Define a child’s “language making capacity.” p. 335
3. Provide evidence of the universality of language acquisition and the
way it progresses. p. 334-336
4. Explain Chomsky’s hypothesis that humans are born with an innate
biological capacity for language acquisition. p.
5. Explain how “motherese” (or “parentese”) helps babies learn to
communicate. p. 333
6. Describe the use of intonation of young children and adults in their
communication with each other. p. 333

Unit 7: Sensation and Perception p. 92-139
1. Define and compare sensation and perception. p. 94
2. Describe how a visual stimulus gets translated into “sight” in the
brain. p. 103-112
3. Describe the field of psychophysics. p. 99-103
4. Be able to distinguish notions of distal and proximal stimuli. p. 94-
5. Explain why illusions provide clues to perceptual mechanisms. p. 96-
6. Describe Gestalt Psychology. p. 125-132
7. Describe the phenomenon of perceptual constancy. p. 132-134
8. Describe the psychological dimensions of sound and the physiology of
hearing. p. 113-117
9. Describe the difference between top-down and bottom-up processing. p.
10. Discuss the senses of smell, taste and touch. p. 118-122
11. Describe attentional processes. p. 122-125
12. Describe identification and recognition processes, including complex
visual analysis. p. 134-137
13. Explain how perceptual constancy affects our experience of the world.
p. 132-134

Unit 8: Learning p. 168-203
1. Define learning. p. 170-172
2. Describe the process of classical conditioning and show how it
demonstrates learning by association. p. 172-174
3. Cite examples of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and
discrimination. p. 174-177
4. Describe the process of operant conditioning. p. 181-183
5. Know the distinction between positive and negative punishment and
between positive and negative reinforcement. p.
6. Describe how observational learning occurs. p. 199-201
7. Discuss the varieties of reinforcement schedules, including fixed
ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable
interval. p. 190-192
8. Describe cognitive influences on learning. p. 196-199
9. Describe biological constraints on learning and some possible effects
that learning can have on the functioning of the
body. p. 193-194

Unit 9. Remembering and Forgetting p. 204-243
1. Define memory. p. 206
2. Compare implicit and explicit memory. p. 207-208
3. Compare declarative and procedural memory. p. 208-209
4. Describe the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval. p. 209-
5. Describe the characteristics of short-term, long-term, and sensory
memory. p. 210-236
6. Define schema. p. 232-233
7. Describe the accuracy of memory as a reconstructive process. p. 234-
8. Define amnesia. p. 239-240
9. Describe processes of encoding and retrieval in long Term Memory
(LTM). p. 218-225
10. Describe short-term memory (STM), note its limited capacity, and
discuss 2 ways to enhance STM. p. 213-218
11. Compare semantic and episodic memory. p. 222
12. Discuss proactive and retroactive interference. p. 222-223
13. Describe chemical and anatomical factors involved in memory. p. 238-

Unit 10: Cognitive Processes p. 244-283
1. Describe the study of cognition. p. 246-250 Compare inductive and
deductive reasoning. p.268-272
2. Define the concept “problem” in information processing terms and
describe some ways to improve problem-solving
abilities. p. 265-268
3. Discuss the “historical roots of methods for revealing mental
processes.”   p. 247
4. Describe the study of language production. p. 251-254
5. Explain how ambiguity in language can be resolved. p. 254-256
6. Give several examples of how context influences language
understanding. p. 255-256
7. Explain the role of visual imagery in cognition. p. 260-265
8. Discuss the importance of prototypes and schemas in cognition. p. 230-
9. Describe what we know about the relation between cognition and brain
activity. p. 238-241

Unit 11: Judgment and Decision Making p. 273-280
1. Describe contrasting views of why human thinking is irrational and
prone to error. p. 274-278
2. Explain the notions of heuristic thinking and analytic thinking. p.
3. Compare definitions of problem solving and decision making. p. 265-268
4. Describe the anchoring bias, availability heuristic, and
representativeness heuristic. p. 275-278
5. Discuss why the way a problem is framed can influence a decision. p.
6. Define decision aversion. p. 280-281
7. Describe how risk affects decision making. p. 280-181
8. Describe at least one way in which memory and decision making can
affect each other.

Unit 12: Motivation and Emotion p. 360-406
1. Compare emotion and motivation and describe their interrelationships.
p. 362, 394
2. Describe 3 theories concerning the sources of motivation. p. 363-367
3. Discuss some of the forces that drive the motivation to eat. p. 367-
4. Describe some of the factors behind the motivation for sex. p. 374-
5. Define the need for achievement. p. 383-384
6. Outline the attributions for success and failure in terms of a locus
of control orientation. p. 384-386
7. Describe the major theories of emotion and the universality of its
expression. p. 398-402
8. Describe the relationship between physical states and the experience
of emotions. p. 398-400
9. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. p. 388-389
10. Describe what an Organizational Psychologist does. p. 386
11. Discuss the functions of emotions. p. 402-406

Unit 13: The Mind Awake and Asleep p. 140-167
1. Describe the functions of consciousness. p. 145-147
2. Describe the different levels of consciousness and the kinds of
processing that occur at each level. p. 142-145
3. Define circadian rhythms and describe their relation to the 24-hour
day cycle. p. 149
4. Describe the stages of sleep. p. 149-151
5. Identify the major sleep disorders and the effects of sleep
deprivation. p. 152-154
6. Discuss the difference between night dreaming and daydreaming, and
describe lucid dreaming. p. 154-1587. 7
7. Explain Freud’s theory of dreaming and contrast it with the Hobson-
McCarley theory and the information-processing
theory. p. 155-156
8. Give examples of the difference between a dream’s manifest content and
latent content. p. 155
9. Describe the issues concerning sleep that will arise as people’s lives
become more driven and as world travel become
easier. p. 154

Unit 14: The Mind Hidden and Divided
1. Describe hypnotic techniques, experiences and applications. p. 158-
2. Explain the difference between psychological dependence and physical
addiction. p. 163-165
3. Define the major drug categories, and compare the effects of specific
drugs such as stimulants and depressants. p.
4. List and describe the characteristics of the various extended states
of consciousness such as lucid dreaming, hypnosis,
meditation, hallucinations, and drug use. p. 157-162
5. Describe the three levels of consciousness. p. 157-162
6. Explain the phenomenon of “discovered memory.” p. 516

Unit 15: The Self p. 434-469
1. Define personality. p. 435-436
2. Compare type and trait theories of personality.   p. 436-444
3. List and describe “The Big Five” dimensions of personality. p. 439-440
4. Describe Freud’s theory of personality development and the role of the
id, ego, and superego in the conscious self. p.
5. Describe how post-Freudian theories differ from Freudian theories. p.
6. Describe the major humanistic theories and their contributions. p.
7. Describe social learning and cognitive theories and their
contribution. p. 453-458
8. List the 5 most important differences in assumptions about personality
across theoretical perspectives. p. 462-464
9. Compare the value and accuracy of standardized and projective tests of
personality. p. 464-467

Unit 16: Testing and Intelligence p. 284-313
1. Define assessment. p. 286-287
2. Describe several ways to measure the reliability and validity of a
psychological test. p. 287-290
3. Identify the contributions of Galton, Binet, Terman, and Wechsler to
the science of measuring intelligence. p. 290-
4. Explain how IQ is computed. p. 292, 293
5. Summarize Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. p. 297-
6. Describe the evidence for the genetic and environmental bases of
intelligence. p. 301-305
7. List the 4 methodological techniques used to gather information on a
person. p. 30-32
8. Discuss the links among intelligence, creativity, and madness. p.
9. Explain the function of vocational interest tests. p. 387
10. Discuss the controversies surrounding intelligence assessment. p.
300-301, 309-311

Unit 17: Sex and Gender p. 351-353 and 374-382
1. Define and compare the differences among these terms sex, gender,
gender identity, and gender role. p. 351-353
2. Explain the role of pheromones in sexual arousal. p. 118 & 375
3. Describe evolutionary theory as it applies to sexual behavior. p.
4. Describe the similarities in and differences between males and females
in the sexual response cycle and mating. p.
5. Summarize current research on homosexuality. p. 380-382

Unit 18: Maturing and Aging p. 330-332, 344-355
1. Describe Erikson’s eight psychosocial stages. p. 337-338
2. List the physical changes associated with aging. p. 318-324
3. Summarize the tasks of adolescence. p. 344-347
4. Discuss the central concerns of adulthood. p. 347-351
5. List the strengths and weaknesses of Kohlberg’s cognitive approach to
moral development, describe the controversies
around the issues of gender and cultural differences in moral judgment
and discuss the distinction between moral
behavior and moral judgment. p. 354-355
6. Identify cultural factors that place youth at risk for unhealthy
development. p. 341-344
7. Discuss the importance of attachment in social development. p. 341-
8. List the biological and social factors that can affect health and
sexuality in later life. p. 347-351
9. Describe the risk factors for an elderly person in a nursing home.

Unit 19: The Power of the Situation p. 572-607
1. Describe Philip Zimbardo’s prison experiment and his conclusions about
how people’s behavior is constrained by
social situations. p. 574-576
2. Describe Solomon Asch’s experiment and his conclusions on the
conditions that promote conformity. p. 576-579
3. Compare the major leadership styles in Lewin’s experiment and describe
their effects on each group of boys. p. 603-
4. Describe Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments and his conclusions
about conditions that promote blind
obedience. p. 596-599
5. Describe the phenomenon of bystander intervention and how it reflects
another aspect of situational forces. p. 585-
6. Describe Serge Moscovici’s work on the influence of the minority on
the majority. p. 579-581
7. Discuss the Bennington study and how its findings might help develop
strategies to promote more responsible
decision making.
8 Discuss various factors that contribute to aggressive behavior. p. 587-
9. Explain why experimental research is necessary for understanding
social influences on behavior.

Unit 20: Constructing Social Reality p. 542-571
1. Explain the Fundamental Attribution Error. p. 544-546
2. Describe Attribution theory. p. 545
3. Explain Self-perception theory. p. 545, 556
4. Summarize Rosenthal’s experiment that demonstrates the Pygmalion
effect and explain its relation to self-fulfilling
prophecies. p. 548-549
5. Describe the effect of cognitive dissonance on behavior and attitude
change. p. 554-556
6. Describe the techniques used by cults to maintain control over their

Unit 21: Psychopathology p. 470-507
1. Identify the 7 criteria commonly used to determine abnormal behavior.
p. 472-473
2. Describe the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM) and how it is used. p. 478-479
3. Explain how psychological disorders are classified. p. 479-482
4. List and describe the major types of psychological disorders. p. 482-
5. List the biological and psychological approaches to studying the
etiology of psychopathology. p. 484-492
6. Summarize the genetic and psychosocial research related to the origins
of schizophrenia, including subtypes and
etiology. p. 500-503
7. Identify sources of error in judgments of mental illness.
8. Discuss stigmas against mental illness and how they can be overcome.
p. 504-505

Unit 22: Psychotherapy p. 508-441
1. Describe early approaches to identifying and treating mental illness.
p. 512-514
2. Identify the major approaches to psychotherapy. p. 509
3. Describe how psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and clinical psychologists
differ in their training and therapeutic
orientation. p. 510-512
4. Identify the major features of psychoanalysis and explain the purposes
of each. p. 514-517
5. Explain the goals of various behavior therapies. p. 518-524
6. Describe how counterconditioning can be used effectively to treat
phobias. p. 518-520
7. Summarize the major rationale behind all types of cognitive therapy.
p. 525-527
8. Describe the use of psychosurgery and electroconvulsive shock in the
treatment of mental illness. p. 530-532
9. Identify the common forms of drug therapy and how they have changed
the mental health system. p. 532-534
10. Summarize research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. p. 535-539
11. Summarize the main features of person-centered (client-centered)
therapy and Gestalt therapy and how these reflect
the existential-humanistic perspective. p. 527-528

Unit 23: Health, Mind and Behavior p. 406-433
1. Define stress and list the major sources of stress. p. 406
2. Describe the role of cognitive appraisal in stress. p. 415
3. Describe the major physiological stress reactions including the
General Adaptation Syndrome. p. 406-410
4. Explain the relationship between stress and illness. p. 410
5. Describe various kinds of events that can lead to psychological
stress. p. 410-415
6. Describe the types of coping strategies in coping with stress. p.
7. Explain the mind-body relationship in terms of the biopsychosocial
model of health and illness. p. 420-421
8. Describe the effects of self-disclosure on health. P. 419
9. Describe biofeedback, how it works, and its role in behavioral
medicine. p. 426
10. Discuss how personality types relate to different health outcomes.
p. 427-429
11. List some things you can do to reduce your stress level, promote your
health, and protect yourself from job burnout.
p. 430-431
Unit 24: Applying Psychology to Life p. 151-154, 235-236, 595-605
1. Describe how psychologists try to improve the human condition through
the application of social psychological
principles to social problems.
2. Identify at least 3 important stress factors for space travelers, and
discuss how studying those problems can help
people on Earth.
3. Define Peace Psychology and conflict negotiation. p. 595-605
4. Describe the problems faced by legal professionals when children serve
as eyewitnesses. p. 235-236
5. Identify several signs that people are not getting enough sleep and
identify the risks associated with sleep deprivation.
p. 151-153

Unit 25: Cognitive Neuroscience p. 62-95
1. Describe some of the differences between EEG, ERP, CAT, MRI, PET, and
fMRI techniques. p. 64-65
2. Describe how fMRI can be used to study visual pathways.
3. Describe some of the brain structures that underlie face recognition.
p. 65
4. Support the similarity of imagery and perception by discussing the
brain activity they have in common.
5. Explain how brain research can be used to help dyslexics learn to
process language stimuli more effectively.
6. Describe how studies of the brain can reveal unconscious stereotypes.

Unit 26: Cultural Psychology p. 460-462, 397-398, 592-595
1. Describe the differences between Eastern and Western cultures in terms
of the weight given to individual and group
factors to explain behavior. p. 460-462
2. Cite examples of how the Western value on individualism manifests
itself. p. 397-398
3. Describe the African cultural values that have benefited African
Americans in their struggle against bigotry.
4. List several factors that put Latino immigrants at risk for depression
and alienation.
5. Cite evidence that psychology can help solve some of society’s most
perplexing problems and cite evidence to the
           Psychology and Human Experience Syllabus

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