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Psychological Disorders by wuzhenguang


									                           Psychological Disorders
•   Psychological Disorder
     – a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be:
          atypical--not enough in itself
          disturbing--varies with time and culture
          maladaptive--harmful
          unjustifiable--sometimes there’s a good reason
                                    Medical Model
•   concept that diseases have physical causes
•   can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured
•   assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their
    symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a
    psychiatric hospital
                             Bio-Psycho-Social Model
•   assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and
    interact to produce psychological disorders
                      Classifying Psychological Disorders
•   DSM-IV
     – American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
       Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)
     – a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
      presently distributed as DSM-IV-TR (text revision)
                                Anxiety Disorders
•   distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
•   Generalized Anxiety Disorder
      person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system

                                Anxiety Disorders
•   Panic Disorder
     – marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person
       experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other
       frightening sensation
                               Anxiety Disorders
•    Phobia
    – persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
•    Top ten phobias:

    – Snakes
    –   Buried alive
    –   Heights
    –   Tied up
    –   Drowning
    –   Public speaking
    –   Hell
    –   Cancer
    –   Tornadoes and hurricanes
    –   fire

                               Anxiety Disorders
•    Top Five Male Fears:
•    Buried alive
•    Heights
•    Snakes
•    Drowning
•    Public speaking
•    Top Five Female Fears:
•    Snakes
•    Tied up
•    Buried alive
•    Heights
•    Public speaking
                       Anxiety Disorders
 Common and uncommon fears
                       Anxiety Disorders
•   Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    – unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
       • Example: someone is obsessed that cars might come up on the sidewalk
         and hit her. So she compulsively walks as far from the street as possible
         and wears red clothes to be more visible

                              Anxiety Disorders
                              Anxiety Disorders
• PET Scan of brain of person with obsessive- compulsive disorder
• High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing
                            Personality Disorders
•   Personality Disorders
     • disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that
       impair social functioning
     • usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions
                            Personality Disorders
• Antisocial Personality Disorder
   • disorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for
     wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members
   • may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
                            Personality Disorders
• PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a murderer’s frontal cortex
                               Mood Disorders
•   Mood Disorders
    • characterized by emotional extremes
•   Major Depressive Disorder
    • a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences
      two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and
      diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
                                Mood Disorders
•   Manic Episode
     • a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
•   Bipolar Disorder
     • a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness
       and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
     • formerly called manic-depressive disorder
                             Mood Disorders-Bipolar
•   PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional
                          Mood Disorders-Depression
•   Boys who were later convicted of a crime showed relatively low arousal
                          Mood Disorders-Depression
                          Mood Disorders-Depression
•   Altering any one component of the chemistry-cognition-mood circuit can alter
    the others
                          Mood Disorders-Depression
•   The vicious cycle of depression can be broken at any point
                            Mood Disorders- Suicide
                    Psychoactive substance-use disorder
•   Abuse or dependence on drug that acts on brain & affects emotions,
    perceptions, or thoughts
•   Drug abuse
     – persistent use of a drug harmful to self or society
•   Drug dependence
     – addiction
    – person feels compelled to take drug on regular basis & feels distress
      without it
                        3 classes of drug effects
•   Intoxicating effects
     – short-term effects for which drug is usually taken
     – can last for minutes or hours after single dose
•   Withdrawal effects
     – after drug is removed from system
     – usually after long period of frequent use
     – person physically adapts to drug - brain functions more normally (in some
       ways) with than without drug
                            3 classes of drug effects
•   Permanent effects
     – irreversible forms of brain damage resulting from frequent drug use
     – also damage that can occur in developing fetus if mother uses drug during
                        Intoxicating effects of alcohol
•   Relief from anxiety
•   Slowed thinking & poor judgment
•   Slurred speech & uncoordinated movements
•   Alcohol myopia
     – react more strongly to emotion-arousing cues in immediate environment
       due to impairment of long-term thinking
                           Withdrawal from alcohol
•   Start 8-20 hours after alcohol cleared from body
•   Delirium tremens (DTs)
     – hallucinations
     – panic
     – muscle tremors
     – sweating, high heart rate, brain seizures
                        Permanent effects of alcohol
•   Alcohol amnesic disorder (Korsakoff’s syndrome)
     – seen in long-term, heavy alcohol use
     – severe memory impairment
     – difficulties with motor coordination
•   Fetal alcohol syndrome
     – seen in child when mother used alcohol during pregnancy
     – mental retardation
     – physical abnormalities
                                 Other perspectives
•   Behavioral & cognitive perspectives
     – addictive behavior results from conditioning
         • short-term pleasure is reinforcing & increases likelihood of continued use
     – taking a drug is a decision
         • based on beliefs & expectations re: drug & effects
• Sociocultural perspective
   – cultural & social environmental influences
                          Culture-Bound Disorders
• Anorexia and Bulimia are mostly found in western cultures
• Susto: found in Latin America only
   – Fear of black magic marked by severe anxiety and restlessness
• Latah: found in uneducated middle-aged or elderly women in Malaya
   – Unusual circumstances produce a fear response that is characterized by
     repeating the words and actions of other people, cursing, and acting the
     opposite of how people ask
                          Culture-Bound Disorders
•   Koro: found in Southeastern Asian men
     – Involves an intense fear that one’s penis will withdraw into one’s abdomen,
       causing death. Treated by either having the individual firmly hold the penis
       (sometimes with the help of family) or clamping the penis to a wooden box
       until the fear subsides.
                            Culture-Bound Disorders
•   Amok: found in the Philippines, Java and certain parts of Africa
     – Occurs more often in men
     – Involves jumping violently, yelling loudly and attacking objects and people
     – The outburst is often followed by depression and amnesia regarding the
                            Culture-Bound Disorders
•   Winigo: found among Algonquin Indian hunters
    – Involves the intense fear of being turned into a cannibal by a supernatural
    – Some people afflicted did actually kill and eat their family members

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