Introducing the Agilent Technologies N9038A MXE

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					Advanced EMI Receiver Architecture

Introducing the
Agilent Technologies
N9038A MXE

                               TILE Software

                                                  Gil Elram
1                                              21-Feb-2012
       Gil Elram
2   21-Feb-2012
N6141A EMI Measurement Application



           EXA               Compliance

                           Agilent MXE N9038A

                                                   Gil Elram
3                                               21-Feb-2012
Advances in EMI Receiver Architecture:
Introducing the Agilent Technologies N9038A MXE

• New EMI Receiver architecture remove some of the constraints known in
  previous receivers generations.
• The adoption of DSP in the IF has implemented:
    • Linear detection scheme
    • Digital RBW filters
    ⇒ Eliminates the Log Amplifier measurement errors, yielding a new level of
      reproducibility to the filtering.

• Digital processing provides many diagnostics tools which help the EMC
  Engineer explore and correct the causes of test limit failures in the DUT
  while making conformance measurements.

                                                                            Gil Elram
4                                                                        21-Feb-2012
System Overview

Receiver vs. Spectrum Modes.

The Front End

Overload Detection

•   2 dB Step Attenuator - Dynamic Range Optimisation
•   The Pre-Selector- Overload Protection
Digital IF – Signal Chain Fidelity

•   Linear Detection
•   Log Amp in DSP
•   RBW Filters in DSP
•   Single Detection Path allows simultaneous metering while sweeping.
•   IF Overload Detection
Signal List

•   Signal Optimisation
Meter Control

•   Swept and Zero Span.

                                                                            Gil Elram
5                                                                        21-Feb-2012
Diagnostic Tools

    • Pre-Amp & NFE to view kTB (-174dBm/Hz)
    • Strip Chart
    • Spectrogram
    • Trace Zoom
    • Zone Span

                                              Gil Elram
6                                          21-Feb-2012
    Factors in Modern Signal Analyzer Accuracy
Some modern analyzers approach accuracy of power meter + sensor
      Even better for low-level signals, with narrower noise bandwidth and the
      benefit of frequency selectivity

Some factors determining uncertainty:
• Input connector (mismatch)
• RF input attenuator
• Mixer and input filter (flatness)
• IF gain/attenuation (reference level)
• RBW filters
• Display scale fidelity
• Calibrator

                                                                             Gil Elram
7                                                                         21-Feb-2012
      Classic Super Heterodyne Swept Spectrum Analyzer

                                                                                   Diode Product Detector:
                                                                                   Loss Of Phase Information

    Input    RF Input Attenuator        Mixer    IF Gain               IF Filter   Log Amp           Video Filter
    Signal   1, 2, 5 or 10 dB Steps


                     Pre-Selector, Or
                     Low Pass Filter
                                                Local Oscillator           Scalar Analysis:
                                                                           Digitizing the Video Signal

                                                Reference Oscillator

                                 Sweep Generator                                   Video Display

                                                                                                                       Gil Elram
8                                                                                                                   21-Feb-2012
                    Digital IF Spectrum/Signal Analyzer

    Vector data CAN be preserved
    (magnitude & phase or I/Q)
    Digitizing the IF Signal

                             Analogue to Digital                 ADC               DSP             To Display
                             Conversion at IF
                             instead of Video
                                                                               Log Amplification
                                                            Signal Digitized   RBW Filtering
       Some of the signal conversion errors introduced by   After RF           Envelope
       analogue circuitry can be reduced by employing       Down-              Detection
       Digital Signal Processing.                           Conversion         Video Filtering
                                                                               Display Scaling

                                                                                                           Gil Elram
9                                                                                                       21-Feb-2012
                           Modern Signal Analyzer Block Diagram
                                                                                                   Digital Detectors
                                                            Digital IF Filter                      •Normal
                                                            • 161 Settings                         •Peak
                                                            • 1 Hz to 8 MHz RBW                    •Minimum Peak
                                                            • CISPR and MIL BW                     •Sample
                                                            • 1 Hz to 50 MHz VBW                   •RMS
     Wideband PreAmp                                                                               •Quasi Peak
                                                            • Min Switching
     Improve 1GHz                                                                                  •CISPR RMS Average
      DANL from –153            Analog IF Filter
      dBm to –167 dBm           (Single Pole)                          Digital Signal Processing

                                              ADC                                       Log        Detectors

     Attenuator                                                           Filters
     2 dB Step

                  VCO                          14 Bit ADC          Sweep .v. FFT              Digital Log Amp
                  • Fast Tune                  • Autoranging       • Fast Sweep               • Min Linearity
                  • Stepped for FFT            • Dither on/off     • Narrow BW                  Contribution
                  • Optimization for                               • High Selectivity         • > 100 dB
                     Close in PhaseNoise                                                        Dynamic Range
                     Far out Phase Noise

                                                                                                                           Gil Elram
10                                                                                                                      21-Feb-2012
MXE Preselector Simplified Block Diagram
     RF In 1                                                                                       Bypass Switch

     RF In 2             Limiter
                                      Input Switch

                                                                   Conducted Band
                                   Conducted Filter Assembly          Preamp &
                                           (13 filter paths)       Overload Detector

     Limiter and Pre-Filters

                               *                                                            Band Switch   *
      Band Switch

                                     Radiated Filter Board           Radiated Band
                                           (7 filter paths)            Preamp &
                                                                    Overload Detector
                                                                                              * On Input Assembly

                                                                                                                 Gil Elram
11                                                                                                            21-Feb-2012
MXE Input Assembly

                        Gil Elram
12                   21-Feb-2012
User Interface in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode: Pre-Selector
Enabled by Default.

                                                         Gil Elram
13                                                    21-Feb-2012
User Interface in the EMI Receiver Mode: RF Pre-selector
Enabled By Default

                                                          Gil Elram
14                                                     21-Feb-2012
     Dynamic Range given up using different
        DR     attenuator steps
                      2 dB Step Attenuator
                                                   3rd Order

                             Worst case DR
                            due to insufficient
                             Atten step size

                DR Given
                                                  Optimum DR

             Dynamic Range Vs. Distortion and Noise

                                       Lost Dynamic Range (dB)
       Attenuator        Simplistic         CW            Noise-like
     Step Size (dB)        View          Distortion       Distortion
           10               6.7             4.7              4.1
            5               3.3             1.6              1.3
            2               1.3            0.28             0.23
            1              0.67            0.08             0.06

                       Loss of Dynamic Range

                                                                             Gil Elram
15                                                                        21-Feb-2012
     FFT .v. Swept Analyzers

         FFT Analyzer                    Swept Analyzer
                                            Filter “sweeps” over
         Parallel filters measured
                                              range of interest
     A       simultaneously          A

          f1   f2                f         f1   f2                 f

                                                                          Gil Elram
16                                                                     21-Feb-2012
          Resolution: RBW Type Determines Sweep Time
     8563E Analog RBW

                             PXA Digital RBW

                                               PXA FFT RBW

        280 sec
                        134 sec
                                               10.7 sec

                                                                Gil Elram
17                                                           21-Feb-2012
     Modern spectrum analyzer
         Resolution BW Selectivity or Shape Factor

                     3 dB
                                            3 dB BW

             60 dB

                                60 dB

              Selectivity   =    60 dB BW
                                 3 dB BW

               Determines resolvability of unequal
                       amplitude signals
                                                         Gil Elram
18                                                    21-Feb-2012
          Resolution: RBW Type and Selectivity

                                                          Analog 15:1
                          ANALOG FILTER                   Digital ≤5:1

                          DIGITAL FILTER

RES BW 100 Hz                              SPAN 3 kHz

                                                                      Gil Elram
19                                                                 21-Feb-2012
                        Digital Filter Shape
     Better shape factor, biggest selectivity benefit for different signal levels

     Equivalent selectivity at a wider, faster-sweeping RBW

     digital filters swept an additional 3-4x faster

                        30 kHz Digital Filter

                                                                                       Gil Elram
20                                                                                  21-Feb-2012
     CISPR Bandwidth Requirements:
     Implemented in DSP gives Good Shape Control

                   Bandwidth           -6dB


         Measurement Range     CISPR Band     CISPR Bandwidth
         9 KHz – 150KHz        A              200 Hz
         150 KHz – 30 MHz      B              9 KHz
         30 MHz – 1 GHz        C/D            120 KHz
         > 1GHz                E              1 MHz

                                                                   Gil Elram
21                                                              21-Feb-2012
MIL-STD-461 Bandwidth Requirements: Implemented in DSP.

        Measurement Range      -6dB Bandwidth
        30Hz - 1 KHz           10 Hz
        1 KHz -10 KHz          100 Hz
        10 KHz - 150 KHz       1 KHz
        150 KHz - 30MHz        10 KHz
        30 MHz - GHz           100 KHz
        > 1GHz                 1 MHz

                                                      Gil Elram
22                                                 21-Feb-2012
Introducing the
Agilent MXE Full Compliance EMI Receiver N9038A

                                               Gil Elram
23                                          21-Feb-2012
     Impacts of Linear Detection:

     Log Amplifier Implemented Digitally

                                          Gil Elram
24                                     21-Feb-2012
                Signal at 107 dBµV Measured “off the Display”
MXE: the peak is above the reference
level, but accurately measures the
signal at 106 dBuV. Only the display is

                    Adjustment of the reference is not required >higher throughput

                                                                                        Gil Elram
  25                                                                                 21-Feb-2012
Same 107 dBuV Signal Measured On Screen with a 50 dB Change of
Reference Level, Gives The Same Result As The “Off Screen

                                                                Gil Elram
26                                                           21-Feb-2012
A 27 dBµV tone: Measured at the Bottom of Screen.

                                                       Gil Elram
27                                                  21-Feb-2012
A 27 dBµV signal: At Reference Level

                                          Gil Elram
28                                     21-Feb-2012
RF Pre-Selector Overload Warning

                                      Gil Elram
29                                 21-Feb-2012
IF Overload Warning

                         Gil Elram
30                    21-Feb-2012
Zero Span Quasi Peak Time Trace

                                     Gil Elram
31                                21-Feb-2012
Semi - Automated Measurements

                                   Gil Elram
32                              21-Feb-2012
N9038A MXE EMI Receiver Offers World-Class EMI
Measurement Capability
• Two frequency ranges
     - 20 Hz to 8.4 GHz
     - 20 Hz to 26.5 GHz

• CISPR 16-1-1 2010 Compliance
     - CISPR bandwidths
     - Quasi-Peak, EMI-Avg and
       RMS- Avg detectors

• MIL STD Compliance (461)
     - 6dB bandwidths
     - Peak detector

                                                    Gil Elram
33                                               21-Feb-2012
N9038A MXE EMI Receiver Offers World-Class EMI
Receiver Performance
• Excellent accuracy
   - ±0.78 dB @ 1 GHz

• Excellent sensitivity
     - -163 dBm @ 1 GHz
     - Nearby kTB with NFE

• Two inputs
     - 1 full frequency range input
     - 1 surge protected input to 1 GHz
                                                       20 Hz to 8.4 GHz
                                     20 Hz to 1 GHz
                                     surge protected
- RF Preselection                                      20 Hz to 26.5 GHz
     - Available on both inputs

                                                                       Gil Elram
34                                                                  21-Feb-2012
 N9038A MXE EMI Receiver Blends World-Class EMI
 Measurement Functionality……...

• Simultaneous updates for
  up to three detectors

• Built-in amplitude correction

• Built-in limit lines

• Automatic testing to limit lines and user-defined margins

• Automated signal list collection

• Automated signal list measurement

                                                                 Gil Elram
 35                                                           21-Feb-2012
……with State of the Art EMI Diagnostic Capability

                               • Extensive set of built-in
                                 diagnostic tools
                                  •   Signal Analysis
                                  •   Strip Chart
                                  •   Spectrogram
                                  •   Zone Span
                                  •   Global frequency linkage

     More than just an EMI receiver….the MXE includes
        Agilent’s X-Series signal analysis capability!

                                                            Gil Elram
36                                                       21-Feb-2012
     Integrated Display Enhances Usability

                                          Log Display
                                                          Meters with any 3
                               Auto-detect peaks           Simultaneous
   Regulatory agency
limit lines. Failed signals
        appear in red

                              Peak List                 Limit Delta

                                                                                 Gil Elram
37                                                                            21-Feb-2012
                                    Extensive built in
                                    diagnostic tools:
                                     Global Center

     Move seamlessly between
          Receiver & SA
          by maintaining
      The Center Frequency
     -Enhanced troubleshooting
     - Gain insight about signals

                                                       Gil Elram
38                                                  21-Feb-2012
Extensive built-in diagnostic tools:
Industry-exclusive strip chart

            Capture up to 20 minutes of continuous data

                                                             Gil Elram
39                                                        21-Feb-2012
     Extensive built-in diagnostic tools: Spectrogram


                                                                 Gil Elram
40                                                            21-Feb-2012
Configuring the Measurement: Scan Table with up to 10 ranges

                                                        Freq. Range
                                                        Dwell time
                                                        Step Size
                                                        Step points/RBW
                                                        Input Attenuator
                                                        Internal Preamp
                                                        Input Selection

                                                                         Gil Elram
41                                                                    21-Feb-2012
Setup Limit Lines and Correction Factors

     Correction factor for
      biconical antenna
                             Note the    Limit line for EN55022
                             file type     Class A Radiated

                                                                     Gil Elram
42                                                                21-Feb-2012
Scan the Frequency Range Setup in the Scan Table

                                           Scan Sequence
                                             set to Scan

     Frequency Scan with limit lines and
             correction factors

                                                              Gil Elram
43                                                         21-Feb-2012
Setting up the Search Criteria

                                    Gil Elram
44                               21-Feb-2012
Search for Signals Above the Limit Line

                                          Signals Marked
                                           and Placed in

                                                       Gil Elram
45                                                  21-Feb-2012
Remeasure Peak, Quasi-peak and Average

                                    Peak, QP, Ave

                                    Delta to Limit

                                                   Gil Elram
46                                              21-Feb-2012
Global Setting and Selecting a Signal

 Select Global Center
 Global CF supported
                        Under Meas Setup press Select Signal and use up/down
     in SA, EMI,                      arrows to select a signal
    Analog Demod
                                                                                  Gil Elram
47                                                                             21-Feb-2012
View Signal in SA Mode
                          Reduce Span and
                          change Center
                          Frequency to find exact

Center Frequency Signal
in SA Mode Same as
Selected Signal in EMI
Receiver Mode
                                                  Gil Elram
48                                             21-Feb-2012
     X-Series option EDP (Enhanced Display Package)



                                                              Gil Elram
49                                                         21-Feb-2012
                X-Series option EDP
            (Enhanced Display Package)

     Trace Zoom

                                            Gil Elram
50                                       21-Feb-2012
X-Series option EDP (Enhanced Display Package)
                                    •One trace
                                    active at a time
                                    can be set by
                                    individual trace
                                    •Trace points

        Zone Span
                                                    Gil Elram
51                                               21-Feb-2012
 Report Generator

                       Gil Elram
52                  21-Feb-2012
 Report Generator

                       Gil Elram
53                  21-Feb-2012
 Report Generator

                       Gil Elram
54                  21-Feb-2012
     Introducing the New Agilent
     N9038A MXE EMI Receiver
      - 20 Hz to 8.4 GHz
      - 20 Hz to 26.5 GHz

• Top Performance

• Enhanced EMI Measurements

• Advanced Diagnostic Capability

      Blending World-Class EMI Receiver and Diagnostic
                Signal Analysis Capabilities

                                                            Gil Elram
55                                                       21-Feb-2012
EMI Measurement Applications (N6141A)



           EXA                Compliance

                            Agilent MXE N9038A

                                                    Gil Elram
56                                               21-Feb-2012
MXE N9038A Options
          • Frequency Ranges                       MXE (N9038A)
               • 8.4 GHz (option 508)              CISPR 16-1-1 2010 All Detectors
               • 26.5 GHz (option 526)
                                                   One box w/Internal Cal source
          • Application Options                    Two inputs
              • Noise Figure (N9069A)              Linear & log display
              • Phase Noise (N9068A)
              • Analog Demod (N9063A)              Conducted tests to 1 GHz
              • External Source Control (ESC)      Limits and corrections built-in
              • VSA 89600B (!)                     Real Time Detector Meters

          • Applications Standard                 Most of the E7400A features
              • Spectrum Analyzer                 including Signal List (Rcvr Scan)
              • EMI application (N6141A)          Trace Zoom (Fast), Zone Span,
              • IQ Analyzer                       Spectrogram
              • Std built-in preamp
              • Std built-in Enhanced Displays
              • Std built-in NFE (Noise Floor Extension)

                                                                                         Gil Elram

Page 57                                                                               21-Feb-2012

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