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Introducing the Agilent Technologies N9038A MXE

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					Advanced EMI Receiver Architecture



Introducing the
Agilent Technologies
N9038A MXE


                               TILE Software




                                                  Gil Elram
1                                              21-Feb-2012
       Gil Elram
2   21-Feb-2012
N6141A EMI Measurement Application

           PXA




           MXA


          Pre-compliance
           EXA               Compliance



           CXA
                           Agilent MXE N9038A



                                                   Gil Elram
3                                               21-Feb-2012
Advances in EMI Receiver Architecture:
Introducing the Agilent Technologies N9038A MXE

• New EMI Receiver architecture remove some of the constraints known in
  previous receivers generations.
• The adoption of DSP in the IF has implemented:
    • Linear detection scheme
    • Digital RBW filters
    ⇒ Eliminates the Log Amplifier measurement errors, yielding a new level of
      reproducibility to the filtering.

• Digital processing provides many diagnostics tools which help the EMC
  Engineer explore and correct the causes of test limit failures in the DUT
  while making conformance measurements.




                                                                            Gil Elram
4                                                                        21-Feb-2012
System Overview

Receiver vs. Spectrum Modes.

The Front End

Overload Detection

•   2 dB Step Attenuator - Dynamic Range Optimisation
•   The Pre-Selector- Overload Protection
Digital IF – Signal Chain Fidelity

•   Linear Detection
•   Log Amp in DSP
•   RBW Filters in DSP
•   Single Detection Path allows simultaneous metering while sweeping.
•   IF Overload Detection
Signal List

•   Signal Optimisation
Meter Control

•   Swept and Zero Span.




                                                                            Gil Elram
5                                                                        21-Feb-2012
Diagnostic Tools


    • Pre-Amp & NFE to view kTB (-174dBm/Hz)
    • Strip Chart
    • Spectrogram
    • Trace Zoom
    • Zone Span




                                              Gil Elram
6                                          21-Feb-2012
    Factors in Modern Signal Analyzer Accuracy
Some modern analyzers approach accuracy of power meter + sensor
      Even better for low-level signals, with narrower noise bandwidth and the
      benefit of frequency selectivity

Some factors determining uncertainty:
• Input connector (mismatch)
• RF input attenuator
• Mixer and input filter (flatness)
• IF gain/attenuation (reference level)
• RBW filters
• Display scale fidelity
• Calibrator

                                                                             Gil Elram
7                                                                         21-Feb-2012
      Classic Super Heterodyne Swept Spectrum Analyzer

                                                                                   Diode Product Detector:
                                                                                   Loss Of Phase Information

    Input    RF Input Attenuator        Mixer    IF Gain               IF Filter   Log Amp           Video Filter
    Signal   1, 2, 5 or 10 dB Steps


                                                                                    Log



                     Pre-Selector, Or
                     Low Pass Filter
                                                Local Oscillator           Scalar Analysis:
                                                                                                          ADC
                                                                           Digitizing the Video Signal


                                                Reference Oscillator



                                 Sweep Generator                                   Video Display




                                                                                                                       Gil Elram
8                                                                                                                   21-Feb-2012
                    Digital IF Spectrum/Signal Analyzer

    Vector data CAN be preserved
    (magnitude & phase or I/Q)
    Digitizing the IF Signal




                             Analogue to Digital                 ADC               DSP             To Display
                             Conversion at IF
                             instead of Video
                                                                               Log Amplification
                                                            Signal Digitized   RBW Filtering
       Some of the signal conversion errors introduced by   After RF           Envelope
       analogue circuitry can be reduced by employing       Down-              Detection
       Digital Signal Processing.                           Conversion         Video Filtering
                                                                               Averaging
                                                                               Display Scaling



                                                                                                           Gil Elram
9                                                                                                       21-Feb-2012
                           Modern Signal Analyzer Block Diagram
                                                                                                   Digital Detectors
                                                            Digital IF Filter                      •Normal
                                                            • 161 Settings                         •Peak
                                                            • 1 Hz to 8 MHz RBW                    •Minimum Peak
                                                            • CISPR and MIL BW                     •Sample
                                                            • 1 Hz to 50 MHz VBW                   •RMS
     Wideband PreAmp                                                                               •Quasi Peak
                                                            • Min Switching
     Improve 1GHz                                                                                  •CISPR RMS Average
                                                              Uncertainty
      DANL from –153            Analog IF Filter
      dBm to –167 dBm           (Single Pole)                          Digital Signal Processing


                                                                 FFT
                                              ADC                                       Log        Detectors


     Attenuator                                                           Filters
     2 dB Step



                  VCO                          14 Bit ADC          Sweep .v. FFT              Digital Log Amp
                  • Fast Tune                  • Autoranging       • Fast Sweep               • Min Linearity
                  • Stepped for FFT            • Dither on/off     • Narrow BW                  Contribution
                  • Optimization for                               • High Selectivity         • > 100 dB
                     Close in PhaseNoise                                                        Dynamic Range
                     Far out Phase Noise



                                                                                                                           Gil Elram
10                                                                                                                      21-Feb-2012
MXE Preselector Simplified Block Diagram
     RF In 1                                                                                       Bypass Switch


                                                               Attenuators
     RF In 2             Limiter
                                      Input Switch




                                                                   Conducted Band
                                                                                        *
                                   Conducted Filter Assembly          Preamp &
                                           (13 filter paths)       Overload Detector

     Limiter and Pre-Filters



                               *                                                            Band Switch   *
      Band Switch



                                     Radiated Filter Board           Radiated Band
                                           (7 filter paths)            Preamp &
                                                                    Overload Detector
                                                                                        *
                                                                                              * On Input Assembly



                                                                                                                 Gil Elram
11                                                                                                            21-Feb-2012
MXE Input Assembly




                        Gil Elram
12                   21-Feb-2012
User Interface in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode: Pre-Selector
Enabled by Default.




                                                         Gil Elram
13                                                    21-Feb-2012
User Interface in the EMI Receiver Mode: RF Pre-selector
Enabled By Default




                                                          Gil Elram
14                                                     21-Feb-2012
     Dynamic Range given up using different
        DR     attenuator steps
                      2 dB Step Attenuator
                                                   3rd Order
                  DANL

                             Worst case DR
                            due to insufficient
                             Atten step size


                Potential
                DR Given
                  Up
                                                  Optimum DR



                                                                  Mixer
                                                                  Level
             Dynamic Range Vs. Distortion and Noise

                                       Lost Dynamic Range (dB)
       Attenuator        Simplistic         CW            Noise-like
     Step Size (dB)        View          Distortion       Distortion
           10               6.7             4.7              4.1
            5               3.3             1.6              1.3
            2               1.3            0.28             0.23
            1              0.67            0.08             0.06


                       Loss of Dynamic Range

                                                                             Gil Elram
15                                                                        21-Feb-2012
Overview
     FFT .v. Swept Analyzers

         FFT Analyzer                    Swept Analyzer
                                            Filter “sweeps” over
         Parallel filters measured
                                              range of interest
     A       simultaneously          A




          f1   f2                f         f1   f2                 f


                                                                          Gil Elram
16                                                                     21-Feb-2012
     Specifications
          Resolution: RBW Type Determines Sweep Time
     8563E Analog RBW

                             PXA Digital RBW

                                               PXA FFT RBW




        280 sec
                        134 sec
                                               10.7 sec

                                                                Gil Elram
17                                                           21-Feb-2012
     Modern spectrum analyzer
         Resolution BW Selectivity or Shape Factor

                     3 dB
                                            3 dB BW

             60 dB


                                60 dB
                                 BW


              Selectivity   =    60 dB BW
                                 3 dB BW

               Determines resolvability of unequal
                       amplitude signals
                                                         Gil Elram
18                                                    21-Feb-2012
     Specifications
          Resolution: RBW Type and Selectivity

                                                        Typical
                                                        Selectivity
                                                          Analog 15:1
                          ANALOG FILTER                   Digital ≤5:1



                          DIGITAL FILTER



RES BW 100 Hz                              SPAN 3 kHz




                                                                      Gil Elram
19                                                                 21-Feb-2012
                        Digital Filter Shape
     Better shape factor, biggest selectivity benefit for different signal levels

     Equivalent selectivity at a wider, faster-sweeping RBW

     digital filters swept an additional 3-4x faster




                        30 kHz Digital Filter


                                                                                       Gil Elram
20                                                                                  21-Feb-2012
     CISPR Bandwidth Requirements:
     Implemented in DSP gives Good Shape Control

                   Bandwidth           -6dB




                                        20dB
                                       -20dB

         Measurement Range     CISPR Band     CISPR Bandwidth
         9 KHz – 150KHz        A              200 Hz
         150 KHz – 30 MHz      B              9 KHz
         30 MHz – 1 GHz        C/D            120 KHz
         > 1GHz                E              1 MHz


                                                                   Gil Elram
21                                                              21-Feb-2012
MIL-STD-461 Bandwidth Requirements: Implemented in DSP.


        Measurement Range      -6dB Bandwidth
        30Hz - 1 KHz           10 Hz
        1 KHz -10 KHz          100 Hz
        10 KHz - 150 KHz       1 KHz
        150 KHz - 30MHz        10 KHz
        30 MHz - GHz           100 KHz
        > 1GHz                 1 MHz




                                                      Gil Elram
22                                                 21-Feb-2012
Introducing the
Agilent MXE Full Compliance EMI Receiver N9038A




                                               Gil Elram
23                                          21-Feb-2012
     Impacts of Linear Detection:

     Log Amplifier Implemented Digitally




                                          Gil Elram
24                                     21-Feb-2012
                Signal at 107 dBµV Measured “off the Display”
MXE: the peak is above the reference
level, but accurately measures the
signal at 106 dBuV. Only the display is
clipped.




                    Adjustment of the reference is not required >higher throughput

                                                                                        Gil Elram
  25                                                                                 21-Feb-2012
Same 107 dBuV Signal Measured On Screen with a 50 dB Change of
Reference Level, Gives The Same Result As The “Off Screen
Measurement”.




                                                                Gil Elram
26                                                           21-Feb-2012
A 27 dBµV tone: Measured at the Bottom of Screen.




                                                       Gil Elram
27                                                  21-Feb-2012
A 27 dBµV signal: At Reference Level




                                          Gil Elram
28                                     21-Feb-2012
RF Pre-Selector Overload Warning




                                      Gil Elram
29                                 21-Feb-2012
IF Overload Warning




                         Gil Elram
30                    21-Feb-2012
Zero Span Quasi Peak Time Trace




                                     Gil Elram
31                                21-Feb-2012
Semi - Automated Measurements




                                   Gil Elram
32                              21-Feb-2012
N9038A MXE EMI Receiver Offers World-Class EMI
Measurement Capability
• Two frequency ranges
     - 20 Hz to 8.4 GHz
     - 20 Hz to 26.5 GHz



• CISPR 16-1-1 2010 Compliance
     - CISPR bandwidths
     - Quasi-Peak, EMI-Avg and
       RMS- Avg detectors


• MIL STD Compliance (461)
     - 6dB bandwidths
     - Peak detector



                                                    Gil Elram
33                                               21-Feb-2012
N9038A MXE EMI Receiver Offers World-Class EMI
Receiver Performance
• Excellent accuracy
   - ±0.78 dB @ 1 GHz

• Excellent sensitivity
     - -163 dBm @ 1 GHz
     - Nearby kTB with NFE

• Two inputs
     - 1 full frequency range input
     - 1 surge protected input to 1 GHz
                                                       20 Hz to 8.4 GHz
                                     20 Hz to 1 GHz
                                                               or
                                     surge protected
- RF Preselection                                      20 Hz to 26.5 GHz
     - Available on both inputs


                                                                       Gil Elram
34                                                                  21-Feb-2012
 N9038A MXE EMI Receiver Blends World-Class EMI
 Measurement Functionality……...

• Simultaneous updates for
  up to three detectors

• Built-in amplitude correction

• Built-in limit lines

• Automatic testing to limit lines and user-defined margins

• Automated signal list collection

• Automated signal list measurement

                                                                 Gil Elram
 35                                                           21-Feb-2012
……with State of the Art EMI Diagnostic Capability

                               • Extensive set of built-in
                                 diagnostic tools
                                  •   Signal Analysis
                                  •   Strip Chart
                                  •   Spectrogram
                                  •   Zone Span
                                  •   Global frequency linkage



     More than just an EMI receiver….the MXE includes
        Agilent’s X-Series signal analysis capability!



                                                            Gil Elram
36                                                       21-Feb-2012
     Integrated Display Enhances Usability


                                          Log Display
                                                             Real-time
                                                          Meters with any 3
                               Auto-detect peaks           Simultaneous
                                                             Detectors
   Regulatory agency
limit lines. Failed signals
        appear in red




                              Peak List                 Limit Delta




                                                                                 Gil Elram
37                                                                            21-Feb-2012
                                    Extensive built in
                                    diagnostic tools:
                                     Global Center
                                       Frequency




     Move seamlessly between
          Receiver & SA
          by maintaining
      The Center Frequency
     -Enhanced troubleshooting
     - Gain insight about signals

                                                       Gil Elram
38                                                  21-Feb-2012
Extensive built-in diagnostic tools:
Industry-exclusive strip chart




            Capture up to 20 minutes of continuous data

                                                             Gil Elram
39                                                        21-Feb-2012
     Extensive built-in diagnostic tools: Spectrogram




                                                        Display
                                                         Trace




                                                                 Gil Elram
40                                                            21-Feb-2012
Configuring the Measurement: Scan Table with up to 10 ranges

                                                        Freq. Range
                                                        RBW
                                                        Dwell time
                                                        Step Size
                                                        Step points/RBW
                                                        Input Attenuator
                                                        Internal Preamp
                                                        Input Selection




                                                                         Gil Elram
41                                                                    21-Feb-2012
Setup Limit Lines and Correction Factors




     Correction factor for
      biconical antenna
                             Note the    Limit line for EN55022
                             file type     Class A Radiated




                                                                     Gil Elram
42                                                                21-Feb-2012
Scan the Frequency Range Setup in the Scan Table




                                           Scan Sequence
                                             set to Scan




     Frequency Scan with limit lines and
             correction factors

                                                              Gil Elram
43                                                         21-Feb-2012
Setting up the Search Criteria




                                    Gil Elram
44                               21-Feb-2012
Search for Signals Above the Limit Line




                                          Signals Marked
                                           and Placed in
                                               List




                                                       Gil Elram
45                                                  21-Feb-2012
Remeasure Peak, Quasi-peak and Average




                                    Peak, QP, Ave
                                      measured

                                    Delta to Limit
                                        Line




                                                   Gil Elram
46                                              21-Feb-2012
Global Setting and Selecting a Signal




 Select Global Center
      frequency
 Global CF supported
                        Under Meas Setup press Select Signal and use up/down
     in SA, EMI,                      arrows to select a signal
    Analog Demod
                                                                                  Gil Elram
47                                                                             21-Feb-2012
View Signal in SA Mode
                          Reduce Span and
                          change Center
                          Frequency to find exact
                          center




Center Frequency Signal
in SA Mode Same as
Selected Signal in EMI
Receiver Mode
                                                  Gil Elram
48                                             21-Feb-2012
     X-Series option EDP (Enhanced Display Package)




                                                      Display
                                                       Trace




                     Spectrogram

                                                              Gil Elram
49                                                         21-Feb-2012
                X-Series option EDP
            (Enhanced Display Package)




     Trace Zoom


                                            Gil Elram
50                                       21-Feb-2012
X-Series option EDP (Enhanced Display Package)
(cont’d)
                                    •One trace
                                    active at a time
                                    •Parameters
                                    can be set by
                                    individual trace
                                    •Trace points
                                    set
                                    independently




        Zone Span
                                                    Gil Elram
51                                               21-Feb-2012
 Report Generator




                       Gil Elram
52                  21-Feb-2012
 Report Generator




                       Gil Elram
53                  21-Feb-2012
 Report Generator




                       Gil Elram
54                  21-Feb-2012
     Introducing the New Agilent
     N9038A MXE EMI Receiver
• CISPR and MIL
  Compliant
      - 20 Hz to 8.4 GHz
      - 20 Hz to 26.5 GHz

• Top Performance

• Enhanced EMI Measurements

• Advanced Diagnostic Capability

      Blending World-Class EMI Receiver and Diagnostic
                Signal Analysis Capabilities


                                                            Gil Elram
55                                                       21-Feb-2012
EMI Measurement Applications (N6141A)

           PXA




           MXA


           Pre-compliance
           EXA                Compliance



           CXA
                            Agilent MXE N9038A



                                                    Gil Elram
56                                               21-Feb-2012
MXE N9038A Options
          • Frequency Ranges                       MXE (N9038A)
               • 8.4 GHz (option 508)              CISPR 16-1-1 2010 All Detectors
               • 26.5 GHz (option 526)
                                                   One box w/Internal Cal source
          • Application Options                    Two inputs
              • Noise Figure (N9069A)              Linear & log display
              • Phase Noise (N9068A)
              • Analog Demod (N9063A)              Conducted tests to 1 GHz
              • External Source Control (ESC)      Limits and corrections built-in
              • VSA 89600B (!)                     Real Time Detector Meters

          • Applications Standard                 Most of the E7400A features
              • Spectrum Analyzer                 including Signal List (Rcvr Scan)
              • EMI application (N6141A)          Trace Zoom (Fast), Zone Span,
              • IQ Analyzer                       Spectrogram
              • Std built-in preamp
              • Std built-in Enhanced Displays
              • Std built-in NFE (Noise Floor Extension)

                                                                                         Gil Elram

Page 57                                                                               21-Feb-2012

				
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