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					A New Dawn for African Agricultural
 Research? Recent Capacity Trends

                         Nienke Beintema
           Head, Agricultural S&T Indicators (ASTI) initiative,
                           IFPRI-Rome office

 Presentation for the panel discussion on “Investing in African Capacity for
 Innovation”, RUFORUM Ministerial Meeting on Higher Education in Africa
                      Kampala, 15-19 November, 2010
   Agricultural S&T Technology Indicators
               (ASTI) initiative
■ Mission: Provide up-to-date data sets and related analyses on
  agricultural R&D investment, capacity, and institutional
  trends in developing countries that will assist R&D managers
  and policymakers in improved policy formulation at the
  national, regional, and international levels
   • Research covers 32 SSA countries (accounting for 90% of continental
     AgGDP); time-series data cover 4 decades
   • Studies conducted through institutional survey rounds (primary data
     collection)
   • Research covers close to 500 government, higher-education, and
     nonprofit involved in agricultural research
■ Collaborative network with large number of national,
  regional, and international partners; facilitated by IFPRI

                                                                 asti.cgiar.org
                                 Public agricultural research capacity and
                                  investments trends in SSA, 1971-2008
■ Total public agricultural research investment and capacity
  levels rose about 20% from 2001 to 2008 but important
  differences across countries
                                2,000                                                                                                                                         15,000
(in million 2005 PPP dollars)




                                                                                                                                                                                       (in full-time equivalents)
                                                                                                                                                                                       (in full
                                1,600                                                                                                                                         12,000
                                               Agricultural R&D spending




                                                                                                                                                                                            Total researchers
                                               (left scale)
        Total spending




                                1,200                                                                                                                                         9,000

                                 800                                                                                                                                          6,000
                                                                                  Agricultural researchers
                                                                                  (right scale)
                                 400                                                                                                                                          3,000

                                   0                                                                                                                                          0
                                        1971
                                               1973
                                                      1975
                                                             1977
                                                                    1979
                                                                           1981
                                                                                   1983
                                                                                          1985
                                                                                                 1987
                                                                                                        1989
                                                                                                               1991
                                                                                                                      1993
                                                                                                                             1995
                                                                                                                                    1997
                                                                                                                                           1999
                                                                                                                                                  2001
                                                                                                                                                         2003
                                                                                                                                                                2005
                                                                                                                                                                       2007
                                                                                                               preliminary data-not for citation
                                                                                                                                                                                  asti.cgiar.org
              SSA agricultural R&D investments compared
                with China, India, and Brazil, 1991-2008
      ■ Total SSA research capacity is more than twice than in Brazil,
        but investment level is about the same
                                    5,000
                                                                                                                                                China
(in million 2005 PPP dollars)




                                    4,000
        Total spending




                                    3,000
                                                                                                                                         Sub Saharan Africa
                                    2,000

                                    1,000
                                                                                                                                                         Brazil
                                                                                              India
                                         0
                                             1991

                                                    1992

                                                           1993

                                                                  1994

                                                                         1995

                                                                                1996

                                                                                       1997

                                                                                              1998

                                                                                                      1999

                                                                                                             2000

                                                                                                                    2001

                                                                                                                           2002

                                                                                                                                  2003

                                                                                                                                         2004

                                                                                                                                                  2005

                                                                                                                                                           2006

                                                                                                                                                                  2007

                                                                                                                                                                         2008
                                FTE researchers

                                China (2007) = > 80,000           India (2003) = 16,700              SSA (2008) = 12,100          Brazil (2006) = 5,400
                                (in addition, SSA has relatively less research support staff holding university degrees)


                                                                                                       preliminary data-not for citation
                                                                                                                                                                                asti.cgiar.org
     Pool of public agricultural R&D staff
         in absolute numbers, 2008
■ Large variation in researcher capacity by country as well as
  growth over time
■ Small country examples: Gambia: 2 PhDs; Eritrea: 8 PhDs,
  Namibia&Rwanda: 11 PhDs; many do not have PhD programs
                          Researcher levels (in full-time equivalents)
            > 500               200 to 500            100 to 200               < 100
     Nigeria (2,062)        Mali (313)           Mauritius (158)       Botswana (97)
     Ethiopia (1,318)       Uganda (299)         Senegal (141)         Niger (93)
     Sudan (1,020)          Mozambique (263)     Zimbabwe (139)        Mauritania (74)
     Kenya (1,011)          Burkina Faso (240)   Malawi (127)          Congo, Rep. (71)
     South Africa (796)     Guinea (229)         Côte d’Ivoire (123)   Namibia (70)
     Tanzania (674)         Madagascar (212)     Eritrea (122)         Sierra Leone (67)
     Ghana (537)            Zambia (209)         Benin (115)           Togo (63)
                                                 Burundi (107)         Gabon (61)
                                                 Rwanda (104)          The Gambia (38)

                                                 preliminary data-not for citation
                                                                                           asti.cgiar.org
                         Changing R&D composition:
                       Enhanced university involvement
■ The role of the higher education sector in agricultural research
  continues to increase

                                     100
      Share of FTE resaerchers (%)




                                           15%                                        Higher education
                                                    20%                    24%
                                      80                                              Nonprofit

                                                                                      Government
                                      60


                                      40   82%      77%                    73%

                                      20


                                       0
                                           1991     2001                   2008




                                                  preliminary data-not for citation
                                                                                           asti.cgiar.org
    Changing composition 2000 to 2001:
  Increasing share of BSc and PhD holders
■ An increase in the share of researchers with BSc degrees
  (particularly in Zambia, Botswana, Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda,
  Nigeria, Ethiopia)
  100
                                                                   PhD
               29%                  30%
   80                                                              MSc

                                                                   BSc
   60

               47%                  43%
   40


   20
               24%                  27%

    0
              2001                  2008

                               preliminary data-not for citation
                                                                         asti.cgiar.org
               Changing composition:
           Aging of research staff, 2007/08
■ Staff departures and an aging pool of well-qualified
  researchers remain major areas of concern for many countries
■ Other countries have an increasingly young research staff pool,
  often trained to the BSc levels
         Senegal
                                                               < 31 y
           Kenya
     Burkina Faso                                              31-40 y
          Ghana
                                                               41-50 y
           Niger
            Togo                                               > 50 y


          Malawi
       Botswana
    Mozambique
          Zambia
         Ethiopia

                    0   20   40                60   80   100
                                  Percentage

                                                           asti.cgiar.org
   Additional capacity of degree-holders:
    Technical and research support staff
■ Not all degree-holders at research organizations are qualified
  as researchers: important additional future capacity
                                            500
                                                                                                                    Research support
                                                                                                                    with MSc&PhDs
   Full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers




                                            400                                                                     Research support
                                                                                                                    with BScs
                                                                                                                    Researchers
                                            300



                                            200
        time




                                            100



                                              0
                                                  Gambia   Mauritius   Mozambique    Senegal    South Africa -   Uganda
                                                   (15%)    (28%)        (10%)        (43%)         ARC           (26%)
                                                                                                   (18%)

                                                                                preliminary data-not for citation
                                                                                                                             asti.cgiar.org
                 Concluding remarks
■ Hope for a new dawn for African agricultural R&D as donors
  and some governments increase investments into agriculture
  and agricultural research
■ Not all countries are benefitting and overall levels remain
  low
■ The intensity of investment (measured as a share of
  agricultural R&D spending as a percentage of agricultural
  GDP) has also shown an increase since 2000




                                                          asti.cgiar.org

				
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