Docstoc

ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION OF ANCIENT AND MODERN

Document Sample
ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION OF ANCIENT AND MODERN Powered By Docstoc
					                             Economic Implications of Cultural
                                  Heritage Challenges
                                          Washington DC , 12 May 2009




  AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE
      IMPACT ON THE BUILT
      CULTURAL HERITAGE:
  PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE


                                                                        Cristina Sabbioni
                                            Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,
                                                            National Research Council, Italy
 c.sabbioni@isac.cnr.it




                                           AIR POLLUTION :
         Different materials exposed to different atmospheric conditions




                                                                             MATERIALS
                                                                        -Stone/Masonry Materials:
        PARAMETERS                                                        Marble
                                                                          Limestone
    - Gas (SO2 , NOx,..)                                                  Sandstone
    - Particles                                                           Lime mortars
                                                INTERACTION               Bricks
    - Sea salts                                                           Clay containing mat.
    - pH precipitation                                                  - Metals
    - Temperature                                                         Iron
    - Relative Humidity -                                                 Bronze
    Precipitation                                                         Copper
    - Wind                                                                Lead
                                                                          Zinc
                                                                        - Glass
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009
Building Materials in Urban Areas

Nanjing, China                            FORMATION OF BLACK CRUSTS


                                               Sulfation by SO2
                                                - limestone to gypsum
                                                - deposition of soot
                                                - rain sheltered
                                               Gypsum soluble
                                                -   Rainwashed areas
                                                    may be white

White Tower, London
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                 Washington DC, 11 May 2009




              CARBON IN THE BLACK CRUSTS


                    TC = CC + EC + OC                                   NCC

        Stone                                           Atmospheric deposition
       substrate                                        Biological weathering
                                                        Surface treatments

                             Particles emitted by
                             combustion processes
                                                                           EC Project CARAMEL




 Tracers of fix and mobile combustion emissions                    Ghedini et al., EST (2006)

C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                 Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                      CRUSTS European Monuments
                           (carbonate stone)
                                          Substrate
                         SAMPLES     CALCITE (%) GYPSUM (%) EC (%) OC (%) OTHERS (%)
                           OC prevails on
                          MILAN              3,92       76,35       1,66  0,67    17,41
                          MILAN              4,08       93,37       1,12  0,51     0,92
                            monuments in
                          MILAN              7,92       70,83       1,57  0,57    19,11
                          MILAN              6,08       76,63       1,35  0,19    15,75
                        FLORENCE             1,00       64,28       0,46  0,68    33,58
                          European towns
                        FLORENCE           16,33        51,62       0,26  0,60    31,19
    100%                FLORENCE             4,42       63,98       0,63  1,06    29,91
                          VENICE           12,08        65,79       1,34  0,62    20,17
    90%
                          VENICE             4,83       53,32       1,80  2,02    38,03
    80%                   VENICE             1,33       81,31       0,77  0,66    15,92
    70%                   VENICE             5,67       52,81       1,48  2,57    37,48
                           ROME              4,17       62,44       1,28  1,55    30,57
    60%
                           ROME              0,08       65,34       0,93  1,16    32,48
                                                              OC (%)
    50%                    ROME              6,75                    due to
                                                        24,05 EC (%)2,06  3,07    64,07
    40%                    PARIS             2,75       68,79       1,79  2,72    23,95
    30%
                         SEVILLE             8,08       50,45     urban traffic
                                                                    0,46  3,11    37,90
                         SEVILLE             6,58       53,59       0,60  2,21    37,02
    20%                  LONDON            11,33        60,12          CNR Project
                                                                    1,11  2,17    25,26
    10%                  LONDON
                         LONDON
                                           25,75
                                           17,50
                                                        42,48
                                                         9,40
                                                                       Sustainable29,39
                                                                    0,69
                                                                    0,08
                                                                          1,69
                                                                          0,67    72,35
                                                                    0,21 mobility 23,98
     0%
                         LONDON PARIS      48,75        25,45             1,61
           FLORENCE     ROME             SEVILLE  LONDON
                         LONDON              5,92       60,92       0,95  2,10    30,12
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy   Bonazza et al. Atmos. Env. (2005)        Washington DC, 11 May 2009




             CATHEDRAL OF LEARNING - Pittsburgh


    Soiling patterns on a tall
     limestone building : changes
     over 60 years                                           1960         1990
    Built in the late 1930’s
    Rapidly soiled: 1960
    1990: loss of steel industry
     meant building became
     cleaner…
    Effect of rain washing since
     1950s

    Balance EC/OC
    deposition/accumulation
    and rain re-distribution
                                                                              C.I. Davidson et al., 2000
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                          Gulf War – Effect of the Kuwait oil fires
                          in 1991 on the Iranian Cultural Heritage
                                                               Persepolis




  Spring 1991: burning of ~4.6
  million barrels of oil per day



                                                                        Bishapour
……………a complex problem……………….
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                             Washington DC, 11 May 2009




       Vulnerability of building materials is different
     depending on chemical composition and porosity
         Reactivity towards SO2 : laboratory tests
                       3000
     S tot (µg/cm 2)




                       2000


                       1000


                         0    carbonate stones   lime mortar    pozzolan mortar   cement mortar
                                   (mean)




                              Cement mortars most reactive !
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                             Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                    GYPSUM FORMATION ON CEMENT

               Atmosphere        SO2
                                 gas                             SO4=


                                          Catalysts aerosol

                                SO3=                             SO4=
                                                                         GYPSUM
                                          Catalysts material
               Cement




                                                               CALCIUM CARBONATE
               Mortar




                                                               CALCIUM ALUMINATES
                                                                CALCIUM SILICATES



C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                    Washington DC, 11 May 2009




        SECONDARY DAMAGE PRODUCTS
                                                 Gypsum + Calcium aluminate


                                                               ETTRINGITE

    3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·31H2O




            Gypsum + Calcium silicate


                            THAUMASITE

  Sabbioni et al., Atmos. Env. (2001)
                                                                 CaSiO3·CaSO4·CaCO3·15H2O
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                    Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                                      10-15 nm


 Laboratory tests                                          ETTRINGITE
                                                           FORMATION

                                                                         ETTRINGITE
 BREAKDOWN BY EXPANSION                                                  DISSOLUTION /DECOMPOSITION


                                                                                                           THAUMASITE
                                                                                                           FORMATION
                                                             Damage occurs also
                                                             if SO2 decrease                                               EC Project EDAMM


C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                                                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009




                 SECONDARY DAMAGE PRODUCTS:
            HYDRAULIC MORTARS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
                            AREA
                     100%

                     80%
     concentration




                     60%

                     40%

                     20%

                      0%
                            G3   G7             G8    G9
       SOLUBLE
                                      sam ple
       INSOLUBLE

                                                     VILLA DOMITIA, GIANNUTRI (ITALY)
                                                                                          JUPITER TEMPLE, DAMASCUS (SIRYA)




                                                                                                           100%

                                                                                                           80%
                                                                                           concentration




                                                                                                           60%

                                                                                                           40%

                                                                                                           20%

                                                                                                            0%
                                                                                                                  PTR6        PTR14a    PTR14b
                                                                                             SOLUBLE
                      MEKAWER FORTRESS (JORDAN)                                              INSOLUBLE
                                                                                                                              sam ple


                                                                              PETRA (JORDAN)
                                                                                                                         EC Project PRODOMEA

C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                                                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009
          CONTEMPORARY AIR POLLUTANTS
          AND STONE

        Sulfation of stone decline and will
         continue in the future                                           EC Project NOAH’s ARK




                                           Need to expanmd this slide…!.


                                                                      Joakim Langner

C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                               Washington DC, 11 May 2009




                               Climate change impact on
                               the built cultural heritage



                     May become a more important factor
                     a central part of the EC project NOAH’S ARK

                                  Global Climate Change Impact on Built
                                  Heritage and Cultural Landscapes
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                               Washington DC, 11 May 2009
        HOW ?
        - Selection of the critical climate parameters affecting CH
        - Data output from the General Hadley Model (HadCM3)
        relative to 1961-1990, 2010-2039 and 2070-2099
        - Data output from and the Regional Hadley Model (HadRM3)
        relative to 2070-2099
        - Scenario IPCC SRES A2
        - European window
        - Selection of materials and models of damage processes

       OUT PUTS

       Mapping of vulnerable areas in accordance with the types of
       impacts

  C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                    Washington,
                                                          Washington DC, 11 May 2009




                          Area and periods selected
          Area: European window
  HadCM3
  Latitude: 33.75W – 67.50E
  Longitude: 80.00N – 25.00N
  23 x 28 grid points

  HadRM3
  Latitude: 34W – 71E (approx.)
  Longitude: 72N – 25N (approx.)
  109 x 104 grid points



                         Periods
  – 1961-1990 : Baseline
  – 2010-2039 : Near Future
  – 2070-2099 : Far Future


   Sabbioni, CNR - - ISAC, Bologna, Italy
C. C. Sabbioni, CNRISAC, Bologna, Italy                   Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                         Methodological approach
                     CRUCIAL PARAMETERS selection for the damage on the
                                  build cultural heritage



                                   Construction of a European DATABASE




        CLIMATE MAPS production                         Further data elaboration through using
                                                               DAMAGE FUNCTIONS


     Identification of RISK                                       DAMAGE MAPS
             AREAS                                                  production



                                    RISK MAPS and MULTI-RISK
                                         MAPS production
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                        Washington,
                                                                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009




                                          DATABASE
    Monthly, Seasonal and Annual mean of the following parameters:

 TEMPERATURE DERIVED                                   WIND DERIVED PARAMETERS
 PARAMETERS                                            Wind speed
 Temperature range                                     Wind driven rain
 Freeze-thaw cycles                                    Wind speed counts
 Thermal shock                                         Wind driven sand

 WATER DERIVED PARAMETERS                              POLLUTION DERIVED PARAMETERS
 Precipitation Amount                                  SO2 air concentration
 Rain days: total number of rainy days                 HNO3 air concentration
 Extreme rain                                          O3 air concentration
 Consecutive number of rainy days                      Rain pH
 Mean Relative Humidity
 Relative Humidity range
 Relative Humidity shocks

C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                        Washington,
                                                                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                                           Maps Produced

                                          CLIMATE MAPS

                     HERITAGE CLIMATE MAPS

                                          DAMAGE MAPS

                                            RISK MAPS

                                    THEMATIC PAGES
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009




            Relative humidity cycles =75.5%
                                          (Salt crystallisation)


                                                                       Brick masonry




                                                                         2070-2099


C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                            Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                                   Salt crystallisation

                                                                                          Increase




                                                                                        Decrease




         .…will increase over the 100 years all across Europe
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                 Washington DC, 11 May 2009




                                    Surface recession
                                          1961-1990   Future scenarios of surface
                                                      recession of carbonate stone
                                                      due to precipitation and CO2
                                                      concentration change

                                                      L(µm/year) =LvR

                                          2070-2099
                                                       Central Europe, UK, Iceland,
                                                       Sandinavian Peninsula and
                                                         the northern Spain will
                                                             experience the
                                                                 highest
                                                            surface recession
                                                             (20-30 µm/year)

C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                 Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                                    Surface recession
                                          1961-1990




                                           2070-2099
                                                       General increase (> 6 µm/year)
                                                       throughout Europe, particularly
                                                       noticeable in high rainfall areas. The
                                                       change can be > 6 µm/year in
                                                       regions with recession = 20 µm/year



 Bonazza et al., STOTEN (2009)
                                                                30% increase
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                       Washington DC, 11 May 2009




                                          Thermal Stress




  The Mediterranean Basin in general will continue to experience the
  highest level of risk.
  In the near and far future thermoclastism will threaten more and more
  Central Europe.
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                       Washington DC, 11 May 2009
WATER: IMPACT ON EARTH ARCHITECTURE
                                                     Demonstrated to be the the
                                                       main wheatering agent
                                                      during the 21st century




  Annual Precipitation amount 2070-2099

       Structural damage
       Erosion
       Clay swelling
       Cracking for drying-
       wetting cycles
       Plaster dissolution
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                             Washington DC, 11 May 2009




   Cultural heritage is not mentioned among the
  indicators for the identification of mitigation and
                adaptation strategies

                Absence of cultural heritage in the
                Intergovernmental Climate Change
                       Panel Reports (IPCC)

                                          No mention
                                   IPCC Fourth Assessment Report:
                   Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and
                  Vulnerability
                   Climate Change 2007: Mitigation


C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                             Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                     POLLUTION, PARTICULARLY PARTICLES, IS A
                       MAJOR THREAT AFFECTING THE BUILT
                       CULTURAL HERITAGE IN URBAN AREAS



                  MODERN BUILDING MATERIALS, e.g. CEMENT,
                 ARE LESS DURABLE THAN ANCIENT MATERIALS
                        WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION



                      FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON
                  HISTORICAL BUILDINGS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL
                          SITES REMAIN A CHALLENGE

C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                                                              Washington DC, 11 May 2009




                                                      Some publications
   SABBIONI C., ZAPPIA G., RIONTINO C., BLANCO-VARELA M.T., AGUILERA J., PUERTAS F., VAN BALEN K., TOUMBAKARI E.E.
   Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars
   Atmospheric Environment, 35, 539-548, 2001.

   SABBIONI C.
   Mechanisms of air pollution damage to stone
   In Effects of Air Pollution on the Built Environment (Ed. P. Brimblecombe) Imperial College Press, Singapore, 2002, pp. 63-106.

   SABBIONI C., GHEDINI N., BONAZZA A.
   Organic anions damage layers on monuments and buildings
   Atmospheric Environment 37, 1261-1269, 2003.

   GHEDINI N., SABBIONI C., PANTANI M.
   Thermal analyses in cultural heritage safeguard: an application.
   Thermochimica Acta, 406, 105-113, 2003

   BONAZZA A., SABBIONI C., GHEDINI N.
   Quantitative data on carbon fractions in interpretation of black crusts and soiling on European built heritage.
   Atmospheric Environment 39, 2607-2618, 2005

   GHEDINI N., SABBIONI C., BONAZZA A., GOBBI G.
   Chemical-Thermal Quantitative Methodology for Carbon Speciation in Damage Layers on Building Surfaces.
   Environmental Science and Technology 40, 939-944, 2006

   BONAZZA A., BRIMBLECOMBE P., GROSSI C.M., SABBIONI C.
   Carbon in Black Crusts from the Tower of London.
   Environmental Science and Technology 41, 4199-4204, 2007

   BONAZZA A., SABBIONI C., GHEDINI N., HERMOSIN H., JURADO V., GONZALEZ J. M., SAIZ-JIMENEZ C.
   Did smoke from the Kuwait oil well fires affected archaeological sites and monuments of Iranian cultural heritage?
   Environmental Science and Technology 41, 2378-2386, 2007

   BONAZZA A., MESSINA P., SABBIONI C., GROSSI C.M., BRIMBLECOMBE P.
   Mapping the impact of climate change on surface recession of carbonate buildings in Europe.
   Science of the Total Environment 407, 2039-2050, 2009

   BONAZZA A., SABBIONI C., MESSINA P., GUARALDI C., DE NUNTIIS P.
   Climate change impact: Mapping thermal stress on Carrara marble in Europe
   Science of the Total Environment (in press) 2009
C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy                                                                              Washington DC, 11 May 2009
                             European ERA NET Project

              European network on Research
            Programme applied to the Protection
                of Tangible Cultural Heritage




• Coordinator : Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities ( MiBAC)
• Partnership of 14 EU Member States
• CNR is actively involved                                          Started : 1 october 2008
                                                               www.netheritage.eu

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:10/26/2012
language:English
pages:15