chapter 10 exam review

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					Chapter 10 Exam Review

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. What is the term for a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment?
           a. variation
           b. adaptation
           c. homologous structure
           d. vestigial structure
____    2. All the individuals of a species that live in a particular area are called a
           a. variation.
           b. fossil.
           c. population.
           d. group.
____    3. The remnant of an organ that had a function in an early ancestor is known as a(n)
           a. vestigial structure.
           b. analogous structure.
           c. homologous structure.
           d. fossil structure.
____    4. What observations did Charles Darwin make about finches in the Galápagos Islands?
           a. The same species of finches lived on all the islands.
           b. Different species of finches lived on different islands.
           c. Various species of finches lived on just one of the islands.
           d. Identical species of finches lived in South America.
____    5. Which scientist developed a classification system for organisms?
           a. Carolus Linnaeus
           b. Charles Darwin
           c. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
           d. Georges L.L. de Buffon

____   6. The tortoise from Abingdon Island, shown in Figure 10.1, would likely be better adapted than the Albermarle
          Island tortoise to which of the following environments?

           a.   areas with short plants and mosses
           b.   areas with no plants and sand dunes
           c.   areas with lots of taller plants
           d.   areas with only tall trees
____   7. Which theory states that floods and earthquakes have occurred often in Earth's history?
          a. uniformitarianism
          b. natural selection
          c. catastrophism
          d. artificial selection
____   8. The hind leg bones shown in the whale in Figure 10.2 are examples of

           a.   homologous structures.
           b.   analogous structures.
           c.   fossil structures.
           d.   vestigial structures.
____   9. Charles Darwin found fossils that looked like ancient versions of living species. From this evidence Darwin
          suggested that Earth was
          a. much more than 6000 years old.
          b. less than 6000 years old.
          c. only 6000 years old.
          d. about 1000 years old.
____ 10. What is the process in which humans breed organisms for certain traits?
         a. natural selection
         b. inheritance of acquired characteristics
         c. artificial selection
         d. descent without modification

____ 11. Individuals that are well adapted to their environment will survive and produce
         a. fewer mutations.
         b. more offspring.
         c. stronger genes.
         d. better traits.
____ 12. Natural selection results in change over time by acting on traits that are
         a. heritable.
         b. new.
         c. mutated.
         d. better.
____ 13. What is the study of the distribution of organisms around the world?
         a. paleontology
         b. geography
         c. geology
         d. biogeography
____ 14. Fossil evidence shows that structures considered vestigial in living organisms
         a. are not found in ancient organisms.
         b. have always been vestigial.
         c. were useful to their ancestors.
         d. do not fill gaps in the fossil record.
____ 15. Which theory ties the fields of biology and geology together?
         a. evolution
         b. uniformitarianism
         c. catastrophism
         d. gradualism
____ 16. The beak types of different Galápagos finch species are examples of
         a. analogous structures.
         b. vestigial structures.
         c. fossils.
         d. adaptations.
____ 17. All the bald eagles in an area is an example of a(n)
         a. population.
         b. fossil.
         c. species.
         d. individual.
____ 18. Charles Lyell developed a theory that states that geologic processes that shaped Earth in the past have stayed
         the same throughout time. This is the theory of
         a. uniformitarianism.
         b. evolution.
         c. catastrophism.
         d. adaptation.

____ 19. The false idea that a high-jumper who trains to become a champion will have descendants who can jump
         exceptionally high is known as the
         a. theory of uniformitarianism.
         b. principle of gradualism.
         c. process of artificial selection.
         d. inheritance of acquired characteristics.
____ 20. The variations in the features of the tortoise populations on Albemarle and Abingdon islands, shown in Figure
         10.1, are examples of

            a.   vestigial structures.
            b.   molecular fingerprinting.
            c.   acquired characteristics.
            d.   natural selection.
____ 21. The small, non-functional pelvic bones of a boa constrictor are examples of
         a. homologous structures.
         b. vestigial structures.
         c. fossil structures.
         d. analogous structures.
____ 22. In the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin saw different species of finch on different islands. This led him to
         theorize that species
         a. create their own environment.
         b. can adapt to their environment.
         c. choose their best environment.
         d. are found in many environments.
____ 23. Charles Darwin discovered fossils of huge animals that resembled modern animals. This led him to conclude
         that the age of Earth was
         a. less than 6000 years.
         b. just 1000 years.
         c. much more than 6000 years.
         d. exactly 6000 years.
____ 24. Which of the following lists the four main principles of the theory of natural selection?
         a. adaptation, inheritance of acquired characteristics, overproduction, variation
         b. adaptation, inheritance of acquired characteristics, heritability, variation
         c. adaptation, descent with modification, heritability, variation
         d. adaptation, descent with modification, overproduction, variation

____ 25. Dog breeds, such as beagles, Border collies, and German shepherds, were produced by the process of
         a. natural selection.
         b. artificial selection.
         c. descent without modification.
         d. inheritance of acquired characteristics.
____ 26. As an environment changes, and some organisms have a higher fitness than others, natural selection acts
         directly on
         a. existing variations.
         b. genetic material.
         c. acquired traits.
         d. individual organisms.
____ 27. If two species have similar DNA sequences, it would indicate that they
         a. share a common ancestor.
         b. are not closely related.
         c. will have similar fitness.
         d. have no evolutionary relationship.
____ 28. What evidence for a past evolutionary relationship can be seen in different groups of vertebrates?
         a. different features in early stages of embryos
         b. totally different protein sequences
         c. similar features in early stages of embryos
         d. no homologous structures in their anatomy
____ 29. The DNA sequences of whales and ungulates, or hooved animals, are very similar. What type of evidence of
         evolution is this?
         a. vestigial
         b. molecular
         c. embryological
         d. fossil

Short Answer

           Short Answer

      30. The forelimbs of the organisms in Figure 10.3 are examples of what type of structures?

31. What do these structures indicate about the evolution of the three organisms?

     Use the exhibit to answer the following questions.

32. Which species from Figure 10.4 has the most amino acids that are different from those of humans?

33. Which species has the most amino acids in common with humans?

34. How does the data in Figure 10.4 indicate that humans and Rhesus monkeys share the most recent common

35. Which organisms in Figure 10.4 share the most distant common ancestors? Explain.

     Short Answer

36. To which of the three structures would a dragonfly wing be analogous?

37. Which types of structures are shown in Figure 10.3?

     Use the exhibit to answer the following questions.

38. Of the vertebrates listed in Figure 10.4, which one has more hemoglobin proteins in common with humans-
    the mouse or the chicken?

39. Which two species in Figure 10.4 would you predict would have the most similar amino acid sequence to that
    of a gorilla


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