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Corporate_Plan

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									Tanzania National Parks
                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE …………………………………………………………………................................................…...........                                        i
BOARD OF TRUSTEES ……………..............................……………………………..................…….…...............                               iv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY …………………..…………………………...................................................…............                                v
ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………………...............................................……..............                                  vii

1. CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION …………………………………..............................................…...........                                1
    1.1. Background ………………………………………….………….............................................………..........                                 1
    1.2. Methodology ………………………………………...….............................................………………..........                               2
    1.3. Benefits of the CSP …………………………………………................................................………............                        3
    1.4. Outlines of the CSP …………………………………………...............................................………….........                           3
2. CHAPTER TWO: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS …………...……...................................................…….........                        4
    2.1. Recent history …………………………………….………............................................……………...........                              4
    2.2. Organization’s legal mandate …………………………................................................................................    6
    2.3. Existing Organizational Vision and Mission ………………………….........................................................             6
          2.3.1. Vision ………………………………………………..………………................................................                                  6
          2.3.2. Mission ……………………………………………………………...................................................                                 6
    2.4. Recent Initiatives and Developments ………………………….…………...................................................                     7
          2.4.1. Macro and Sectoral Initiative in Tanzania ………………………….................................................              7
          2.4.2. Review of Current Tourism Trend ………………………………...............................………..........                           9
          2.4.3. TANAPA initiatives ………………………………………...…………...........................................                              12
    2.5. SWOC Analysis (Organizational Scan) …………………………….........................................……............                    15
          2.5.1. Strength .……………………………………………………..……….................................…..........                                   15
          2.5.2. Weakness ……………………………………………………...……….............................................                                  16
          2.5.3. Opportunities ……………………………..................................……………………..………..........                                16
          2.5.4. Challenges ……………………………………………………………..............................................                                  17
          2.5.5. Problem analysis ………………………………………………………............................................                                17
    2.6. Stakeholder/Customer Analysis ………………………………….........................................………............                       20
    2.7. Critical Issues ……………………………………………….............................................…………............                           24
    2.8. Strategic Core Functions …………………………………….............................................…...……............                    26
          2.8.1. Role of Board of Trustees …………………………………..….........................................................               26
          2.8.2. Role of the Director General ………………………………............................................…..............              27
          2.8.3. Role of the Directors …………………………………………..........................................................                  27
3. CHAPTER THREE: THE PLAN ………..…………………………..............................................…...............                           29
          3.1.1. Core Values ………………………………………................................…………………….............                                  29
          3.1.2. Vision statement ………………………………………………..................................………...........                               29
          3.1.3. Mission Statement ………………………………………................................………..……............                              29
          3.1.4. Strategic Objectives ………………………………………………..................................……..........                             29
4. CHAPTER FOUR: STRATEGIES AND TARGETS …………………............................................................                        32

ANNEXURE 1: ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE …………..…………………..................................…...........                                     39
ANNEXURE 2: SUMMARY OF THE CSP ……………………………………...................................…............                                      40
BOXES, FIGURES AND TABLES
Box 1.1: Conservation …………………………………………………………………............................................                                         1
Box 2.1: Local Communities …………………………………………………...............................…………...........                                        4
Box 2.2: Stakeholders ………………………………………………………………...............................……..........                                           4
Box 2.3: Benefit Sharing …………………………………………………………..............................………..........                                          5
Table 2.1: Average growth rate (%) of International Tourists Arrivals World Wide by region, 1995-2020...............               10
Table 2.2: Tourism Trend in Tanzania 2001-2005 ………………………….................................……….................                     11
Figure 1: Number of Tourists Arrivals from 2000/01 to 2004/05 …………………...............................…...............               13
Figure 2: Revenue trend …………………………………………………………..............................……................                                     15
Table 4.1: Strategies and Targets ……………………………………………………................................…...........                                 32
Table 4.2: Strategies and Targets ……………………………………………………................................…...........                                 33
Table 4.3: Strategies and Targets …………………………………………………….................................…..........                                 34
Table 4.4: Strategies and Targets …………………………………………………................................…...............                              35
Table 4.5: Strategies and Targets ……………………………………………………................................…...........                                 36
Table 4.6: Strategies and Targets ……………………………………………………................................…...........                                 37
Table 4.7: Strategies and Targets …………………………………………………….................................…..........                                 38
                           PREFACE
        Statement of the Chairman of the Board of Trustees

                  Conservation in Tanzanian National Parks is the
                   main thrust of the organization as clearly stated by
                   law. In order to manage the parks efficiently and
                   effectively, a timely review of key strategic
                   decisions is important. During the implementation
                   of the previous Corporate Strategic Plan (CSP) of
                  2001 – 2006, the Board of Trustees embarked on
                fundamental decisions that aimed at transforming the
organization towards improved resource management and optimal
revenue generation.

The new CSP 2008/09 -2012/13 emphasizes on the organization’s
mandate, of conservation, which is in line with the National
Development Vision 2025. The vision underscores the importance of
conservation of our national heritage. The CSP also puts a special
emphasis for TANAPA on contributing to poverty reduction, as
stipulated in the National Strategy on Growth and Reduction of Poverty
(NSGRP – MKUKUTA). The Board is therefore determined to promote
tourism significantly as a mechanism of not only generating funds for
conservation purposes, but also contributing to poverty reduction. The
institution has been supporting community social projects and in this
new CSP, efforts will be made to enhance its collaboration with
adjacent communities.

The Board is aware of the turbulent economic, technological and
political environment in which the organization is operating, thus a
need for frequent review of its strategies. The Board of Trustees is
convinced that, this CSP’s vision, which is “to be the highest globally
rated institution in sustainable conservation and provision of
exceptional tourism services”, will be attained significantly within the
planned five years.Therefore, the Board of Trustees commits itself to
give the management total support to implement this CSP.


                       Mr. Modestus Lilungulu
                     Chairman, Board of Trustees
                       Arusha, February 2008


                                         i
                   Statement of the Director General

                    It has been an exciting moment for Tanzania
                    National Parks (TANAPA) to ascend to a point
                    where we have in place a new Corporate Strategic
                    Plan (2008/09 – 2012/13), which will enable the
                    organisation to attain her dream as the highest
                    globally rated organization in sustainable
                    conservation and delivery of exceptional tourism
                   services.

The readers of this third generation of the organization corporate plans,
which started back in 1997, will realise that we are determined to make
a difference in all aspects. We intend to bridge gaps that currently exist
and to adapt new ways of doing business. Additionally, we are aware of
what is taking place elsewhere in the World in relation to conservation
business. It gives us pleasure to have in place the framework for
executing the institution’s daily operations with effectiveness and
efficiency while not compromising the sustainability of our valuable
natural resources.

The identified organizational objectives to fulfill our institution’s
conservation mandate in accordance to this new CSP are:

           To ensure that the institutional capacity is developed to
           operate effectively and efficiently at all levels;
           To improve staff welfare and benefits;
           To effectively conserve the national parks biodiversity and
           their adjacent ecosystems;
           To realize the organization’s potential in income generation;
           To improve organizational partnerships with adjacent
           communities and key stakeholders in the management of
           parks and buffer zones;
           To develop and maintain infrastructure to achieve
           institutional development goals; and lastly,
           To improve management and implementation of programmes
           and plans.

These institutional objectives will definitely propel the organization
towards attainment of her core business.


                                         ii
This plan draws inputs from a workshop that was conducted from
12th-14th February 2007 at Uhuru Hostel in Moshi. The workshop was
attended by the Directors, Managers and Chief Park Wardens from all
the parks. Personally, I would like to convey my appreciation to the
Consultant, Mr. Nathaniel Rusumo and the workshop participants for
their valuable inputs. I am also thankful to the Board of Trustees for
their valuable inputs and by availing Trustee Erasmus Tarimo to work
with Mr. Sam Swai (Consultant) in Bagamoyo from 11th to 15th
February 2008. Lastly, but not least, I am grateful to the technical team
for their endless effort in drafting and finalizing this important plan
document.
My call to all stakeholders is to continue giving us material and moral
support while managing our national parks to enable TANAPA achieve
her dream of being the highest globally rated organization in her efforts
for the benefit of humanity. We can do it, let us all play our part!



                          Gerald Bigurube
                          Director General
                        Arusha, February 2008




                                        iii
                                       BOARD OF TRUSTEES




                                         Mr. Modestus Lilungulu
                                              Chairman




     Mrs Mariam Wilmore IGP Saidi A. Mwema Mr Lukonge P. Mhandagani Hajjat Mrs Zainab G. Muruke




Hon. Riziki S. Lulinda (MP)   Mr Erasmus Tarimo Hon. Lazaro Nyalandu (MP) Dr. Marcellina Chijoriga




               Prof. Bukheti Kilonzo    Mr. Gerald Bigurube   Hon. Ramadhan A. Maneno (MP)




                                                 iv
                            EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Introduction

    This CSP (2008/09-2012/13) has 7 strategic objectives (SOs),
    25 strategies and 51 targets.

    Core Values (Corporate culture)

    The organizational core values are:

              Accountable organization managing national parks
              sustainably
              Innovative and highly organized institution in providing
              high quality services
              Efficient in deploying resources to exceed customer
              expectations

e
                                   Vision Statement

                       To be the highest globally rated institution in
                          sustainable conservation and provision
                               of exceptional tourism services



                                  Mission Statement
                                Our mission is to sustainably
                            conserve and manage park resources
               and their aesthetic value, for the benefit of present and future
              generations of mankind, as well as efficiently provide high class
                               tourism products and services.


    Strategic Objectives

    The organizational objectives for the institution within the coming five
    years are:

          1. Institutional capacity to operate effectively and efficiently
             developed;


                                                   v
      2. Staff welfare and benefits improved;
      3. National parks biodiversity and their adjacent ecosystems
         effectively conserved;
      4. Organization’s potential in income generation realized;
      5. Organizational partnerships with adjacent communities and
         key stakeholders in the management of parks and buffer
         zones improved;
      6. Infrastructure to achieve institutional development goals
         developed and maintained; and lastly,
      7. Management and implementation of programmes and plans
         improved.

Expected Outcome of the CSP

It is envisaged that at the end of the five years, which is in June 2013,
the outcome will be:
            High service delivery standards
            Improvement in corporate productivity
            Increased staff morale
            Low labour turnover
            Reduced operational costs and time
            Increased visitors experience
            Increased accessibility
            Increased species richness, distribution and diversity
            More avenues for income generation
            Increase in income generation thus self sufficiency to meet
            operations
            Increase in contribution to the Treasury
            Increased presence and movement of wildlife between core
            and surrounding areas
            Improved participation and collaboration
            Reduced conflicts
            Increased rationalization of institutional resources for
            management
            Increased productivity
            Timely and appropriate decisions
            Increased level of customer satisfaction




                                        vi
                          ABBREATIONS
 AICC      Arusha International Conference Centre
  BoT      Board of Trustees
 CITES     Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species
  CSP      Corporate Strategic Plan
 DFID      Department for International Development
   EA      East Africa
  EAC      East African Community
   EU      European Union
  GIS      Geographic Information System
  GMP      General Management Plan
  GPS      Global Positioning System
  GTZ      Deutsche Gesellschsft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit
HIV/AIDS   Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency
           Syndrome
  ICT      Information and Communication Technology
 IUCN      International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
           Resources (World Conservation Union)
 JICA      Japanese International Cooperation Agency
 LAN       Local Area Network
 M&E       Monitoring and Evaluation
 MNRT      Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism
 MTEF      Medium Term Expenditure Framework
NORAD      Norwegian Agency for International Development
   POS     Point of Sales
   ROI     Return on Investments
  SWOC     Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Challenges
 TANAPA    Tanzania National Parks
TANESCO    Tanzania Electric Supply Company
  TATO     Tanzania Association of Tour Operators
   TNA     Training Needs Assessment
   TTB     Tanzania Tourist Board
 TTCL      Tanzania Telecommunication Company Limited
 UNDP      United National Development Programme
 UNEP      United Nations Environmental Programme
UNESCO     United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNWTO      United Nations World Tourism Organization
 USAID     United States Agency for International Development
  URT      United Republic of Tanzania
  WAN      Wide Area Network
 WMAs      Wildlife Management Areas


                                       vii
                 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information

The Tanganyika National Parks Ordinance CAP [412] of 1959
established the organization now known as Tanzania National Parks
(TANAPA), and Serengeti became the first National Park. In this
document, TANAPA is also referred to as “the organization or the
institution”. By February 2007, the organization has grown to
15 national parks. Conservation of eco-systems in all areas designated
as national parks is the core business of the organisation (Box 1).


                           Box 1.1: Conservation
   The term embeds protection or preservation or management and rational
                      utilization of natural resources



Nature based or wildlife tourism is the main source of income that is
ploughed back for management, regulation, and fulfilment of all
organisational mandates in the national parks.

This Corporate Strategic Plan (CSP) is a document that produces
fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what the
institution is, what it does, and why it does it. The core contents of the
CSP are:
          Vision
          Mission
          Strategic Objectives
          Strategies
          Targets

Review of the CSP

During the review of the previous CSP (2001-2006), it was revealed
that planning was participative especially at headquarters but not so at
all park levels. Also inadequate monitoring and evaluation of its
implementation was found to be the major weakness. It was further
noted that, most parks failed to link the CSP to the General
Management Plans (GMPs) of individual parks. Inadequate capacity
building of staff at all levels hampered the effective implementation of


                                         1
the CSP and other associated plans. In addition, although the Clients’
Service Charter (CSC) as a framework for customer care was
developed it has not been fully institutionalised at the corporate level.

1.2 Methodology

Based on the previous review of the CSP, there is a need for this plan
(2008/09-2012/13) to reflect corporate ideas, dynamism, and team
spirit. The main theme for this plan is: “To be the highest globally
rated institution in sustainable conservation of national parks
resources and provision of exceptional tourism products”.

This third generation of corporate strategic plans is formulated taking
into consideration the observations in section 1.1 above.

TANAPA organised a participatory planning workshop, which was held
at Uhuru Hostel, Moshi from 12th - 14th February 2007 to review and
prepare this CSP. The Director General, Directors, Managers, Chief
Park Wardens, and senior staff participated in the workshop. An
overview of the previous CSP was made through three presentations as
follows:
           A presentation on the status of the implementation of the
           2001 – 2006 CSP from the planning perspectives;
           A presentation on the status of implementation of the same
           plan from the practical field perspective; and
           A presentation on key issues emanating from the plan and
           critical review of other documents from an external
           perspective.
Participants met in small groups to discuss the reviews in relation to the
mandate of organization and later presented the same in the plenary for
consensus. The plenary integrated the reviews to produce situational
analysis and key issues relevant to the institution. These issues were
analysed to generate strategic objectives, strategies, and targets for
achieving the vision and mission of the organization.

In order for the organization to come up with a vision and mission
tagged at world-class standards, the workshop participants discussed,
among others, the following:
           The significance of the World Heritage Sites (Serengeti and
           Kilimanjaro), 7th Wonder of the current World (Serengeti


                                         2
          wildebeest migration) and Biosphere Reserves (Serengeti and
          LakeManyara) in the Tanzania National Parks system;
          The World and regional tourism trends;
          The East African Community (EAC) Treaty and the
          possibility of establishment of the East African Federation;
          and
          The world trends on principles of conservation in relation to
          Tanzania tourism.

The document was widely distributed to headquarters staff and
individual national parks for comments. The Management presented the
document to the Board of Trustees for approval. A workshop for both
operational staff, Management as well as the Board of Trustees will be
conducted to instil the commitment to implement the plan. Furthermore,
the output of the capacity-building workshop is to internalise the plan
and create ownership of the same at all levels of the
organization.

1.3 Benefits of the CSP

Upon implementation of this CSP, the following will be achieved:
         First, it will bridge gaps between what used to exist in the
         institution and what is envisaged so as to demonstrate
         alertness to change in the global business;
         Secondly, there will be readiness to offer something new,
         especially in relation to tourism development, that is to
         demonstrate insights of what is happening in the
         organization and elsewhere in the world;
         Thirdly, there will be new ways of doing organizational
         business (new culture);
         Fourthly, execution and allocation of resources as planned at
         a corporate level will be made effective.

1.4 Outline of the CSP

Chapter one provides an introduction of the previous plans,
methodology, benefits and outline. Chapter two discusses the situational
analysis of the organization and what is happening elsewhere. Chapter
three provides the plan including the core values, vision, mission and
strategic objectives. Chapter four has the strategies and targets.


                                       3
            CHAPTER TWO: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

2.1 Recent History

The institution continued with its mandate to manage and regulate use
of areas designated as national parks by regular patrols to curb
poaching against wildlife and forest products, to promote and monitor
tourism activities so as to avoid overuse of the areas. Ecological and
wildlife health monitoring were carried out. Collaboration with local
communities (Box 3) living adjacent to national parks and other
relevant stakeholders was enhanced through the outreach programme.


                           Box 2.1: Local Communities
   This terminology embraces all villages, wards, divisions and district authorities
                      sharing boarders with national parks.


Ecological changes occurring inside and outside the parks are of
consequential influence to wildlife resources in the parks. Both natural
and man made impacts were recorded and where necessary mitigated.
Climatic changes, which are resulting in extensive disturbance to
ecological processes in the parks, were closely monitored in
collaboration with both national and international institutions.

During the implementation of the previous CSP, the organization
continued to place higher priority on protection of natural resources,
park facilities and safety of visitors. The resources protection and
operations were strengthened in collaboration with surrounding
communities and other relevant stakeholders (Box 2.2).


                                 Box 2.2: Stakeholders
      The term, in its broad sense, refers to anybody with legitimate interest to
    national parks and/or is affected by its presence either negatively or positively.



The organization also provided support to village governments in
training Village Games Scouts (VGS) for the protection of
community-conserved areas. Modern equipment for anti-poaching
activities was provided to park rangers. New recruitments for park
rangers and training were conducted in order to equip them with


                                                  4
modern skills and techniques in the resource protection.

On the tourism front, the organizational goal has always been to
enhance visitor experience and enjoyment in the parks to match with
the changing and diverse demands and tastes. In order to enhance
visitor experience, the institution progressively improved its services,
facilities and infrastructure for tourists visiting the national parks.
Production of information materials indicating potential resources was
given due emphasis. Marketing programmes were carried out
aiming at luring more tourists to visit the parks.

As part of corporate social responsibility, the organization through its
Outreach Program Department continued to carry its function of
creating awareness to local communities living adjacent to parks on the
importance of conservation and benefit sharing (Box 2.3) from revenue
accrued from tourism.


                                 Box 2.3: Benefit sharing
    TANAPA contributes to the well-being of the local communities according to
  the ability of the parks. This sharing of benefits includes sharing of infrastructure
      and services, cash or in-kind contributions to local projects, and assistance
           in setting up sustainable income generating enterprises based on
                               non-park natural resources.



However, emphasis is now being put into supporting income-generating
projects such as bee-keeping, community conservation banks, poultry
and livestock keeping. Despite the above achievements, the
organization faces a number of challenges including the following:
           Poaching
           Habitat degradation
           Blockage of wildlife corridors
           Unclear demarcation of most of national parks’ boundaries
           Lack of buffer zones
           Inadequate resources (human, financial and physical)
           Inadequate business skills among communities.




                                                5
2.2 Organization’s Legal Mandate

The organization’s mandate is “to manage and regulate the use of areas
designated as National Parks by such means and measures to preserve
the country’s heritage, encompassing natural and cultural resources,
both tangible and intangible resource values”, including:
          Fauna and flora, wildlife habitat, natural processes,
          wilderness qualities, scenery therein, and
          Provide the same for human benefit and enjoyment in such
          manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired
          for future generations.

2.3 Existing Organizational Vision and Mission

2.3.1 Vision

The vision of the institution in the previous CSP was to; “Ensure
sustainable conservation of parks resources and values for the benefit
and enjoyment of the present and future generations of mankind”.

2.3.2 Mission

Likewise, in the previous CSP of 2001-2006, the mission was to,
“Sustainably conserve the Parks resources and values for the benefit of
all humankind” through:
          Protecting and regulating use of areas designated as
          National Parks;
          Selecting and recommending for gazettement areas of
          ecological, cultural and scientific significance;
          Strategically managing a national system of Parks that
          protect outstanding example of key ecosystems in
          collaboration with local communities, and
          Developing, managing and promoting tourism and other
          revenue generating activities for the benefit of all
          Tanzanians, the African continent and the World at large.




                                        6
2.4 Recent Initiatives and Developments

2.4.1 Macro and Sectoral Initiatives in Tanzania

a) Tanzania’s Development Vision 2025

During 1980’s the government realized that the past development
policies and strategies were not adequately responding to changing
market and technological conditions in the world economy. In response,
beginning mid-1986, the Government adopted various socio-economic
reforms and during their implementation, it became apparent to the
government that those socio-economic reforms were not adequately
informed by a national long-term development philosophy and
direction. Realization of this led to the formulation of the Tanzania
Development Vision.

The Vision is an articulation of a desirable future condition or situation
which Tanzania envisages to attain and the plausible course of action to
be taken for its achievement. The Vision was adopted by the
Government in 1999 and its implementation started in 2000. The
objective of the vision is to awaken, coordinate and direct the people’s
efforts, minds and national resources towards those core sectors that
will enable us to attain our development goals.

The Vision envisions that Tanzania will have the following attributes by
the year 2025:

          High quality livelihood: a nation’s development should be
          people centered based on sustainable and shared growth and
          be free from abject poverty;

          A strong and competitive economy: this emphasizes the
          need to have an economy which can effectively cope with
          the challenges of development and which can easily benefit
          from global economy;

          Good governance: this entails to strengthen a culture of
          accountability, rewarding good performance and effectively
          curbing corruption and vices in the society;



                                        7
            A well educated and learning population: this envisages a
            nation whose people are engrained with a developmental
            mindset and competitive spirit. It is driven by education and
            knowledge; and

            Peace, stability and unity: peace, political stability and
            national unity and social cohesion are important pillars for
            realization of vision. Therefore, they should continue to be
            cultivated, nurtured and sustained.

In order to attain those aspirations, determination and discipline in
planning and implementation is important. TANAPA therefore will
direct her efforts to contribute to the realization of the Vision 2025.

b) Fourth Government’s vision on conservation

The inaugural speech by His Excellence the fourth President of United
Republic of Tanzania Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete delivered on December
30th, 2005, in the parliament in Dodoma, shows clearly that the central
theme of the fourth government, [same period of this plan], is
conservation of natural resources to its original state as well as
responsible tourism development and promotion. By responsible
tourism it means, that Tanzania needs to develop the kind of tourism
that gives direct benefits to local communities adjacent to tourist
attractions while at the same time caring for the environment. This
inaugural speech by the Head of State clearly shows where Tanzania is
heading to in relation to conservation of natural resources. Strategic
objectives of this CSP have incorporated the central theme of the
President’s speech.

c) Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism’s (MNRT) vision,
mission and strategic objectives

i) Vision

Sustainable conservation of natural and cultural resources and
development of responsible tourism for all.




                                          8
ii) Mission

In order to conform to the vision, the operating mission of the Ministry
is to conserve natural and cultural resources sustainably and develop
tourism for national prosperity and for the benefit of humanity through:
           Development of appropriate policies, strategies and
           guidelines;
           Formulation of laws and regulations;
           Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of policies;
           Promotion of quality tourism business of local and global
           communities; and
           Development of human resources and institutional capacity
           building at all levels.

d) Review of Wildlife Policy (1998) and Conservation Act of 1974

Review of Wildlife Policy of 1998 and Act of 1974 reflect the critical
need for various pertinent issues for transformation of wildlife
sub-sector in Tanzania. These issues include: wildlife corridors,
national parks and game reserves buffer zones, wildlife management
areas (WMAs) and the whole concept of community based
conservation that advocates community ownership and management of
protected areas. Summation of this review is compatible with the world
and regional trends in new conservation principles and strategies.

2.4.2 Review of Current Tourism Trends

a) World and Regional Trends in Conservation Principles

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP 1990) advocates that
any development intervention whether at an international, regional or
national/local level is sustainable only if it is people centered or has
practical human inclusion in its functions. Authors Opschoor (2002)
and Mahbub (1998) also share this perspective on sustainable
development. The concept of responsible tourism, which is the popular
theme of UNWTO is in agreement with this UNDP perspective.
UNWTO supports the popular concept of responsible tourism, which is,
to conserve environment while at the same time alleviating poverty.




                                       9
b) World and Regional Tourism Trends

Comparison of growth rate of tourism in Tanzania with the world and
by region shows that, tourism growth in Tanzania grew at the rate of
10% between 1995 and 2000, while during 2000-2005 the tourism
sector grew at the rate of 9.3% . Tourism has been growing in Tanzania
at an average rate of 3.7% more than Africa as a region per annum
(Table 2.1).

Table 2.1: Average Annual Growth Rate (%) of International
Tourist Arrivals World Wide and by region, 1995-2020

      Region               1995-2000             2000-2010        2010-2020

       Africa                  6.0                   5.6              5.1
     Americas                  3.9                   3.8              3.8
East Asia/Pacific              7.7                   7.2              6.6
      Europe                   3.1                   3.1              3.1
   Middle East                 6.9                   6.7              6.5
    South Asia                 6.4                   6.2              5.8
       World                   4.2                   4.2              4.4

     Tanzania                   10                   9.3            N/A
    Difference
     Between
                               4.0                   3.7            N/A
   Tanzania and
      Africa
Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO): Tourism 2020 Vision


c) East African Community (EAC) Treaty

The central theme of East African Community (EAC) Treaty on
conservation is the same as that of UNDP and UNWTO. The treaty
puts emphasis on quality tourism and sustainable development, which
is people, centered.



                                          10
d) Tanzania’s Tourism Trend (Tourism Policy – 1999)

The central theme of Tourism Policy in Tanzania is quality tourism that
means low volume of tourists and high yield of revenue. Furthermore,
the policy has adopted the popular theme of UNWTO. However, there
are two challenges facing the practicability of this policy:
      i) Measures to mitigate the free international tourism business
           to marry national tourism planning that takes care of both
           upper, and lower markets, and
      ii) Easy implementation of the ultimate goal of the quality
           tourism policy given the current trend of statistics of tourism.
Tourism trend in Tanzania is as shown in Table 2.2 below.

Table 2.2: Tourism Trend in Tanzania 2001 - 2005

          Year           2001         2002        2003         2004           2005
   International
                       525,000       575,235    576,198      582,807      612,754
      tourists

Tourists in Hotels     501,081       535,146    552,000      562,332      568,798

Revenue (Million
                         725          730          731        746.14          822
     US $)

Average tourists         173          1591        1531         1881           1561
consumption per                       822         822          1192           1252
   day (US $)
  No. of tourist
                         329          465          469         469            476
     Hotels
 Occupancy rate
                          59           59          47           53             43
   per annum
Source: MNRT Budget speech 2006/07

      1
       . Package tourists
      2
       . Non-package tourists




                                        11
2.4.3 TANAPA Initiatives

a) Protection of Resources

Protection of resources has been improved after implementation of the
following activities:
           Deployment of more park rangers and distribution to various
           parks after training
           Acquisition of patrol and communication equipment
           Communities involvement through the intelligence services

b) Expansion of National Parks

Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru Forest Reserves formerly under the
Forestry and Beekeeping Division were successfully gazetted in 2005
and were annexed to Kilimanjaro and Arusha National Parks,
respectively. Efforts are underway to annex Usangu Game Reserve with
Ruaha National Park, making it the largest national park in Tanzania
and one of the largest in Africa. The process initiated by the
government aims at protecting the Ihefu wetland and the Great Ruaha
River with associated catchment areas and biodiversity.

c) Gazettement of New National Parks

Saadani and Kitulo National Parks were gazetted in 2005. The
gazettement of the two parks is one of the success stories of the
previous Corporate Plan (2001-2006). Two more national parks, namely
Mkomazi and Saanane, will be added to the national parks system in
the near future while the Speke Gulf will be annexed to Serengeti
National Park. There is potential for Mt. Rungwe Forest to be annexed
to Kitulo National Park.

d) Tourism Development

There has been a steady growth in nature-based tourism in national
parks. Tourist attractions were diversified to enhance visitor experience.
New products include walking safaris, canoeing, and night game drives.
Old products such as game drives, ballooning, spot fishing,
chimpanzee tracking and mountain climbing were progressively
improved. The number of resident arrivals increased from 98,509 in


                                        12
2000/01 to 215,717 in 2004/05. Similarly, international arrivals
increased from 220,910 in 2000/01 to 348,048 in 2004/05
 (see Figure 1 below).

Figure 1: Number of Tourist Arrivals from 2000/01 to 2004/05




e) Information and Communication Technology

Information and communication technology was introduced in the
organization in 2003. There is an intranet at the Head Office in Arusha.
All the parks have internet services and will be linked to Head Office.
Computerization, use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology
in the ranger force, veterinary and ecology units, and application of
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in park management is being
pursued.

Desktop publishing has taken off after training of core staff. The unit
manages and undertakes numerous activities that were formerly
contracted out. The institution will embark on comprehensive use of
wide area network (WAN) as well as local area network (LAN) to
facilitate its daily operations.

f) Investments in National Parks

In order to enhance visitor enjoyment and experience, park and tourist


                                       13
facilities were continually constructed, maintained and improved.
Tourist investments were constructed and old ones improved to meet
the demand for accommodation inside the parks. Number of flights
operated by the private sector also increased especially to northern
parks.

Construction of phase I & II of the Head Office complex in Arusha was
completed during the implementation of the previous Corporate
Strategic Plan. The complex has been named after the late First
President and Father of the Nation Mwalimu J.K. Nyerere in honour for
his pioneering work on conservation as stated in the Arusha Manifesto.

g) Management of Human Capital

The personnel were streamlined according to the organization
structure. The organization boasts of a workforce of over 1650 staff,
though still inadequate. In its desire to maintain a team of qualified and
motivated staff, training opportunities were provided, even though there
was no comprehensive training programme. Recruitment of staff and
promotions were effected to stimulate quality performance among staff
in accordance to the scheme of service.

h) Procurement of Goods and Services

Procurement of working equipment and tools was undertaken based on
the budgets and the Public Procurement Act of 2004 and its
amendments.

i) Working Environment

So far, the organization has tried to improve the working
environment in terms of remuneration and other fringe benefits such as
group-endowment insurance scheme. However, given the working
conditions in the national parks, the need for improvement of working
incentives is still pertinent.

j) Revenue Generation and Collection

Within five years, the revenue generation trend has more than doubled
(Figure 2). This trend is the basis for revenue forecast in the next five


                                        14
years. Computerization of accounts has been introduced and Points of
Sales (POS) have been installed in some selected parks to improve
revenue collection and controls.

Figure 2: Revenue Trend




2.5 SWOC Analysis (Organizational Scan)

2.5.1 Strengths
          The Organization manages some of the most important
          exceptional and diverse natural areas in the world, including
          two World Heritage Sites (Serengeti and Kilimanjaro
          National Parks) and two Biosphere Reserves (Serengeti and
          Lake Manyara National Parks) with a potential of more
          being upgraded to such international categories.
          The institution continues to manage the areas designated as
          National Parks from its own funds with minimal dependency
          on external funding.
          Strong public support and political will in conservation
          matters has assisted the organization to effectively carry out
          its mandate such that National Parks are managed at the
          highest level of protection
          The inter-disciplinary planning process, which has been
          institutionalized in the organization, is a very useful tool to
          ensure that all-important aspects are considered in
          preparation of park General Management Plans.



                                      15
2.5.2 Weaknesses
         Lack of decentralized budget system delays implementation
         of various planned tasks.
         Lack of a monitoring and evaluation unit that is responsible
         for conducting systematic assessment of implementation of
         the CSP, management plan and corporate budgets have
         denied valuable feedback.
         The institution ability to meet its mandate has been largely
         dependent on a narrow and risky revenue base of tourism.
         Insufficient communication and information technology has
         slowed decision-making process and implementation of
         plans across the organization.
         Inadequate professionals in some departments have affected
         efficiency and accountability.
         Inadequate human resource, equipment and infrastructure
         have reduced efficiency.
         Lack of a comprehensive incentive package for the staff has
         reduced motivation.
         Inadequate skills and knowledge denies creative ideas in the
         organization and proper human resource management styles.
         Inability of most parks to generate enough revenues to meet
         their operational costs.
         Slow pace in adapting management of change
         (sticking to ‘mental models’) has delayed institutional
         development.

2.5.3 Opportunities
         Growing tourism industry and diversification of tourism
         products will enhance implementation of the institution
         mandate.
         Public – private- community partnerships will enhance
         synergy.
         Political stability and support will ensure sustainability
         Favourable national policies and legislatives framework will
         improve working environment.
         International support will enhance the conservation efforts of
         the organization.
         There are potential investments to generate revenue other
         than tourism.



                                      16
2.5.4 Challenges
          Rapid human population increase in the areas adjacent to
          National Parks means increased human-wildlife conflicts and
          poaching.
          Political interventions may derail the implementation of the
          CSP.
          Lack of integrated planning with surrounding districts could
          lead to land use conflicts between stakeholders and parks.
          International terrorism.
          Disease outbreaks such as bird flu could affect tourist’s
          arrivals.
          Natural disasters may affect the tourism industry and
          conservation endeavors.

2.5.5 Problem Analysis

1. Resources

The organization is faced with limited resources in terms of human,
financial and physical resources to implement the set conservation and
development goals. Additionally, the sources of revenue are dependent
only on tourism revenues, something that is dangerous as tourism is a
fragile business. The revenue base has to be expanded to sustainably
fund conservation efforts of national parks spread in the whole country.

2. Organizational Culture

Basically, organizational culture is the personality of the organization.
Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and signs
(artifacts) of organization members and their behaviours. The concept
of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage
organization – wide change. The organization must realize that, despite
the best laid plans, organizational change must include not only
changing structures and processes, but also changing the corporate
culture as well. The institution has been operating based on the
traditional way of doing business. This situation has led to delayed
adoption of new changes especially in the use of appropriate
technology and modern conservation ethos. A new culture to do
business in the organization is wanting.



                                       17
3. Employee Competence

Core competencies are not adequately defined for all job categories and
such jobs are not periodically reviewed and designed to respond to
organizational needs so that staff are recruited with required skills and
competencies. The existing scheme of service does not lead to
achievement of staff competencies.

4. Employee Attitudes

Understandably, employees can perceive and respond to events around
them as their choice. Positive employee attitudes create positive actions
toward organizational goals. Coping with the continuous changes that
do not favour staff, leaves many people confused, fearful and
sometimes angry. As attitudes deteriorate, so do commitment, loyalty
and, most importantly, performance. Therefore it is critical to turn
passive resistance into high – energy performance by establishing
personal responsibility and accountability in the midst of change.

5. Tasks and Processes

Planned tasks in the organization are usually undertaken after
completion of bureaucratic processes that sometimes take time. Where
processes are simpler then tasks are performed effectively and
efficiently. Bureaucratic processes within the organization have
sometimes delayed and resulted into unfinished tasks.

6. People Management Styles

People are the only sustainable competitive advantage in the
organization. Many managers have not attended people management
courses that various and different management styles are practiced in
the institution. Due to lack of a unified management style, complaints
have been recorded from different personnel both from the parks and
the Head Office. The managers have paramount obligations to ensure
that all necessary resources are provided - including the employee’s
skills, information, other people, equipment, funds, authority and time.
Moreover, the focus must stay firmly on performance – with clear
standards or guidelines by which you will evaluate performance – what
you consider important and how much you expect – including ethical


                                       18
standards. It is important therefore for the management to attend
regular training on human resource management and practice the
knowledge imparted on them.

7. Organization Situation

Strategic planning must include organization’s environment because no
organization operates in a vacuum. The very definition of strategic
planning stresses the importance of focusing on the future within the
context of an ever- changing environment – the myriad of political,
economic, social, technological, demographic and legal forces that
change our world daily. Since the institution does not conduct a
situational assessment annually, there is a need to use SWOC analysis
technique to get perceptions of the organization from both internal and
external stakeholders. The results will add valuable information to
situation assessment.




                                      19
2.6 Stakeholder/Customer Analysis

There are different stakeholders and customers who affect
organizational operations in a number of ways. It is therefore important
to carry out an analysis in order to ensure that their interests and
expectations are met during the preparation of this CSP.
Stakeholder            Expectations From Expectations By             How to Engage
Group                  TANAPA By         TANAPA From
                       stakeholder       stakeholder
1. Ngorongoro          Enhanced               Enhanced               Consultative fora to
   Conservation        collaboration          collaboration          discuss issues of
   Area Authority                                                    mutual interest
2. Wildlife Division, Conservation Policies Up to date               Collaborate and
   Forestry and       appropriately         conservation Acts        cooperate in
   Beekeeping         implemented           and policies             formulating policies
   Department,
   Fisheries                                                         Exchange experiences
   Department,                                                       in conservation and
   Antiquities                                                       tourism related
   Department                                                        matters

3. Board of Trustees TANAPA capacity          Board decisions are    Board decisions are
                     improved and             in line with the CSP   in line with
                     continue to prosper                             government policies,
                     in carrying out its                             directives and the
                     mandate                                         approved CSP

4. TAWIRI, TAFIRI, Research                   Research findings      Consultative fora
   TAFORI,         opportunities availed      support
   Researchers in                             conservation
   PAs                                        activities

5. Training            National Parks         The organization gets Consultations and
   Institutions        provide students for   qualified and         feedback mechanisms
   (Mweka, Pasiansi,   the training           competent employees
   Sokoine             institutions. Parks    and consultation
   University (SUA),   continue as research   services.
   University of       grounds and provide
   Dar es salaam       field attachment
   (UDSM)              experience

6. NGOs: WWF,          Participation in       Support and            Terms and conditions
   AWF, FZS, WCS,      conservation and       complement             for collaboration
   WCST, OIKOS,        development efforts    institution
   IUCN, CITES                                conservation efforts



                                             20
7. Lusaka             Collaborative efforts Illegal trafficking of Consultative
   Agreement Task     in curbing cross        wildlife resources are planning and
   Force              boundary illegal        significantly reduced feedback mechanism
                      trafficking of wildlife
                      resources


8. Development        Support              Support and               Terms and conditions
Partners: GTZ,        provided for         complement                for collaboration
USAID, DFID,          conservation produce conservation efforts
NORAD, UNDP,          expected results
UNEP, UNESCO,
DANIDA, JICA, EU,
UNICEF
9. Local              Realize benefits from Communities          Reciprocal action
   communities        conservation          continue to use      programme
   adjacent to                              indigenous
   national parks                           knowledge and other
                                            conventional means
                                            to support
                                            conservation efforts

10. Institutional staff Improved working      Institutional staff Enforcement of
                        and living conditions enable the organiza-contractual
                                              tion to achieve her obligations and
                                              vision and mission  performance
                                                                  agreements
11. International     The Parks are          International        Collaborative
    community         conserved for the      community to         synergy
                      benefit of present and support conservation arrangements
                      future generations of efforts
                      mankind

12. Treasury          Institution is         All revenues accrued Retention scheme
                      financially self       from tourism and
                      sufficient and         other sources
                      contributes in the     ploughed back to
                      conservation and       support
                      development efforts    conservation and
                                             development of the
                                             national parks

13. Investors, Tour   Good infrastructure,   Promote parks, viable Consultative
    Operators,        safety, and amicable   investments, quality feedback fora
    Business          relations              services and conform
    Community                                to park rules and
                                             regulations




                                          21
14. TTB               Institution continues   TTB continues to          Consultative fora for
                      to improve visitor      promote National          sharing information
                      products and services   Parks locally and         and leveraging
                      in national parks       internationally           marketing efforts
15. Travel            Parks are reliable and More tourists are          Consultative fora for
agencies/airline      safe destinations      facilitated to visit the   sharing information
                                             Parks
16. TATO              Customer care and      Adherence to rules         Consultation and
                      programmes in          and regulations in the     continuous sharing of
                      services in national   parks                      information
                      parks meet visitors
                      expectations
17. AICC              Conference tourists Integration of                Agreement for
                      expectations in        conference packages        cooperation
                      national parks met     with park visits.
18. Law Enforcement Manage the national       Law enforcement           Consultative fora
    Institutions    parks in accordance       Institutions to speed
                    to the Ordinance Cap      up wildlife related
                    412 of 1959 and its       court cases
                    amendments
19. Local and Central Institution provides    Ensured conducive         Integration of
    Governments       employment,             environment in terms      corporate social
                      generates revenues      of policy and political   responsibility and
                      and conserves           will                      outreach
                      biodiversity                                      programmes into
                                                                        district development
                                                                        plans
20. Guides and        Institution continue Porters and guides           Contractual
    Porters in        to provide opportuni- offer excellent             arrangement for
    mountain parks    ties for local        services to visitors        service delivery
                      employment
21. Politicians       Institution provides    Ensured political         Consultative fora for
                      employment,             support at all levels     information sharing
                      generates revenues
                      and support
                      communities
22. Traditional      Permitted to carry     Traditional                 Consultative
    Religious Groups out traditional        knowledge to                information sharing
                     worship in the parks enhance                       promoted
                                            conservation efforts
23. Financial        Institution continue Excellent financial           Contractual
    Institutions     to use financial serv- services and                arrangement
                     ices                   consultation




                                             22
The following groups affect institutional operations negatively:
Group                      Expectations from               Expectations By
                           TANAPA by the group             TANAPA From
                                                           Stakeholders
1. Poachers                They are not arrested and       Poachers reformed through
                           desire that wildlife will       awareness
                           always be available for their   creation and support
                           use                             conservation efforts
2. Bandits                 Illegally acquired wealth       Bandits are controlled in col-
                           from tourists                   laboration with Law
                                                           Enforcement Institutions and
                                                           enhance visitors
                                                           safety and experience
3. Wildlife traffickers    Illegally acquired wealth       Incidences of illegal
                           from wildlife                   trafficking of wildlife
                                                           resources is significantly
                                                           reduced
4. Business Competitors    Maintain monopoly               Competition improves
                                                           services provided to
                                                           Institutional customers

5. Farmers and             Maintain status quo             Wildlife corridors and
   inhabitants                                             dispersal areas are opened

6. Miners                  Maintain status quo             Miners (outside the parks)
                                                           adhere to environmental
                                                           standards and procedures




                                       23
Customers Groups             Expectations from              Expectations
                             TANAPA by Customers            by TANAPA from
                                                            Customers
1. Tourists                  Value for money                Revenue generation and
                                                            continue visiting our parks
                                                            but adhere to rules and
                                                            regulations
2. Institution Employees     Better working and living      Institution staff enable the
                             conditions                     organization to achieve her
                                                            vision and mission
3. Tour operators and        Good infrastructure, safety,   Promote parks, viable
   investors, Business       and amicable relations         investments, quality services
   community,                                               and conform to park rules
   Concessionaires                                          and regulations
4. Financial Institutions    Institution continue to use    Excellent financial services
   (banks)                   financial services             and consultation
5. Service Providers (TTCL, Institution continue to use     Reliable and quality services
   TANESCO, Water and       the service providers           provided
   sewerage)
6. Media groups              Institution provides reliable Media groups support
                             and relevant information to Institution efforts by
                             the public through the media enhancing public awareness
                                                           on biodiversity conservation
7. Local Communities         Livelihoods of the adjacent    The adjacent communities
                             communities improved           become active allies in
                             through tourism ventures       conservation and
                                                            development efforts
8. General Public            Parks are conserved as         The general public supports
                             National Heritage sites for    conservation of national
                             the present and future         parks for present and future
                             generations                    generations


2.7 Critical Issues

1. Inadequate institutional capacity to operate effectively and
efficiently
            Underutilization of modern technology and equipment
            Insufficient staff training and motivation
            Inadequate staff and working equipment
            Insufficient staff and office accommodation


                                         24
          Inappropriate schemes of service and staff establishment
          High organization structure

2. Inadequate staff welfare programmes
         HIV/AIDS prevalence
         No specific training programmes on HIV/AIDS and other
         infectious diseases
         Inadequate medical staff and services
         Inadequate staff recreation facilities
         Inadequate staff education and health facilities.

3. Ineffective conservation of ecosystems in areas designated as
national parks
           Islandisation due to external pressures
           Poaching
           Human-wildlife conflicts
           Global climatic changes
           Shortage of water supply to wildlife in some parks
           Wildfires and diseases
           Inappropriate waste management

4. Organization revenue generation potential not fully realized
         Inadequate tourism development for enhancing visitor’s
         experience
         Inadequate revenue avenues and collection system
         Inadequate diversification of tourists products
         Inadequate numbers and quality of tourism investments in
         parks
         Inadequate aggressive marketing locally and internationally
         (electronic media)
         Inadequate Information Visitor Centres
         Ineffective management of external pressures

5. Passive involvement/participation of stakeholders in conservation
of parks
           Weak relations between national parks and adjacent
           communities
           Weak linkage between community development projects to
           conservation
           Inadequate benefit sharing mechanism assistance to enable


                           25
          adjacent communities to establish own initiatives.
          No investment partnerships between the organization and
          adjacent communities
          No established mechanisms for involving communities in
          conservation to enable them get user-rights
          Unfavorable coexistence between national parks and other
          stakeholders in conservation of parks

6. Inadequate infrastructure to achieve organization’s set
conservation goals
          Improperly developed access roads, airstrips and signage
          Adhoc housing programmes and constructed without
          approved standards
          Insufficient maintenance programme
          Inadequate and low quality staff housing

7. Ineffective management of programmes and plans
           Inadequate coordination in the preparation and
           implementation of programmes and plans at all levels
           Failure to link the CSP and GMPs
           Weak adherence to guidelines, procedures and rules during
           implementation of plans
           Inadequate monitoring and evaluation

2.8 Strategic Core Functions

This CSP recognizes the roles and strategic core functions of the Board
of Trustees, Director General and directors for the effective
implementation of this plan.

2.8.1 Role of Board of Trustees

To set policies and programmes for efficient and effective
management of the organization; and to provide an oversight role in the
management and approve policies in line with recommendations
provided by the management, headed by the Director General, and
relevant government organs.




                                      26
2.8.2 Role of the Director General

Provide strategic direction and visionary leadership; coordinate the
implementation of all activities of the institution in line with policies
approved by the Board of Trustees, and with the following key
functional mandates in the office:
           General management
           Ensure that the institution conserves wildlife in all
           national parks

2.8.3 Role of the Directors
   Director of Conservation and Parks Operations
          Direct security functions in the institution activities and
          make appropriate recommendations thereon to the Board of
          Trustees, Director General and managers
          Work closely with other directors and security agencies
          to ensure that wildlife is conserved, protected and managed
          properly
          Develop biodiversity research and monitoring priorities,
          collaborate with scientific and research institutions
          Direct community conservation activities in all
          national parks
          Oversee operations in the parks

   Director of Human Resources and Administration
          Provide corporate support services in the organization,
          general office administration and estates management
          Provide human recourses management services
          Develop human resources management plans, policies,
          regulations, procedures and guidelines regarding recruitment,
          training, and staff welfare
          Handling of industrial relations matters regarding labour
          disputes and disciplinary issues




                                        27
   Director of Planning and Tourism Development
          Direct preparations, reviews and implementation of general
          management plans in the organization
          Direct tourism development, marketing and customer
          services
          Direct coordination, monitoring and evaluation of
          implementation efforts


   Director of Finance
          Ensure that the financial stability of the institution is
          achieved and that appropriate controls exist to safeguard the
          assets and resources
          Ensure timely allocation of financial resources to
          user centres
          Ensure preparation of corporate budget and its
          implementation

   Chief Park Wardens
          Facilitate implementation of the CSP at parks level
          Implement the GMPs

    Other corporate support services
- Internal Audit
           Overall risk-management policy
           Carry out management audits to ensure effective utilization
           of institution’s resources
           Ensure that operations are timely accomplished within the
           budget timeframes
           Advise management on proper controls

-Legal Services
          Advise Board of Trustees and the management on all legal
          matters affecting the institution

- Corporate Communications
          To establish, maintain and project the TANAPA’s corporate
          image and identity.




                                       28
                  CHAPTER THREE: THE PLAN

3.1 Core Values

           Accountable organization managing national parks
           sustainably
           Innovative and highly organized institution in providing
           high quality services
           Efficient in deploying resources to exceed customer
           expectations

3.2. Vision Statement

To be the highest globally rated institution in sustainable conservation
and provision of exceptional tourism services.

3.3. Mission Statement

Our mission is to sustainably conserve and manage park resources and
their aesthetic values, for the benefit of present and future generations
of mankind, as well as efficiently provide high class tourism products
and services.

3.4. Strategic Objectives

SO 1: Institutional capacity to operate effectively and efficiently
fully developed

Institutional capacity building is essential in providing staff with
technical or material assistance designed to strengthen one or more
elements of organisational effectiveness. The elements of effectiveness
include good governance, management capacity, human resources,
financial resources, service delivery, external relations, and
sustainability. The goal of institutional capacity building is to
strengthen the organisation in terms of its overall sustainability. ICT
capacity within the organization is in dire need.




                                       29
SO 2: Staff welfare and benefits improved

Staff welfare is very important in ensuring wellbeing of institutional
staff. It also motivates staff and hence performance improvement. That
being the case, it is very important to ensure that staff welfare issues
are well addressed by ensuring that proper medical services to combat
HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases are provided to staff and their
families. A competitive incentive package will be developed to attract
and retain staff of required calibers, taking into account issues of
gender balance. Staff recreational, education and health facilities will
be improved in parks and Head Office.

SO 3: National Parks biodiversity and their adjacent ecosystems
effectively conserved

The organization will ensure that all ecosystems are effectively
represented in the national park system. Major issues that will be
addressed include the opening of some corridors and dispersal areas
and to reduce external pressures on parks; control illegal utilization of
natural resources, wildfires, transmission of diseases and water sources.
Other issues will include adaptive management through research and
monitoring. Investments in the parks will be regulated and EIA studies
conducted to minimize waste and pollution due to human activities.

SO 4: Organization’s potential for income generation fully realized

In order to accomplish corporate objectives the current and future
operations must be adequately financed. Therefore various strategies
need to be in place to increase and control revenue to match with
increased operational costs. The strategies should include but not
limited to broadening sources of revenue - by diversifying tourist
products, investing in tourism and non - tourism ventures and tourism
promotion. Revenue control mechanism will also be improved.

SO 5: Organizational partnerships with adjacent communities and
key stakeholders in the management of parks and buffer zone
resources improved

The organization will improve relations with the adjacent local
communities and other key stakeholders by actively contributing


                                       30
towards reduction of poverty through National Strategy for Growth and
Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA) and will encourage appropriate
benefit sharing mechanisms. Where appropriate, the institution will
initiate investment partnerships with the private sector and communities
to improve viable livelihood options. The organization will also
encourage and facilitate the establishment of WMAs outside park areas
to enable communities secure user-rights and actively participate in
conservation efforts of wildlife resources. Efforts will also be made to
minimize human – wildlife conflicts in order to improve working
relations with key stakeholders.

SO 6: Infrastructure to achieve institutional conservation
development goals developed and maintained

For the organization to achieve its conservation development goals, the
issue of quality infrastructure in national parks will be highly
considered. This is due to the fact that without proper infrastructure,
staff would not discharge their duties efficiently and effectively. During
the implementation of this CSP, the organization will set aside enough
resources for maintenance and development of access roads, airstrips,
adequate staff houses, offices, control gates and visitor information
centres.

SO 7: Mechanisms and systems for management of programmes
and plans improved

In order for the institution to achieve its objectives, it is important to
ensure that programmes and plans are well prepared and implemented.
To achieve this, the organization will strengthen the planning functions
at different levels of the organization. At the Head Office, the Planning
and Development Projects Department will be strengthened by
establishing a Monitoring and Evaluation section with a responsibility
of carrying out systematic assessment of all the programmes and plans
to ensure that the organizational objectives are met. During the
implementation of this CSP, emphasis will be placed on improving
coordination, training, monitoring and evaluation.




                                        31
        CHAPTER FOUR: STRATEGIES AND TARGETS

SO 1: Institutional capacity to operate effectively and efficiently
fully developed
Institutional capacity building is essential in providing staff with
technical or material assistance designed to strengthen one or more
elements of organisational effectiveness. The elements of effectiveness
include good governance, management capacity, human resources,
financial resources, service delivery, external relations and
sustainablity. The goal of institutional capacity building is to
strengthen the organization in terms of its overall sustainability. ICT
application is not yet fully institutionalized in the organization.

In view of the above, the institution will deploy a number of strategies
with their corresponding targets outlined in the table below:

Table 4.1: Strategies and Targets

        Strategies                                 Targets
                            1.1.1: A comprehensive training programme
1.1: Train staff
                            developed and in place by December 2008
                            1.1.2: The approved training programme
                            implemented by 80% by June 2013
                            1.1.3: 5 Directors and 26 Managers trained on
                            basic management skills by June 2009
                            1.2.1: Review and implement organization
1.2: Restructure
                            structure by December 2008
                            1.2.2: Staff establishment, scheme of service and
                            salary structure reviewed and operationalized
                            by December 2009
                            1.2.3: Staff regulations reviewed to conform with
                            Employment and Labour Relations Act, 2004 by
                            June 2009
                            1.3.1: Retooling plan developed and approved
1.3: Retool
                            by December 2008
                            1.3.2: Retooling plan implemented by 75% by
                            June 2013

                                       32
1.4: Recruit to fill        1.4.1: HR recruitment plan developed and
established posts           approved by December 2008
1.5: Develop and            1.5.1: A comprehensive ICT programme in
implement ICT               TANAPA operations fully developed by June
programme                   2009
1.6: Mainstream gender
                       1.6.1: Gender balance improved by June 2010
issues
                            1.6.2: Qualified disadvantaged candidates given
                            priority during recruitment by June 2013

SO 2: Staff welfare and benefits improved

Currently, staff welfare and benefits are not optimally met; hence there
is low staff morale in most parks. Medical services, recreational
facilities and incentive packages are areas that need improvement.

In view of the above, the organization will deploy a number of
strategies with their corresponding targets outlined in the table below:

Table 4.2: Strategies and Targets

        Strategies                                 Targets

2.1: Review
                            2.1.1: Competitive incentive/benefits package
incentive/benefits
                            developed and approved by March 2009
package

2.2: Improve social         2.2.1: Adequate medical staff and facilities
amenities                   provided to each park by 2013

                            2.2.2: Each staff children residing in parks have
                            access to nursery and primary education by June
                            2013

                            2.2.3: Each park to have functional recreational
                            centres by June 2011

2.3: Implement     2.3.1: HIV/AIDS programme developed and
HIV/AIDS programme operational by June 2009


                                       33
SO 3: National Parks biodiversity and their adjacent ecosystems
effectively conserved

Ecosystems management is a core function of the organizational
mandate. However, ecosystems are facing serious threats such as
corridors and dispersal areas shrinkage due to increased human
activities and poaching. Furthermore, biodiversity is threatened by
transmission of diseases between human – wildlife - livestock
interactions and wildfires. Water shortage is a chronic problem for
human, livestock and wildlife in most parks and adjacent areas. This
resource is continuously on the decrease.

In view of the above, the institution will deploy a number of strategies
with their corresponding targets outlined in the table below:

Table 4.3: Strategies and Targets

       Strategies                                  Targets
3.1: Make decisions        3.1.1: Research and ecological monitoring
based on researched        programme reviewed and operational by June
information                2009
                           3.1.2: Animal disease investigation and control
                           programme reviewed and operational by June
                           2009
3.2: Develop Parks         3.2.1: Key ecosystems are represented in the
System Plan                national park network by June 2013
                           3.2.2: Key wildlife corridors/dispersal areas
                           secured by June 2013
                       3.3.1: Water development and management
3.3: Develop water use
                       scheme developed and operational for 15 parks
guidelines
                       by June 2013
3.4: Improve park      3.4.1: A comprehensive law enforcement
resources protection   programme developed and operational by
system                 December 2009
                       3.4.2: National Park Ordinance reviewed in
                       accordance with the Wildlife Conservation Act
                       by June 2010
                       3.4.3: Trans- boundary collaboration mechanism
                       developed and in use by December 2008

                                       34
                           3.4.4: Participatory policy and management
                           decisions made annually

3.5: Implement waste       3.5.1: Waste management plan reviewed and
management plan            operational by June 2010


SO 4: Organization’s potential for income generation fully realized

For years, the organization main source of revenue has been dependent
on traditional tourism products. Therefore new strategies for
broadening sources of revenue are required such as diversifying tourist
products, investing in tourism and non - tourism ventures.

In view of the above, the institution will deploy a number of strategies
with their corresponding targets outlined in the table below:

Table 4.4: Strategies and Targets

        Strategies                                 Targets

4.1: Diversify and
effectively promote         4.1.1: Tourism marketing strategy reviewed and
tourism products and        implemented by June 2009
services
                            4.1.2: New tourism products developed and
                            introduced by June 2009
                            4.1.3: Collaboration with key stakeholders
                            strengthened and implemented by 2013
                            4.1.4: Develop and implement tourism
                            investment policy (to guide private investments)
                            by December 2008

4.2: Invest in tourism
                            4.2.1: Develop and implement investment
and non-tourism
                            business plan by June 2009
ventures
4.3: Improve finance        4.3.1: An effective and efficient system for
controls                    controlling income and expenditure improved
                            and operational by June 2010


                                       35
SO 5: Organizational partnerships with adjacent communities and
key stakeholders in the management of parks and buffer zone
resources improved

The organizational working relationships with adjacent local
communities and other key stakeholders are weak. The institution also
does not have a proper strategy to contribute towards reduction of
poverty through National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of
Poverty (MKUKUTA) as well as appropriate benefit sharing mecha-
nisms. Furthermore, the institution does not have effective partnerships
with the private sector and communities to improve community
livelihood options. Human – wildlife conflicts have not been properly
addressed thereby threatening working relations with key stakeholders.
In view of the above, the institution will deploy a number of strategies
with their corresponding targets outlined in the table below:

Table 4.5: Strategies and Targets
        Strategies                                 Targets
5.1: Improve working       5.1.1: Conservation education programme
relations                  reviewed and operational by December 2008
                           5.1.2: Modalities for continued dialogue with
                           local communities and other key stakeholders
                           reviewed and operationalized by December 2008
                        5.2.1: System for contribution to poverty
5.2: Contribute towards
                        reduction in adjacent communities developed
poverty reduction
                        and operational by December 2008
                           5.2.2: Benefit sharing mechanisms reviewed and
                           implemented by June 2009
                           5.3.1: Public-Private-Community Partnerships
5.3: Establish
                           guidelines developed and operational by June
partnerships
                           2009
5.4: Minimize              5.4.1: Conflict resolution mechanisms developed
human-wildlife             and operational by December 2009
conflicts
                           5.4.2: 15 national parks boundaries demarcated
                           and marked by June 2013
                           5.4.3: Problem animals control programme
                           developed and operational by June 2009

                                       36
SO 6: Infrastructure to achieve institutional conservation
development goals developed and maintained

The institution has inadequate and substandard infrastructure in most
national parks. The organization has not been setting aside enough
resources for maintenance and development of access roads, airstrips,
staff houses, offices, control gates and visitor information centres. As a
result, staff do not discharge their duties efficiently and effectively.

In view of the above, the institution will deploy a number of strategies
with their corresponding targets outlined in the table below:

Table 4.6: Strategies and Targets

        Strategies                                  Targets
                            6.1.1: A development and maintenance
6.1: Improve and            programme for road networks, airstrips, staff
develop infrastructure      housing, offices, visitor centres and control gates
                            prepared and operationalized by December 2008
6.2: Enforce EIA in
                            6.2.1: EIA and PEA guidelines reviewed and
every physical
                            operational by June 2009
development activity

SO 7: Management and implementation of programmes and plans
improved

Programmes and plans are not well implemented and managed
therefore the institution does not effectively achieve its objectives.
Weak coordination has been noted in the planning functions at different
levels of the organization, monitoring and evaluation.

In view of the above, the institution will deploy a number of strategies
with their corresponding targets outlined in the table below:




                                        37
Table 4.7: Strategies and Targets

       Strategies                                 Targets

7.1: Install performance 7.1.1: Policy guidelines for planning and imple-
management system        mentation of all programmes and plans devel-
(PMS)                    oped and operational by June 2009

                            7.1.2: Existing GMP planning guidelines are
                            updated by June 2009
                            7.1.3: 15 parks are managed according to
                            approved GMPs by June 2013

                            7.1.4: Approved CSP mid term externally
                            reviewed and evaluated by June 2011

                            7.1.5: Staff open performance appraisal system
                            introduced and institutionalized by June 2009

                            7.1.6: Local and international obligations to
                            improve resource protection met annually


7.2: Institute monitoring   7.2.1: Monitoring and Evaluation Unit established by
and evaluation              June 2009


                            7.2.2: Monitoring and Evaluation manual developed
                            and implemented by June 2009




                                       38
39
ANNEX 2: PBF- 4.1 – SUMMARY OF THE CSP

Institution Name: Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA)

Period Covered: From Financial Year 2008/09 to the Financial Year
2012/13

Mission:

Our mission is to sustainably conserve and manage park resources and
their aesthetic values, for the benefit of present and future generations
of mankind, as well as efficiently provide high class tourism products
and services.

Vision:

To be the highest globally rated institution in sustainable conservation
of national parks resources and provision of exceptional tourism
products.

Core values:

           Accountable organization managing national parks
           sustainably
           Innovative and highly organized institution in providing
           high quality services
           Efficient in deploying resources to exceed customer
           expectations




                                        40
                                           Strategy                 Target                   Functional
                 Key Performance                                                            Responsibility
  Objective
                    Indicators

                                      1.1: Train staff   1.1.1: A comprehensive         Human Resources
                                                         training programme
                   High service
 SO 1:                                                   developed and in place by
                 delivery standards
 Institutional                                           December 2008
 capacity to
                   Improvement in                        1.1.2: The approved training   Human Resources
 operate
                 corporate                               programme implemented by
 effectively
                 productivity                            80% by June 2013
 and
 efficiently                                             1.1.3: 5 Directors and 26      Human Resources
                   Reduced
 fully




41
                 operational costs                       managers trained on basic
 developed                                               management skills by June
                                                         2009

                                      1.2: Restructure   1.2.1: Review and implement    Human Resources
                                                         organization structure by
                                                         December 2008
                                                         1.2.2: Staff establishment,   Human Resources
                                                         schemes of service and salary
                                                         structure reviewed and
                                                         operational by December 2009

                                                         1.2.3: Staff regulations       Human Resources
                                                         reviewed by December 2008
                                   Strategy                 Target                   Functional
                                                                                    Responsibility
             Key Performance
 Objective
                Indicators


                               1.3: Retool      1.3.1: Retooling plan           Procurement and
                                                developed and approved by      Supplies
                                                December 2008
                                                1.3.2: Retooling plan imple- Procurement and
                                                mented by 75% by June 2013 Supplies

                               1.4: Recruit to fill 1.4.1: HR recruitment plan    Human Resources
                               established posts developed and approved by




42
                                                    December 2008
                               1.5: Develop and 1.5.1: A comprehensive ICT        ICT
                               implement ICT programme in TANAPA
                               programme            operations fully developed by
                                                    June 2009
                               1.6: Mainstream 1.6.1: Gender balance           Human Resources
                               gender issues   improved by June 2013


                                                1.6.2: Qualified disadvantaged Human Resources
                                                candidates given priority dur-
                                                ing recruitment by June 2013
                                     Strategy                 Target                    Functional
              Key Performance                                                          Responsibility
  Objective
                 Indicators

                                 2.1: Review      2.1.1: Competitive              Human Resources
                                 incentive/       remunerations, incentive/
               Increased staff   benefits package benefits package developed
 SO 2: Staff morale                               and approved by March 2009
 welfare and
 benefits      Low labour
                                 2.2: Improve     2.2.1: Adequate medical staff Administration
 improved    turnover
                                 social amenities and facilities provided to each
                                                  park by 2013




43
                                                  2.2.2: Each staff children      Administration
                                                  residing in parks have access
                                                  to nursery and primary
                                                  education by June 2013

                                                  2.2.3: Each park to have        Administration
                                                  functional recreational centres
                                                  by June 2011


                                 2.3: Implement   2.3.1: HIV/AIDS programme Administration
                                 HIV/AIDS         developed and operational by
                                 programme        June 2009
                                      Strategy                   Target                  Functional
                                                                                        Responsibility
               Key Performance
  Objective
                  Indicators


 SO 3:          Increased         3.1: Make          3.1.1: Research and ecological Ecological Monitoring
 National     species richness,    decisions based   monitoring programme
 parks        distribution and    on researched      reviewed and operational by
 biodiversity diversity           information        June 2009
 and adjacent
 ecosystems                                          3.1.2: Animal disease         Veterinary Unit
 effectively                                         invatigation and control




44
 conserved                                           programme reviewed and
                                                     operational by June 2009
                                  3.2: Develop       3.2.1: Key ecosystems are     Planning
                                  Parks System       represented in the national
                                  Plan               park network by June 2013

                                                     3.2.2: Key wildlife           Outreach
                                                     corridors/dispersal areas
                                                     secured by June 2013
                                  3.3: Develop       3.3.1: Water development and Ecological Monitoring
                                  water use          management scheme
                                  guidelines         developed and operational
                                                     for 15 parks by June 2013
                                   Strategy                 Target                    Functional
             Key Performance                                                         Responsibility
 Objective
                Indicators

                               3.4: Improve     3.4.1: A comprehensive law   Protection
                               park resources   enforcement programme
                               protection       developed and operational by
                               system           December 2009

                                                3.4.2: National Park Ordinance Legal Services
                                                reviewed and enforced by
                                                June 2010

                                                3.4.3:                        Protection




45
                                                Trans- boundary collaboration
                                                mechanism developed and in
                                                use by December 2008
                                                .4.4: Local and international   DG
                                                obligations to improve
                                                resource protection met
                                                annually

                               3.5: Implement   3.5.1: Waste management plan Planning
                               waste            reviewed and operational by
                               management       June 2010
                               plan
                                           Strategy                Target                   Functional
                 Key Performance                                                           Responsibility
  Objective
                    Indicators

 SO 4:             More avenues        4.1: Diversify  4.1.1: Tourism marketing strat- Tourism
 Organizatio     for income            and effectively egy reviewed and implement-
 n’s potential   generation            promote tourism ed by June 2009
 for income                            products and
 generation        Increase in         services
 fully           income generation                      4.1.2: New tourism products Planning
 realized        thus self                              developed and introduced by
                 sufficiency to meet                    June 2009
                 operations
                                                        4.1.3: Collaboration with key Tourism




46
                   Increase in                          stakeholders strengthened and
                 contribution to the                    implemented by 2013
                 Treasury

                                                        4.1.4: Develop and implement Planning
                                                        tourism investment policy (to
                                                        guide private investments) by
                                                        December 2008

                                       4.2: Invest in   4.2.1: Develop and implement Planning
                                       tourism and      investment business plan by
                                       non-tourism      June 2009
                                       ventures
                                          Strategy                   Target                 Functional
                  Key Performance                                                          Responsibility
   Objective
                     Indicators

                                      4.3: Improve     4.3.1: An effective and efficient Finance
                                      finance controls system for controlling income and
                                                       expenditure improved and
                                                       operational by June 2010
 SO 5:              Increased       5.1: Improve       5.1.1: Conservation education      Outreach
 Organizational   presence and      working            programme reviewed and
 partnerships     movement of       relations          operational by December 2008
 with             wildlife between                     5.1.2: Modalities for continued  Outreach
 adjacent         core and                             dialogue with local




47
 communities      surrounding areas                    communities and other key
 and key stake-                                        stakeholders reviewed and
 holders in the     Improved                           operationalized by December 2008
 management of    participation and
 parks and        collaboration       5.2: Contribute 5.2.1: System for contribution to   Outreach
 buffer zone
                                      towards poverty poverty reduction in adjacent
 resources          Reduced           reduction       communities developed and
 improved         conflicts                           operational by December 2008

                                                       5.2.2: Benefit sharing mechanisms Outreach
                                                       reviewed and implemented by
                                                       June 2009
                                  Strategy                  Target                   Functional
             Key Performance                                                        Responsibility
 Objective
                Indicators

                               5.3: Establish   5.3.1: Public-               Outreach
                               partnerships     Private-Community
                                                Partnerships guidelines
                                                developed and operational by
                                                June 2009


                               5.4: Minimize 5.4.1: Conflict resolution mech- Outreach
                               human-wildlife anisms developed and opera-
                               conflicts      tional by December 2009




48
                                                5.4.2: 15 National Parks       Protection
                                                boundaries demarcated and
                                                marked by June 2013



                                                5.4.3: Problem animals control Protection
                                                programme developed and
                                                operational June 2009
                         Key Performance           Strategy                 Target               Functional
    Objective                                                                                   Responsibility
                            Indicators
 SO 6:                 Reduced                  6.1: Improve 6.1.1: A development and           Civil
 Infrastructure to   operational costs and      and develop maintenance programme for           Engineering
 achieve             time                       infrastructure road network, airstrips, staff
 institutional         Increased                               housing, offices, visitor
 conservation        visitors                                  centres and control gates
 development         experience                                prepared and operationalized
 goals developed       Increased                               by December 2008
 and                 accessibility and use of
                                            6.2: Enforce       6.2.1: EIA and PEA               Planning
 maintained          parks                  EIA in every       guidelines reviewed and
                                            physical           operational by June 2009




49
                                            development
                                            activity
 SO 7:            Increased                 7.1: Install       7.1.1: Policy guidelines for   Planning
 Management     rationalization of          management         planning and implementation
 and            institutional resources for system             of all programmes and plans
 implementation management                                     developed and operational by
 of               Increased                                    June 2009
 programmes     productivity                                   7.1.2: Existing GMP planning   Planning
 and plans        Timely and appropriate                       guidelines are updated by June
 improved       decisions                                      2009
                  Increased level of                           7.1.3: 15 parks are managed    Planning
                customer satisfaction                          according to approved GMPs by
                                                               June 2013
                                  Strategy                Target                   Functional
             Key Performance
 Objective                                                                        Responsibility
                Indicators
                                               7.1.4: Approved CSP mid      Planning
                                               term externally reviewed and
                                               evaluated by June 2011
                                               7.1.5 Staff open performance Human Resources
                                               appraisal system introduced
                                               and institutionalized by June
                                               2009

                                               7.1.6: Participatory policy   DG
                                               and management decisions




50
                                               made annually


                               7.2: Institute 7.2.1: Monitoring and          Planning
                               monitoring and Evaluation section
                               evaluation     established by June 2009



                                               7.2.2: Monitoring and         Planning
                                               Evaluation manual
                                               developed and operational
                                               by June 2009
1

								
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