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									                Assisted Suicide

   Raffi
   Robert
   Catherine
           What is assisted suicide?
   Assisted suicide is practice of
    ending the life of an individual or
    animal in a pain free manner in so
    as to terminate suffering of the
   Assisted suicide can be done with
    or without the intervention of a
    doctor and can be administer via
    intramuscular (IM), intravenous
    (IV), or oral means.
   There are many different terms
    regarding assisted
    suicide/euthanasia. Some of these
      Passive
      Aggressive
      Euthanasia by consent
    How is assisted suicide performed?
   Assisted suicide can be accomplished
    through :
        Oral
        IV
        IM
   The following is a Dutch protocol for
    parenteral (intravenous) administration
    to obtain euthanasia:
   “Intravenous administration is the most reliable
    and rapid way to accomplish euthanasia and
    therefore can be safely recommended. A coma is
    first induced by intravenous administration of 20
    mg/kg thiopental sodium (Nesdonal) in a small
    volume (10 ml physiological saline). Then a triple
    intravenous dose of a non-depolarizing
    neuromuscular muscle relaxant is given, such as 20
    mg pancuronium dibromide (Pavulon) or 20 mg
    vecuronium bromide (Norcuron). The muscle
    relaxant should preferably be given intravenously,
    in order to ensure optimal availability. Only for
    pancuronium dibromide (Pavulon) are there
    substantial indications that the agent may also be
    given intramuscularly in a dosage of 40 mg”.
               Pros for Assisted Suicide:

   Pain
       May be too much for the
        individual to cope with
   Money
       It is expensive to be
        responsible for the
        financial burden to pay
        for hospital fees
   Choice
       It is their life, don’t they
        have a right to choose
        what to do with it?
         Cons for Assisted Suicide:
   Religious beliefs
       Viewed as sinful by
        religious organizations
   Patients state of mind
       One can argue that the
        patient may not have a
        rational state of mind to
        make decisions regarding
        their life
   Hippocratic oath
       It is prohibited in the oath
        that doctors take
               The American View
   60% of Americans
    support assisted-suicide
   Three factors that
    influence American’s
       Religion
       Ethnicity
       Gender
     History and Timeline of Assisted
   400-300 BC: The Hippocratic oath states: “To please no one will I prescribe a deadly drug nor
    give advice which may cause his death.”
   1828: outlawed in U.S
   1900’s: support grew in U.S
   1937: Legal in Switerzerland (under the condition that the person had nothing to gain)
   1939: Nazi’s euthanized mental challenged, physically deformed, or children deemed not worthy
    to live
   1977: living wills
   1990: Dr. Kevorkian assisted in helping people to commit suicide
   1990: Supreme Court allowed use of non-aggressive assisted suicide.
   1993: Netherlands allowed doctor-assisted suicide
   1994: Oregon allowed doctor-assisted suicide
   1995: Australia approved assisted suicide bill, but it was overturned 2 years later
   1997: Supreme court allowed the same
   1999: Texas allowed non-aggressive assisted suicide
   2001: The Bush administration failed to stop Oregon
   2002: Belgium allowed doctor-assisted suicide
   Most recently, the case of Terri Schiavo
                  Who is this?
   Does anyone recognize
    this seemingly young
    healthy women?
Does anyone recognize this women?
   The two women are both
    Terri Schiavo at different
    points in the same lifetime.
   In the previous picture, Terri
    was young and healthy.
    Whereas in this picture, one
    can see that she has a health
   Today we will discuss Terri
    Schiavo as our case study.
       Background of Terri Schiavo
   Theresa Marie “Terri” Schiavo, a resident of
    St. Petersburg, Fl, was born December 3,
    1963 and died March 31, 2005 at the age of
   Collapsed in home
   Diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative
    state (PVS) and hospitalized for 15 years.
   In 1998, her husband and legal guardian
    Michael Schiavo, asked the courts to remove
    her feeding tube.
   Her parents, Robert and Mary Schindler,
   The battle between Terri’s husband and
    parents went on for seven years
   Laws were passed by Florida Legislature and
    the US Congress that were against the
    removal of Terri’s feeding tube.
   These laws were overturned by the Supreme
   By 2005, five law suits, 14 appeals, various
    motions, petitions, and hearings were
    conducted as well as federal involvement in
    the case
                       What happened?
   Terri found collapsed in home
   Taken to hospital
   Brain was deprived of oxygen,
   Terri suffered severe permanent brain
    damage that left her in a PVS.
   The actual cause of her cardiac arrest
    was never determined
       Some theories include:
             Imbalance of electrolytes
             Eating disorder
   Husband filed a law suit against Terri’s
    doctor for misdiagnosing her bulimia
   He won $1 million dollars
   Terri stayed in a coma for almost three
    months, but eventually came out of it
    and was able to regain a normal sleep-
    wake cycle
   Had a feeding tube placed
   Many neurologists that examined Terri
    had diagnosed her with PVS and had
    little hopes for a recovery.
   Terri was placed in College Park
    facility in September
    That November, Terri underwent
    an experimental brain operation
   Surgery was considered
   Michael took his wife back to Fl
   From 1991 to 1994, Terri received
    speech and occupational therapy at
    the Sable Palms Skilled Care facility
   Her husband studied and became
    an ER nurse and a respiratory
   Terri was moved to and from many
    care facilities in hopes of recovery,
    however after years of various
    unsuccessful medical treatments, in
    1994 Michael signed a “Do Not
    Resuscitate” order.
                       Conflict: 1998-2002
   For five years, Michael and Terri’s parents
    battled via courtrooms
   Initially, the battle was about removing life
    support for ulterior motives
   Terri’s parents did not want their daughter
    to die of dehydration
   Michael argued that Terri did not want to
    live with no hope of improvement
   In 2000, Judge Greer granted Michaels
    request to remove life support
   Terri’s parents then questioned Michaels
   Again, the court denied the challenge of
   Now, Terri’s parents challenged Terri’s
    diagnosis, stating that she was not in PVS
    but rather a minimally conscious state
    because she was responsive and aware
   They argued that Terri laughed, cried,
    moved and attempted to talk
   After many doctors reviewed Terri’s CAT
    scan and EEG, and the majority determined
    that she was indeed in a PVS.
                    Conflict: 2003-2005
   Publicity grew
   Her parents asked the courts to
    postpone removing the feeding tube
   October 15, 2003 Terri’s feeding tube
    was removed
   Terri’s law was passed by Governor
   Terri was moved to Mortan Plant
    Rehabilitation Hospital where her
    feeding tube was put in again
   In 2004, Terri’s law was found
   In 2005, Terri’s parents again asked the
    courts to postpone the removal of
    feeding tube
   It was removed again on March 18,
    2005 for a third time.
   The federal government was even
    involved “Palm Sunday Compromise”
   Terri received the sacrament of the
    anointing of the sick
   Terri died March 31, 2005
   After her autopsy, Terri’s cause of
    death was undetermined
   Terri never suffered a heart attack
   She was otherwise considered
   There was no indication of an
    eating disorder
   No signs of abuse
   Terri was cremated and buried by
    her husband
   Her parents were not present
                Now its up to you…

   Who should make the decision?
   Is what is legal always moral?
   Imagine how Terri felt?
   Imagine how her husband and family felt?
   Imagine how the judge felt?
   What is the right thing to do?
           Before You Decide…
   The Pros and Cons of Assisted Suicide must be
   To make an informed decision on any subject matter
    both sides of the spectrum must be established…
      Assisted Suicide……Good!?
   Briefly mentioned before
    were the pros of assisted
    suicide. Yes… the good
   What?
   How?
    Hard to believe? Well
    believe it!
             Pros Of Assisted Suicide
   Tremendous pain and suffering of patients can be saved.
   The right to die should be a fundamental freedom of each person.
   Patients can die with dignity rather than have the illness reduce them to a shell of their
    former selves.
   Health care costs can be reduced, which would save estates and lower insurance
   Nurse and doctor time can be freed up to work on savable patients.
   Prevention of suicide is a violation of religious freedom.
   Pain and anguish of the patient's family and friends can be lessened, and they can say
    their final goodbyes.
   Reasonable laws can be constructed which prevent abuse and still protect the value of
    human life.
   Vital organs can be saved, allowing doctors to save the lives of others.
   Without physician assistance, people may commit suicide in a messy, horrifying, and
    traumatic way.
            Pain and Suffering
   Nobody likes pain and suffering, whether it be emotional
    or spiritual. The physical aspect is no different.
   Tremendous pain and suffering of patients can be saved.
    Numerous ailments such as certain types of cancer result in
    a slow, agonizing death. Doctors have enough knowledge
    and experience to know when a patient's days are
    numbered. What purpose would it serve to suffer endlessly
    until the body finally gives out?
   Imagine what it would be like to spend six months
    vomiting, coughing, enduring pain spasms, losing control
    of excretory functions, etc. Then you must consider the
    psychological suffering; i.e. the knowledge that a patient
    knows he's definitely going to die and the pain is only
    going to get worse. Wouldn't it be more humane to give
    the patient the option to say when he's had enough?
The Right To Die
          Nowhere in the constitution does
           it state or imply that the
           government has the right to keep
           a person from committing
          After all, if the patient and the
           family agree it's what they want
           to do, who's business is it
           anyway? Who else is it going to
           hurt? In a country that's
           supposedly free, this should be a
           fundamental right.
             To Die with Dignity

   Quitting while your ahead…
   Dying patients sometimes lose all ability to take care of themselves.
    Vomit, drool, urine, feces, and other indignities must be attended to by
    nursing assistants. Alzheimer's patients suffer from progressively worse
    dementia that causes memory loss and incoherent rambling. Virtually all
    people want others' last memory of them to be how they once were, not
    what they ended up being.
   For example, Ronald Reagan died of Alzheimer's. He and his family
    would like people to remember the brave man that stared down the
    Soviets, told Gorbachev to "Tear down this wall", and as the "The Great
    Communicator", provided historic leadership. Other patients and
    families have the same wishes for themselves. We should let people die
    with their dignity, pride, and self-worth intact.

   Look at Terri Schiavo… How should she be remembered?
-With Happiness-
   Like This?
-With Pity-
Like This?
      Mo’ Money, Mo’ Problems…

   It’s all about the Benjamin's…
   Health care costs can be reduced, which would save money and lower insurance
    premiums. Most people who pay regular premiums on health care have noticed a
    major increase in costs over the last decade. Some workers around the country are
    going on strike simply to protest the increase in health care costs. We regularly
    debate how to provide cheaper prescription drugs, care for the uninsured, and fight
    the skyrocketing costs. Anything we can do to reduce that burden helps. Consider
    the huge cost of keeping a dying patient alive for several months. You must pay for
    x-rays, lab tests, drugs, hospital overhead, medical staff salaries, etc. It is not unheard
    of for medical costs to equal $50,000-100,000 to keep some patients alive.
   We have to ask ourselves, is this the best way to spend our money when the patient
    himself would like to die? Wouldn't the money be better spent on the patients that
    can be saved? You also have to consider the drag on a dying patient's estate. Most
    people want to be able to leave their children and grandchildren with something
    when they die. Medical costs eat into that savings. It's totally unreasonable to pour
    this kind of money into patients that just want to end their suffering.
          Paging Doctor Jones…

   You’re the victim of a stabbing sitting in the waiting room
    of a hospital loosing blood like its your job….
   Nurse and doctor time can be freed up to work on savable
    patients. We face a critical shortage of medical staff in this
    country, especially nurses. Recent studies have confirmed
    the obvious--that understaffed hospitals make more
    mistakes and provide lesser quality care. And things are
    only going to get worse as the baby boom generation gets
    older and life spans increase.
   We have to ask ourselves if attending to dying patients
    (who want to die immediately) is the best use of medical
    staff time. Think of how many lives we can save if that
    nurse & doctor time is freed up. Think of how much the
    quality of care would increase.
        And The Religious Aspect?
   It’s another freedom issue…
   Prevention of suicide is a violation
    of religious freedom. A significant
    part of religious beliefs involves
    what happens in the afterlife. By
    preventing suicide, the government
    is imposing its religious belief that
    suicide is a sin. No one knows for
    sure what happens after we die; it
    should be up to the individual to
    determine what he or she believes.
    The government cannot legislate
                  Family Matters
   The final let go…
   Pain and anguish of the patient's family and friends can
    be lessened, and they can say their final goodbyes.
    Friends and family of the patient often suffer as much
    or more pain as the patient himself. It's difficult to see a
    loved one in such anguish for so long.
   It's emotional and physically draining to have the stress
    drawn out for so long. And when the patient does
    eventually die, it's often sudden or it follows a period
    when the patient has lost consciousness. Doctor-
    assisted suicide would give the patient a chance to say
    his final goodbyes and end his life with dignity.
             Let’s Make a Deal…

   A lawful Death…
   Reasonable laws can be constructed which prevent abuse and still
    protect the value of human life. Opponents of a doctor-assisted
    suicide law often cite the potential for doctor abuse. However, recent
    Oregon and UK laws show that you can craft reasonable laws that
    prevent abuse and still protect the value of human life.
   For example, you can require the approval of two doctors plus a
    psychologist (who verifies the patient has the capacity to make the
    right decision). You can proscribe waiting periods, get the additional
    sign-off of family members, and limit the procedures to certain
    illnesses. States should have the rights to pass laws that take into
    account the values and wishes of the people of that state.
                 Mind If I Take That?
   Well you won’t be needing this
   Vital organs can be saved, allowing
    doctors to save the lives of others. We
    have long waiting lists for hearts,
    kidneys, livers, and other organs that
    are necessary to save the lives of
    people who can be saved. Doctor-
    assisted suicide allows physicians to
    preserve vital organs that can be
    donated to others (assuming the
    patients are organ donors). However, if
    certain diseases are allowed to run their
    full course, the organs may weaken or
    cease to function altogether.
   Once again, we have to put the needs
    of the living ahead of the needs of the
           Grandma… You home?
   It’s just like in the movies…
   Without physician assistance, people may commit suicide in a
    messy, horrifying, and traumatic way. A common myth is that
    teenagers have the highest rate of suicide. However, in actuality,
    the elderly have by far the highest rate. Older Americans often
    see nothing ahead of them but loneliness and pain. So if these
    people are going to commit suicide, which is better - controlled,
    compassionate doctor-assisted suicide or clumsy attempts like
    taking sleeping pills, jumping off a building, or firing a bullet
    into one's head?
   If you were a family member, which would be more traumatic--
    saying goodbye to a loved one at the hospital or coming home
    to see his/her head and brains splattered against the wall from a
    bullet? Unfortunately, if people truly want to die, nothing is
    going to stop them. If that is the case, let's be humane and
    orderly about it.
           Show Of Hands

After being aware of some the pros of assisted
  suicide…How Many Would You Agree With?

- Don’t Agree with any of them Rob…
- Agreed with about 1-3 of them?
- Agreed with about 4-8 of them?
-Agreed with all (Sign me up for Assisted Suicide!)
     Weighing Out the Negatives
   Assisted suicide might seem ok in some cases but
    not all.
   Terri Schiavo was not in great pain.
   She was not given the right to take away her own
   She was stripped of her life without a say.
    She Was Not in Atrocious Pain
   Unlike most cases of
    assisted suicide, Terri did
    not wake up everyday in
   She was not suffering
    from a terminal illness.
   It was not as if she felt
    that she could not go on
    living her life.
   She was surrounded by
    people who loved and
    cared for her.
         Terri Did Not Make a Choice

   Terri’s case does not come to simply assisted
   Terri could not voice her opinion, the choice
    was made for her.
   She lay helpless as she watched the battle for her
    life play out right in front of her.
         The Choice Goes Against
               Who She is

   Terri was a devout Catholic, and assisted suicide
    or any other method of suicide is greatly looked
    down on and not allowed in the Catholic church
   Assisted suicide goes against what Terri stood
    for all her life.
   She should still be allowed to practice religion
    even if she can’t voice her opinion.
        Doctors Believed She Would
             Have Improved
   Terri was showing
   She went from
     Being in a coma to:
     Opening her eyes

     Responding to light
     Responding to verbal
     Showing emotion
    Terri Was Not in A Vegetative
   A persistent vegetative state
    (PVS) is defined as a condition
    which patients with severe brain
    damage whose coma has
    progressed to a state of
    wakefulness without detectable
   Many doctors signed a medical
    affidavit stating that Terri was
    not in a PVS and that Terri
    would have greatly benefited
    from the rehab she was denied
    in 1991.
Videos Captured Her Emotional
   The videos you are about to watch show how
    Terri was responsive to verbal commands, light
    stimuli, and exposes you to her emotional side.
   Terri was often found smiling and laughing
    when accompanied by loved ones.
            Terri’s Case Was Murder
   Terri’s husband was after
    the money.
   He did not want to stick
    by her through the rehab
    and stay positive for
   Rather he gave it up to
    the government to
    decided as he went
    around suing doctors to
    make more money for
    his new family.
     The Family’s Life After Death

   Terri’s family experienced
    true pain after the
    government “helped” by
    taking away Terri’s life
   Her family has been
    constantly reminded of their
    painful loss
   Today her siblings travel to
    schools and organizations to
    spread awareness to ensure
    something like Terri’s case
    never happens again.
                  The Right to Live
   Everyone has the right to live
   “The United States Declaration of Independence declares life to
    be one of the unalienable rights, implying that all persons have
    the right to live and/or exist. The Declaration of Independence
    continues that a government has the obligation to secure the
    unalienable rights of its people. When a government no longer
    respects this fundamental reason for its existence, it is the ‘right’
    and ‘duty’ of the people to overthrow it.”
   Life should always receive the benefit of the doubt
   Terri should not have lost this right
           It Only Takes a Crack
   An amendment to a law only makes it weaker.
   It brings up issues such as what calls for assisted
    suicide and what doesn’t.
   When is it ok to die?
   What amount of pain is too much?
   How do you measure pain?
   How does the government enforce these laws?
         Cons To Assisted Suicide
   Violation of the Hippocratic
   Degrading the value of
    human life
   Religions prohibits it
   Influenced to give up to
   Insurance companies may
    influence doctors to give up
    to save money
   Too much power given to
Controversial issue arises regarding legislation
                   and policy.
Should elected officials get involved in personal
health issues or should it remain within familial
 How do you designate someone to make a life
     or death decision for another person?
   Human Dignity Act
   Missouri Legislation Bills
   The Alabama Starvation and Dehydration
    Prevention Act
   Two Missouri legislators propose
        award custody of patients
        take over patient care
   The two bills made sure that care would not be withheld from a patient
    without written statement expressing the patients authority to do so:
        First bill
             Offered by Republican Senator John Louden
             Patient without living will, and in vegetative state, custody would be awarded, by the
              state to a guardian willing to continue care
        The second bill
             Offered after Schiavo’s death
             by Republican Representative Cynthia Davis
             Stated: patients without a living will, would be the responsibility of the state for care,
              and no one would be granted custody
        The Alabama Starvation and
        Dehydration Prevention Act
   Provides the physicians would be responsible to
    provide that nutrition and hydration to all persons who
    are legally incapable of making health care decisions
   forbid the removal of a feeding tube without express
    written instructions from the patient
   would provide for civil remedies for violations
   Following Greer's order to remove the feeding tube
    Republicans in the US Congress subpoenaed both Michael and Terri Schiavo
    to testify at a congressional hearing- to postpone feeding tube removal
   It is contempt of Congress to prevent or discourage congressional witnesses
    from testifying
   Greer told congressional attorneys, "I have had no cogent reason why the
    (congressional) committee should intervene."
   Congressmen Bill Frist, Rick Santorum, and Tom DeLay asked Congress to
    sanction Greer on charges of contempt of Congress
   Congress did not take action against Greer.
   formally known as the Act for the relief of the parents of Theresa Marie
    Act of Congress allowing the case to be moved to federal court
    The name "Palm Sunday Compromise" means mix of religion and politics
   All of the federal petitions and appeals of Schiavo's parents to maintain her
    life support were denied
   Government involvement included
        US government
        Florida government
             State level
             Federal level
   Result
        No government involvement could stop the removal of the feeding tube
               Pro- Michael Schiavo
   Other groups and individuals, including the
    American Civil Liberties Union as well as many
    Democratic and several Republican legislators,
    have expressed support for the position of
    Michael Schiavo

                Pro- Schiavo’s Parents
   Vatican officials, President Bush, Florida
    Governor Jeb Bush, many Republicans, and
    several democrats in the Florida Legislature and               Protests that Occurred
    U.S. Congress sided with Schiavo’s parents
   On the day Schiavo died, House Majority Leader
    Tom Delay criticized the legal system and said,          Man was arrested for making murder plots
    "The time will come for the men responsible [the         against Michael Schiavo and Judge George.
    judges] for this to answer for their behavior." He      In another case Michael Mitchell attempted to
    also threatened to impeach the judges who refused        rob a Florida gun store as part of an effort to
    to intervene on Schiavo's behalf. "We will look at       "rescue Terri Schiavo."
    an unaccountable, arrogant, out-of-control              47 protesters, were arrested outside the hospice
    judiciary that thumbed their nose at Congress and        where Schiavo was located.
    the president," DeLay said
 The different groups draw differing
  conclusions from the Terri Schiavo
 Conservatives and disabled
                             case Liberals believe:
    rights group believe:                    This should have been a
        it is a landmark case                private affair
         nutrition and hydration were       The Schindlers interfered with
         denied to a person ultimately        Michael Schiavo’s legal
         not in risk of death                 guardianship
        Terri was also deprived of her      They also interfered with
         right to life.                       Terri’s privacy
   They advocate:                           Believe that the judicial system
                                              be better protected from the
        that greater protection from         other branches of government
         guardians be given to patients       in their decisions
Not Dead Yet- Opinion on the
       Schiavo story
       Most of what people assumed to be true about the case
        turns out to be false.
       there was no evidence of bulimia
       from her cardiac arrest in 1990 to her death in 2005, no
        one subjected Ms. Schiavo to a PET scan or a MRI, the
        diagnosis of persistent vegetative state (PVS) given her is
        purely a clinical diagnosis produced by observation
       there was no formal re-evaluation after a new clinical
        diagnosis, minimally conscious state, entered medical
        circulation in 2002
       neurologists disagreed about her. In the final three years,
        the diagnosis of PVS (and not minimally conscious) was
        not unanimously accepted among neurologists
       she was not dying. While Ms. Schiavo's brain was
        severely damaged from the 1990 lack of oxygen, her
        other organs functioned well, she never was "brain dead,"
        "terminal," "comatose," "on a ventilator," or "on life
       hers was never a "right-to-die" case, Ms. Schiavo made
        neither "living will" nor directive about what she would
        have wanted, without a directive, her case could never
        have been about a "right to die"
       Judge George Greer ruled on the basis of two casual
        statements she made, one to the wife of Michael
        Schiavo's brother while the two were watching a movie,
        the other to Michael Schiavo's brother while tending his
        dying grandmother
    Terri Schiavo - The Legislative Aftermath,
     Center for Practical Bioethics Statement
   The Terri Schiavo case is prompting a review of longstanding law and policy
    concerning end-of-life decision-making
        Lawmakers and policy leaders should affirm the constitutional right for adults with decision-
         making capacity to choose or refuse any medical treatment or surgical intervention, make an
         advance directive, and choose an agent to speak for them should they become unable to
         speak for themselves.
        Legislative and policy barriers to this constitutional right should be removed.
        Policymakers and opinion leaders must find ways to make advance directives
        With medical advances the medical choices will become increasingly more difficult
        Treatment choices should:
              remain private
              Decided by designated surrogates
              With advice from medical professionals
    A Culture of Life or a Culture of
   The problem with politics bringing          Comments From the Public
    things out into “full view” is that it           I've told my wife I never want to be starved.
                                                      There's a real difference between ordinary
    often obscures that view with                     means and extraordinary means, even if it's
    smoke                                             missing in Florida Law.
                                                     I believe Terri would NOT want to be
                                                      starved to death; though she made
                                                      statements that she didn't want to be hooked
   if this case has prompted a marked                to a machine
    increase in the number of people
    specifying when they do not want                 Terri'sexecution           is certainly harming
                                                      her innocent parents, and society, and the
    heroic measures used to extend                    "pro-life" culture. I believe the reason the
    their biological life                             pro-abortion-type folks are so intent on
                                                      executing her is to cause this harm; to win
                                                      this battle in the culture war
   By doing this did the Bush
    administration retard the culture of
Terri Schiavo: death march- disabled
          people speak up
                                                   "I don't believe anyone can know for
                                                    absolute certain that Terri couldn't feel
                                                    "Lots of people at the protest have
                                                    come out of comas and have said they
                                                    felt pain and knew what was going on
                                                    around them. So who should we trust
                                                    here - doctors or disabled people?"
                                                   Protesters carried were those that read:
                                                    "Save Terri, save yourself"; "Who's
                                                    next?"; and "Food and water isn't
 "I'm a disabled person, and I'm never              urgent medical treatment"
     going to get better, any more than
     Terri was. But non-disabled people
     get our lives so wrong. Who is to say
     her life wasn't worthwhile? I believe in
     life - full stop." – Alan Holdsworth
     (disabled British campaigner )
   ABC News Polls                                        Christian Defense Coalition
       70% of Americans believed that Schiavo's               44% said the tube should remain in place
        death should not be a federal matter, and              when asked “when there is conflicting evidence on
        were opposed to the legislation transferring            whether or not a patient would want to be on a
        the case to federal court                               feeding tube, should elected officials order that a
                                                                feeding tube be removed or should they order that it
        When ABC said "Terri suffered brain                    remain in place?" – 13% said the tube should be
        damage and has been on life support for 15              removed
        years. Doctors say she has no consciousness            when asked, “if a person becomes incapacitated and
        and her condition is irreversible," 63% said            has no written statement that expresses his or her
        that they support the removal of Schiavo's              wishes regarding health care, should the law
        feeding tube                                            presume that the person wants to live, even if the
                                                                person is receiving food and water through a tube?"
       67% agreed with the statement that "elected             -44% said the person should be allowed to live
        officials trying to keep Schiavo alive are
        doing so more for political advantage than        CBS News Polls
        out of concern for her or for the principles           showed that 82% of respondents believed Congress
        involved."                                              and the President should stay out of the matter
                                                               74% thought it was "all about politics"
                                                               13% thought Congress acted out of concern for
   References
   http://www.bartleby.com/65/eu/euthanas.html
   http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/euthanasia-voluntary/ An overview of voluntary euthanasia
   http://www.euthanasia.com/historyeuthanasia.html
   Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health
   Utilitarianism
   Hippocratic Oath
   "Terminally ill patients often fear being a burden to others and may feel they ought to request euthanasia to relieve their relatives from distress." letter to the editor of the
    Financial Times by Dr David Jeffrey, published 11 Jan 2003.
   "If euthanasia became socially acceptable, the sick would no longer be able to trust either doctors or their relatives: many of those earnestly counselling a painless, 'dignified' death
    would be doing so mainly on financial grounds. Euthanasia would become a euphemism for assisted murder." FT WEEKEND - THE FRONT LINE: Don't take liberties with the
    right to die by Michael Prowse, Financial Times, 4th Jan 2003
   Burdette, Amy M; Hill, Terrence D; Moulton, Benjamin E. Religion and Attitudes toward Physician-Assisted Suicide and Terminal Palliative Care. Journal for the Scientific Study
    of Religion, 2005, 44, 1, Mar, 79-93.
   Thanissaro Bhikkhu, "Buddhist Monastic Code I: Chapter 4"
   Werth Jr., James L.; Blevins, Dean; Toussaint, Karine L.; Durham, Martha R. The influence of cultural diversity on end-of-life care and decisions. The American Behavioral
    Scientist; Oct 2002; 46, 2; pg 204-219.
   Jennings, Patricia K.,Talley, Clarence R.. A Good Death?: White Privilege and Public Opinion. Race, Gender, & Class. New Orleans: Jul 31, 2003. Vol. 10, Iss. 3; pg. 42.
   Werth Jr., James L.; Blevins, Dean; Toussaint, Karine L.; Durham, Martha R. The influence of cultural diversity on end-of-life care and decisions. The American Behavioral
    Scientist; Oct 2002; 46, 2; pg 204-219
   Jennings, Patricia K.,Talley, Clarence R.. A Good Death?: White Privilege and Public Opinion. Race, Gender, & Class. New Orleans: Jul 31, 2003. Vol. 10, Iss. 3; pg. 42.
   Moore, D. (2005 May 17). “Three in Four Americans Support Euthanasia.” The Gallup Organization.
   Jennings, Patricia K.,Talley, Clarence R.. A Good Death?: White Privilege and Public Opinion. Race, Gender, & Class. New Orleans: Jul 31, 2003. Vol. 10, Iss. 3; pg. 42. the
    public opinion
   Carroll, Joseph (2006, June 19). Public Continues to Support Right-to-Die for Terminally Ill Patients. Retrieved on January 16, 2007, from The Gallup Poll Web site: Please note
    this was a push poll in where the questions were much broader than just the support of euthansia and to conclude overall support is a mischaracterization. The poll is not a good
    indicator of the support for euthanasia but instead an indicator for an agenda driven result to show support for euthanasia
   discussion of euthanasia on the site of the Dutch ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports
   Carlo Giovanardi (Italian government minister for parliamentary affairs) compared euthanasia laws in the Netherlands to the policies of Adolf Hitler. EUROPE: Prodi seizes
    on 'boiled babies' claim, by Tony Barber, Financial Times, 30 March 2006.
   Observer - Europe, 23 March 2006, www.ft.com.
   Templeton, Sarah-Kate. "Doctors: let us kill disabled babies". Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
   Seale C. Characteristics of end-of-life decisions: survey of UK medical practitioners. Palliative Medicine 2006; 20(7): 653-9.
   Survey. Association of Palliative Medicine, 2006.
   http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/01/10/1041990085855.html
   http://www.wweek.com/html/euthanasics.html
   http://www.nzherald.co.nz/search/story.cfm?storyid=0002EB73-8358-1464-B02B83027AF1010E
   http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200704/s1889400.htm
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terri_Schiavo
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euthanasia

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