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Spring 2012 Assignment sheets

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					                   CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS

   All case study assignments must be TYPED with your name, the course number, and my name
    in the right hand corner.
   You do not need to re-type the question on your assignment, but should number your answers to
    correspond to the correct question.
   See the pip packet for copies of the specific question for each assignment. Do NOT use the
    questions from your textbook as they are not necessarily the questions I have chosen for you to
    answer.

                                   ASSESS Assignments

    ● You will need to read both the Elementary School and High School case studies and
      provide answers to the ASSESS questions at the end of each case.
    ● You will not have read the course material for those topics prior to completing these
      assignments.
    ● Your answers will be based on your prior knowledge so personal opinions are
      acceptable but should be written in a professional manner.
    ● Assignments must be typed with your name, the course number, and my name in the
      right hand corner.
    ● You do not need to re-write the question, but should number your answers.
    ● Each ASSESS assignment will be worth 4 points:
      ○ 2 points for the Elementary School case
      ○ 2 points for the High School case
    ● The grading criteria will be based on:
      ○ the thoughtfulness or completeness of the answer
      ○ professional writing (grammar, spelling, etc.).


                            REFLECT & EVALUATE Assignment
                         (See a sample assignment below for Module 7)

    ● You will choose one of the two case studies you read for the ASSESS assignment
      ○ Elementary School or
      ○ High School.
    ● You will complete the assignment after reading the course material on those topics.
    ● Answers should be based on integrating information from the course readings
      (modules) including the use of key concepts and theories.
    ● Personal opinions are not appropriate in these assignments.
    ● The length of each answer will vary with some being only a couple of sentences and
      others requiring more details.
    ● Each REFLECT & EVALUATE assignment will be worth 20 points (approximately 4
      points per question).
    ● The grading criteria for each question will be based on:
      ○ 2 points for integration with the module (use key concepts; no personal opinions),
      ○ 1 point for the thoughtfulness and completeness of each answer
      ○ 1 point for professional writing style (grammar, spelling, etc.)
                                                                                   Your Name
                                                                                      PSY 215
                                                                              Dr. Reese-Weber

                    MODULE 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
                  Case Study REFLECT & EVALUATE Assignment

                        Elementary Education: “Project Night”

1. Projects involve an authentic task and require students to create a product from the
   knowledge that they acquired. Students help each other to create meaning from their
   project research in their “research evaluation teams.” Here there is co-construction of
   knowledge and scaffolding. The final product represents the students’ internalization and
   ownership of their learning.

2. Most students would be in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development. They
   have difficulty with abstract thinking such as planning ahead. Therefore, they find it
   challenging to break down the project into smaller deadlines on their own.

3. Students’ self-evaluations were superficial, focusing on what they liked and did not like
   rather than reflecting on their performance. Because most students would be in the
   concrete operational stage of cognitive development, I would expect their responses to be
   superficial. In this stage, students have difficulty with abstract thought such as reflecting
   on one’s own performance.

4. In the “research evaluation teams,” there is co-construction of knowledge where the
   student presenter and the student audience begin with differing levels of knowledge but
   must come to a shared understanding. The student audience members provide the
   presenter with scaffolding by using the “question starters.” This helps the presenter
   improve his/her product by further developing ideas and clarifying thoughts.

5. The “research team” activity might stimulate disequilibrium in both the student presenter
   and the student audience members. The student presenter might experience
   disequilibrium when the audience members ask questions about his/her presentation. The
   presenter, who may have thought his ideas were clear, experiences an unbalance and
   must assimilate (perhaps adding new information to his project) or accommodate
   (perhaps changing the way he phrases his explanations) to ensure that his audience
   members understand his point of view. Similarly, the audience members may experience
   disequilibrium if they don’t understand some of the information that the presenter is
   giving. The must ask questions, and then use the presenter’s responses to assimilate (add
   new information to help them understand the content) or accommodate (change their
   existing way of thinking).

                                  SAMPLE ANSWERS
                                                                                 Your Name
                                                                                    PSY 215
                                                                            Dr. Reese-Weber

                   MODULE 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
                 Case Study REFLECT & EVALUATE Assignment


                            High School: “The Substitute”

1. No, it is not valid for a teacher to assume that high school students should be at the
   formal operational stage of development. According to Piaget’s theory, progression from
   one stage to another depends on appropriate experiences (cultural, social, educational).
   There are individual differences in the acquisition of this type of thinking; formal
   operational thinking can be achieved in one domain (e.g., math) but not another (e.g.,
   literature). Also individuals differ in the rate at which they may reach this stage.
   Therefore, not all students in this high school class may have achieved formal operational
   reasoning yet.

2. Yes. Because most students are likely to be transitioning from concrete to formal
   operational thinking, a concrete method of helping students understand a very abstract
   form of prose and an abstract and distant setting in this novel would be effective.

3. Mr. Reddy doesn’t provide students with an opportunity for active exploration of the
   content or for social interactions to stimulate meaningful construction of knowledge. He
   also does not stimulate disequilibrium in a way that Mr. Matthews does effectively.

4. The group discussions at the end of the case involve social negotiation of knowledge.
   Students come to the activity with differing levels of understanding and differing
   opinions, and through their social interactions come to a co-construction of knowledge
   (intersubjectivity). Students move from their actual developmental level (knowledge
   before the activity) to a potential level of development (newly constructed knowledge) by
   internalizing what they have constructed.

5. The expectations may be that students might not all be on the same developmental level;
   some may be concrete operational and some formal operational. They would come to this
   class with differing levels of prior knowledge (Vygotsky’s actual developmental level).
   Students may also have different cultural backgrounds and viewpoints, yielding different
   prior knowledge and experiences. Students might need explicit and frequent scaffolding
   as well as concrete teaching methods to support their learning.

                                 SAMPLE ANSWERS
                                                     REQUIRED
   MODULE 1: USING SCIENCE TO INFORM CLASSROOM PRACTICES
                            ASSESS

                                   Achievement Gap

1. How might the different schools in which Tamara and Jarrod work influence the

   importance each places on understanding achievement differences?



2. Should teachers be concerned with what type of students participant in research studies

   like the one reported in the newspaper article? Why or why not?



3. How would you respond to a parent whose child is not achieving as well as others but

   who believes that all students should perform equally well?
                                                      REQUIRED
    MODULE 1: USING SCIENCE TO INFORM CLASSROOM PRACTICES
                     REFLECT AND EVALUATE

                                    Achievement Gap

1. Why are the resources available in school districts important for understanding

   differences among teachers and students?



2. Why is knowledge that the sample was college students important for interpreting the

   results of the study?



3. What type of research design was used in the study? What type of information can be

   interpreted from this type of research design?



4. Based on the information presented in the module about prejudice feelings, why would

   some people have a difficult time believing that African-American students and

   Caucasian students can achieve at equal levels?



5. If the study had been done with K-12 students in various school districts assessing their

   GPA from official records over several years, how would this alter the way the results

   might be interpreted?
                                                                                  REQUIRED

                        UNIT 9: STANDARDIZED TESTING
                               ASSESS QUESTIONS


                        Elementary School: Keyboard Courage

1. After reading the teacher responses, in your opinion, how concerned should Ms. Bowman

   be about the fallen standardized test scores?

2. For each person’s email, give a score on how accurate you think their explanation was for

   the fallen test scores (1= not at all accurate, 2= somewhat accurate, 3= very accurate).

   Give a brief explanation for your score.

3. For each person’s email, give a score on how helpful their suggestions were for

   improving test scores (1= not at all helpful, 2= somewhat helpful, 3= very helpful). Give

   a brief explanation for your score.




                                High School: SAT Scores

1. Do you think it was appropriate for Ms. Fortner to use her math class to help prepare

   students for the SAT? Why or why not?

2. Based on the four students’ scores provided in the case, do you think the students at this

   school are typically below average, average, above average, or that there is too much

   difference in scores to decide?

3. Do you agree with Mr. Harris that being a minority student may explain low standardized

   test scores? Is your answer based on opinion, experience, or other information?
                                                                                            CHOICE

                            UNIT 9: STANDARDIZED TESTING
                               REFLECT AND EVALUATE

                              Elementary School: Keyboard Courage


Module 29 Standardized Tests and Scores:

   1. Mr. Whitney mentions the difference between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced
       tests. Explain whether he is accurate in his interpretation about how the test scores are
       used.


   2. Based on the normal distribution and the information that Mr. Washington provides
       regarding the test scores being a half of standard deviation below the mean, how poorly
       are the students doing in comparison to students across the country?


   3. If the test scores had been half of a standard deviation above the national mean would
       Ms. Bowman be as concerned? Why or why not?


   4. Explain how the average percentile score could have increased from 46 to 48, but
       average scores fallen below the state cut-off levels?


   5. Ms. Rivadeneyra suggests that the test scores do not accurately reflect the students’
       abilities. What characteristic of good tests does this represent? Explain how this
       characteristic was influenced by the events at in the school last year.
                                                                                          CHOICE

                            UNIT 9: STANDARDIZED TESTING
                               REFLECT AND EVALUATE

                                    High School: SAT Scores
Module 29 Standardized Tests and Scores:

   1. What type of standardized test is the SAT? Why might a student score high on an
       achievement test, but not the SAT?


   2. Explain how a norm-referenced test, such as the SAT, can be used as a criterion-
       referenced test by colleges and universities for admissions.


   3. Based on the information in the module about SAT scores, explain how much variability
       there was in the test score among the four students presented in the case.


   4. Assume that another student had received a score of 700, what would be the equivalent
       stanine score? What would be the equivalent z-score?


   5. Assume that Trevor takes the SAT again next month and receives a score of 800. What
       does the difference in his two scores indicate about the quality of the test scores? Based
       on the information presented in the case, what might account for the difference in scores
       in such a short amount of time?
                                                                                  REQUIRED

                        UNIT 1 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
                               ASSESS QUESTIONS



                                Elementary School: Team

 1. How well do you think Ms. Barone handled the girls entering the classroom? How well

     do you think she handled the boys during lunch line? Do you think gender played a role

     in her treatment of the incidents?

 2. What examples of aggression did you notice?

 3. What factors in the children’s lives might have contributed to their behavior?

 4. How would you respond to Mary’s email?



                          High School: Steal, Cheat, and Fight

1. What are some of the reoccurring themes within these responses from the teachers/staff?

2. For each person’s email, give a score on how much you agree with their view (1=

   completely agree, 2= somewhat agree, 3= completely disagree). Explain how your rating

   is based on experience, observation, or opinion.

3. Do you think gender might be important in these handling these issues? Why or why not?

4. Do you think it is appropriate for the principal and teachers to use school time to address

   issues of students’ social and emotional behaviors?
                                                                                        CHOICE

                         UNIT 1 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
                        REFLECT AND EVALUATE QUESTIONS


                                  Elementary School: Team

Module 2 Contexts of Development Questions:

      1. How might the divorce of Kashi’s parents have influenced her behavior? In what

          specific ways?

      2. Does Ms. Barone handle the girls and boys differently? Based on the research

          presented in module 2, how are teachers’ reactions typically different based on types

          of aggression and gender of children?



Module 3 Social Development Questions:

      3. Why would Mary be concerned about her daughter’s self-esteem? Is this a legitimate

          concern? Why or why not?

      4. How might Kashi’s ethnic identity be compromised in this particular school system?



Module 5 Moral Development Question:

      5. Bill’s response to Zach implies at least two cognitive deficits in his moral thinking.

          What statements are related to those specific deficits?
                                                                                       CHOICE

                         UNIT 1 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
                        REFLECT AND EVALUATE QUESTIONS

                            High School: Steal, Cheat, and Fight

Module 2 Contexts of Development Questions:

      1. How might Ms. Presley be accurate and inaccurate in her description of divorce,

          remarriage, and parental employment?

      2. What examples of relational and physical aggression are given by the teacher’s

          responses? Based on the research presented in the module, is the gender of the

          adolescent displaying a particular type of aggression typical or atypical?



Module 3 Social Development Questions:

      3. How likely is it that Ms. Kennel’s concern about the girl’s self-concepts and self-

          esteem is accurate? What can be done?

      4. How might the ethnic identity of the Spanish-speaking students be enhanced or

          compromised by the creation of a peer group based on their ethnicity?



Module 5 Moral Development Question:

      5. Ms. May believes the problem lies within the authority and discipline of the school.

          How might knowledge about parenting strategies be used in the school system to

          foster moral development?
                                                                                    REQUIRED

                           UNIT 4 COGNITIVE PROCESSES
                                ASSESS QUESTIONS


                        Elementary School: Reading About Pirates

1. In what ways do you think Mr. McPherson did an effective job with his morning session?

2. What areas would you suggest he try to improve?

3. Mr. McPherson kept a classroom journal. Do you think keeping a journal about your

     teaching would be useful? Why or why not?


                             High School: I Don’t Understand

1.     Ms. Park is worried that her entire lesson was a failure. Is there anything that she did

       well during the lesson?

2.     What should the teacher do when the majority of the class does not understand the

       material presented in the lesson?

3.     Are you surprised that the class was not able to apply previously taught material to the

       decimal lesson? Why or why not?
                                                                                        CHOICE

                          UNIT 4 COGNITIVE PROCESSES
                       REFLECT AND EVALUATE QUESTIONS

                         Elementary School: Reading About Pirates


Module 12: Metacognition
   1. Assume that some students who were completing seatwork protested that the reading
      group had an easier assignment. Explain how the three type(s) of metacognitive
      knowledge might lead some students to this conclusion?
   2. How could Mr. McPherson have used reciprocal teaching with the students who were not
      in his reading group?


Module 13: Transfer
   3. What strategy did Mr. McPherson use to try to make the dictionary assignment more
      interesting for students? Was Ian successful at stimulating students’ interest? Consider
      the students’ point of view, as well as how Ian might have evaluated this portion of his
      teaching.
   4. Use the teaching principles discussed in the module to evaluate how well Mr.
      McPherson’s approach promotes high-road transfer. Offer Mr. McPherson specific
      strategies for improving his teaching.


Module 14: Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving
   5. What steps of the IDEAL problem-solving model did you see used in this case?
                                                                                      CHOICE

                           UNIT 4 COGNITIVE PROCESSES
                        REFLECT AND EVALUATE QUESTIONS

                                High School: I Don’t Understand


Module 12: Metacognition
   1. What types of metacognitive knowledge are evident by Ms. Park’s reflection of her
      teaching? What types of metacognitive knowledge are evident in the students’ responses
      and actions during the lesson?
   2. Could students have used note-taking from previous class sessions to better understand
      the materials? Explain.


Module 13: Transfer
   3. How could Ms. Park have made the assignment more meaningful to students? What is the
      likelihood for transfer outside of algebra class, in this case?
   4. Use the teaching principles discussed in the module to evaluate how well Ms. Park’s
      teaching approach promotes high-road transfer. Offer Ms. Park specific strategies for
      improving her teaching.


Module 14: Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving
   5. What steps from the IDEAL model could have been utilized by Ms. Park’s students?
                                                                                 REQUIRED

                           UNIT 3 LEARNING THEORIES
                               ASSESS QUESTIONS


                         Elementary Education: Silly Students

1. Do you think that having fourth-grade students ‘help’ each other is a good idea? Why or

   why not?

2. Do you think that Mr. Lindsay’s reliance on the other teachers is a sign of incompetence?

   Why or why not?

3. If you were the teacher in this classroom, what strategies would you use to help the three

   disruptive students focus on their school work?



                              High School: Bending the Rules

1. Was the strategy of placing Jason in detention helpful to Jason? Why or why not?

2. Do you think the teachers would have reacted the same way if a girl had been

   experiencing the same problems with homework and missing an extracurricular event?

   Why or why not?

3. What types of strategies would you use to remember dates and facts in history, and what

   types of skills or strategies would you need to complete Mr. Hardy’s homework

   assignments?
                                                                                       CHOICE

                            UNIT 3 LEARNING THEORIES
                        REFLECT AND EVALUATE QUESTIONS

                               Elementary Education: Silly Students


Module 9: Behavioral Learning Theories
   1. Mr. Lindsay focused on punishment as a behavioral strategy whereas the other fourth-
      grade teachers suggested a focus on reinforcement. Explain why this change in focus
      towards reinforcement most likely increased appropriate behavior.


   2. Although taking recess time may have decreased the students’ disruptive behaviors, why
      is this a poor option?


Module 10: Social Cognitive Theory
   3. What characteristics of imitators needed to be improved upon for students to increase
      their ability to complete the work?


   4. Mr. Lindsay asks the other two fourth-grade teachers for help quite often during their
      lunchtime. Why is this type of interaction among teachers important for Mr. Lindsay and
      the for school system?


   5. What methods of increasing Sara’s self-efficacy were suggested by Ms. Vargas? How
      might the knowledge that Mr. Lindsay is African- American and his students are
      predominately white change your expectations for modeling and increasing self-efficacy?
      Why?
                                                                                       CHOICE

                            UNIT 3 LEARNING THEORIES
                        REFLECT AND EVALUATE QUESTIONS

                                High School: Bending the Rules


Module 9: Behavioral Learning Theories
   1. Do some teachers use behavioral strategies better than others? Which strategies are used
      and why are they effective or ineffective?


   2. How and why might bending the rules influence Jason’s future completion of homework?
      What about other students’ completion of homework?


Module 10: Social Cognitive Theory
   3. According to social cognitive theory, what specific characteristics of imitators make
      completing the homework assignment easy for most of the students? What characteristics
      of imitators give Jason difficulty? How could these characteristics of Jason be changed?


   4. What factors might be influencing Jason’s self-efficacy? How might his self-efficacy be
      changed?


   5. How would you describe the collective self-efficacy within this school system? How
      might it be changed?

				
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