Evolution Test Review_1_

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					Evolution Test Review
1. Give a definition for evolution. Why
    do living things need to evolve?
• Definition: species change over time



• As the environment changes, living things
  need to survive, so they must change as time
  goes on
       2. How are fossils dated?
• Radiometric/ Radiocarbon Dating: measures the
  amount of radioactive isotopes in a fossil to
  determine its age
  – Pro: can give you the exact age of a fossil
  – Con: can’t be used on really old fossils because the
    radioactivity goes away with time
• Relative Dating: compares the age of a fossil to
  other fossils found in the same rock layer
  – Pro: can be used to give you an estimated age of really
    old fossils
  – Con: rock layers can be shifted by earthquakes or
    mudslides and this can give an inaccurate estimate
     3. How can we get evidence for
    evolution from the fossil record?
• The fossil record shows us how living things
  have changed their forms over time
 4. What are homologous structures?
    Give an example. How do they
    provide evidence for evolution?

• Similar structures with different functions
• Example: a human’s arm and a bat’s wing
• Evidence: they show that there was a common
  ancestor
5. What are vestigial structures? Give
  an example. How do they provide
       evidence for evolution?
• Structures that no longer serve a purpose but
  had a purpose in an ancestor
• Example: Tailbone in humans; wings on
  flightless birds
• Evidence: show how things change over time
  6. How does embryology (study of
   embryos/development) provide
       evidence for evolution?

• Similarities among embryos show a common
  ancestor
7. Explain Charles Darwin’s discoveries
        (finches and tortoises).
• Finches:
  – Darwin noticed that where there were nuts for
    food, the finches had short, hard beaks
  – Where there was fruit and insects for food, the
    finches had long, thin beaks
• Tortoises:
  – Darwin noticed that where there was low
    vegetation, the tortoises had short legs and necks
  – where there was high vegetation, the tortoises
    had long legs and necks
   8. What are adaptations? Give an
       example of an adaptation
• Adaptation: a beneficial change that allows an
  organism/species to survive
• Example: thick fur on a rabbit that lives in the
  arctic
  9. How has the earth changed over
       time (timeline events)?
• Earth changed and as it did, life evolved
  – Earth was formed
  – The first life appeared (single-celled)
  – Oxygen appeared
  – Plants and animals appeared (multicellular)
  10. How are humans similar to and
   different from other organisms?
• Similar:
  – Mammals (hair, live birth, produce milk)
  – Primates
  – Skeletons have similarities (homologous structures)
• Different:
  – Written communication
  – Opposable thumbs
  – Walk upright
  – Large brains
  11. What can we learn by studying
            cladograms?
• Cladograms show:
  – Shared traits
  – The order the traits appeared in
  – Probable relationships
12. How do you read a cladogram?
• Reads from the bottom up
  – Oldest/most common trait at the bottom
  – Newest/least common trait at the top
• Each organism on the cladogram has all the
  traits below it
   13. What are the different taxonomic
groups from largest to smallest? What can
classifying things tell you about evolution?
• Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
  Species
• Classification can tell you how closely related
  two species are and how recently they shared
  a common ancestor – the more of the above
  groupings they have in common, the more
  closely related they are
  14. What are the three domains
   and the kingdoms that fit into
               each?
• Domain: Bacteria
  – Kingdom: Eubacteria
• Domain: Archaea
  – Kingdom: Archaebacteria
• Domain: Eukarya
  – Kingdom: Animal
  – Kingdom: Plant
  – Kingdom: Protist
  – Kingdom: Fungi
15. How do you use a dichotomous
key? What can a dichotomous key
          be used for?
• Read through each paired statement and
  answer yes or no and follow the instructions
  until you reach an identified object
• This key can be used to identify unknown
  objects.

				
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posted:10/25/2012
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