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Robot_Assisted_Cardiac_Surgery_Alper2 by xiaopangnv

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									  Robot Assisted Cardiac
         Surgery

Course: Cardiovascular Imaging
Submitted by: Alper Yaman
Instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cengizhan
Öztürk
  What is robot assisted
        surgery?

Application of computer assisted
robotics to enhance surgeon’s capability
to carry out various “minimally invasive”
surgical procedures.
The advantages of robotic
        surgery

Faster, easier and steadier surgery
More accuracy
Enhanced visualisation, zooming
Minimally invasive [1].
The advantages of robotic
       surgery 2

Less pain to patient
Shorter recovery time
Shorter hospital stays [1]
Robot Assisted Surgery
      Approach
Perception & imaging by sensors and cameras




                              to monitor the heart
   Robot Assisted Surgery
        Approach 2
Arms and wrists for clamping, suturing, and severing.




                                      Control Panel
     Technical Information
Registration
Preoperative images
(CT or MRI) are
registered both to
stabilize target point
images on the monitor
and to guide the
manipulators [2].
Imaging
Fast video cameras are
used to obtain
operative images.
  Technical Information 2
Robot Positioning
Optimal position of the
robot should be provided
concerning with degrees of
freedom of the manipulator
[2].
  Technical Information 3
Port Placement: Entry
points are selected by
images on the port.
Robot is registered to the
patient.
Ports are expressed in the
robot coordinate frame
and used to guide the
surgeon [2].
   Heart Beat Synchronization
“Motion Cancelling Robot System”

   Visual Synchronization: Provides
   stabilized target point images on the
   monitor.
   Motion Synchronization: The slave robot
   is synchronized with the heart beat.
   Master – Slave Control: Transfers the
   master motion to control the slave robot
   [3].
   Heart Beat Synchronization
“Motion Cancelling Robot System”




                          [3]
  Haptics and Augmented
          Reality
Haptics
Applying tactile
sensation and control to
interaction with computer
applications.
Augmented Reality
Computer graphics are
superimposed or
composited with real
images.
  Haptic Virtual Fixtures
Software-generated force and position
signals applied to human operators.
To improve the safety, accuracy, and
speed of manipulation tasks.
Integrates robots accuracy and
precision with human intelligence [4].
 Haptic Virtual Fixtures 2
Guidance Virtual Fixtures: guides the
robot along desired paths (a).
Forbidden-Region Virtual Fixtures: Keep
the robot out of forbidden regions (b).
[4]



                                          [4]
  An example to robots
“Da Vinci Surgical System”
Intuitive nature of the surgeon’s hand
movements
Components:
 A surgeon console
 Patient-side cart

 Instruments

 Image processing equipment
    An example to robots
 “Da Vinci Surgical System” 2
Benefits For The Surgeon:
 Improved dexterity
 Enhanced 3D visualisation and
 magnification
 Greater surgical precision
 Increased range of motion
 Better ergonomics
      An example to robots
   “Da Vinci Surgical System” 3




Robotic articulated instrumentation daVinci prototype 1997 [5]
      An example to robots




Leipzig 1998 [5]
Current Operations with daVinci

 Atrial septal defect closure
 Internal thoracic artery take-down
 Endoscopic coronary bypass
 LV bipolar pacing lead placement
 Mitral valve repairment and replacement
 Ablation of atrial fibrillation [5]
Current Operations with daVinci 2




                            [5]
Current Operations with daVinci 3




                              [5]
     Transmyocardial
     Revascularization
Laser is used to open tiny holes
(transmyocardial channels) on
myocardium.
Angiogenesis: Laser stimulates new
blood vessels to grow.
Channels heal on the outside but
remain open on the inside. [6]
 Transmyocardial
Revascularization 2




                      [6]
 Results and Discussion
Robot assisted cardiac surgery is combining
various disciplines: robotics, computer vision
and biomedical engineering. It’s advantages
are:
Faster, easier and steadier surgery
More accuracy
Enhanced visualisation, zooming
Minimally invasive
Less pain to patient
Shorter recovery time
Shorter hospital stays
                      References
1.   E. Adams, Bibliography: Robotic Surgery, Technology Assessment
     Program, Office of Patient Care Services, Boston, March 2004.
2.   `E. Coste-Mani`ere and L. Adhami. Optimal Planning of Robotically
     Assisted Heart Surgery: Transfer Precision in the Operating Room.
     The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 23, No. 4-5,
     539-548 (2004).
3.   Y. Nakamura, K. Kishi, and H. Kawakami. Heartbeat
     Synchronization for Robotic Cardiac Surgery. Proc. of the IEEE.
     International Conf. On Robotics&Automation, pp. 2014-2019, 2001.
4.   J. J. Abbott, P. Marayong, and A. M. Okamura, "Haptic Virtual
     Fixtures for Robot-Assisted Manipulation," 12th International
     Symposium of Robotics Research, 2005. (accepted).
5.   W. R. Chitwood. Robotic Cardiac Surgery. 90th Annual Clinical
     Congress , American College of Surgeons, New Orleans, 2004.
6.   Cleveland Clinic Heart Center web page,
     http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/disease/cad/TM
     R.htm
 Thank you

for your attention!

								
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