parliaments as peacebuilders by xiaopangnv


									    Parliaments as
in Conflict-Affected
The situation in your country
   What is (or was) the basis for conflict in your nation?
       Ethnicity
       Resources
       Religion
       other

   Has parliament played any role in expanding, ending or
    limiting the conflict(s)?

   Ideally, what kinds of roles might parliaments play to
    help resolve conflicts in nations? In your own nation?
Parliaments and Conflict
   Parliaments should represent national diversity

   Conflicts arise when groups fail       to resolve their
    differences by other means

   Parliaments can contribute           to peace by
       representing differences
       achieving agreements acceptable to participants
Differences as Causes of
Ethnic Differences
   Bangladesh: Non-Bengalis feared marginalization in a Bengali dominated government
   Sri Lanka: Tamils and majority Sinhalese of Sri Lanka
Religious Differences:
   Thailand and the Philippines: Islamic religio-cultural and economic differences define
   minority views of Malays in Buddhist Thailand and Moros in Catholic Philippines
Ideological Differences
   Ideological differences divide Cambodians
Multiplicity of Differences
   Tribes of Afghanistan see themselves as so diverse that no central government can be
Suppression of differences:             Suppression of regional differences by past
   centralized governments in Indonesia contributed to exclusion fueling desire for alternative
   political arrangements by ideological and other insurgents
Uneven development:          Emphasis on developing center at expense of countryside cause
   division in Nepal
Conflict and Failure to
Source of conflict by insurgent groups?

Their interests are left out of policy
 making and implementation!
Case Studies: Settlements on
better or inclusive representation
 1.   Externally imposed treaties: Bosnia and
 2.   Negotiated settlements and treaties:
      Arusha Accords on Rwanda; Taiif Accords
      in Lebanon
 3.   Post Conflict Constitutions and
      Elections: Iraq, Cambodia
Mechanics of Representation

   Electoral laws & administration
       Voting
   Design of institutions
       Devices to represent groups
   Process requirements
Devices to Represent Groups
   Bi-Cameralism
       India (religious differences)
       Liberia
   Federalism
       Yugoslavia
       Ethiopia
   Decentralization
       Uganda (ethnic)
Devices to Represent Groups
   Proportional Representation and Large
       Iraq, Kosovo, Bosnia
   Reserved Seats
       Uganda, Colombia, Chile
   Party lists with quotas
       Bosnia
   Agreements on internal organization of
    legislative offices
       Many Commonwealth public accounts committees
   Agreements on processes
       Super-majorities (state level tax laws)
       Concurrent majorities (US Senate “holds”)
Example 1: Representational
Lebanon and the Taiif Accords
   A deeply divided society
   Electoral constituency (home villages)
   Cross-confessional districts (designed)
   Informal and formal veto powers
Example 2: Representational
Rwanda and the Arusha Accords
 Fear of minorities

 Multi Party power-sharing

 Requires majorities from fragmented
 Minority critical in coalition formation
Representatives and Peace
   Negotiators (Lebanon)
   Facilitators (Uganda-Rwanda; Philippines)
   Ratifiers and Legitimaters (Sri Lanka)
   Elections as deciders (Nepal)
Other Roles
   Elections as referenda (US)
   Members speaking out/reaching out
   Parliamentary oversight debate (Uganda)
   Use of the “power of the purse”
Rule-Based Peace Building &
Development: Agenda
   Parliament as microcosm of conflicting
   Security transition
       State to people
   Security-
       Social, economic
   Approaches to democracy
       Constitiutions-Uganda, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sudan
   The Rule of Law- Permanent development
Parliament and Conflicting
   Sources: Values, Needs, Resources
   Conflict must not be suppressed or it will
    escalat violently
   Peaceful prevention of violence =
    productive gains in conflicts
   Parliament represents diversity & conflict
Key Process for Reducing
Conflict through Parliament
   Consultation at different levels

   Democracy: Political, economic, social

   Integrative Moral-political Climate

   Security for these processes for sustaining peace

       The supremacy of the Rule of Law
   Reorientation:
       Participatory decision making; political tolerance and
        plurality; supremacy of the law.
           Constitutions
       Accountable governance
           Facilitating market operation – social capacity, regulatory
            framework, tax, budget, expenditure, monitoring result,
            conflict management,
       Protection of rights
   Constitutional framework
   Govern multifarious commercial transactions:
       Transparency & predictability - permits, licenses
       Regulatory Market institutions
       Contract formation and enforcement
       Conflict management
       Transparent intervention to enhance equity
   Long term returns in investment in developing
    capacity - policy,rules, standards
   Policy and law in health
   Environment- policy and law on common and
    sustainable use of resources:
       Natural facilities, urban facilities, natural
Leading to Democratization
   Gradual participatory process
       citizens, civil societies and the state create set
        of norms, values and institutions
   Competing theories and process in
       Pure election – Rule of proportionalilty or party
       Comprehensive-political, social and economic
       Controlled elections- A one party approach for
        transforming group identity to national identity
Parliament in Peace Building
Sustains peace buidling and economic
 development by ensuring security interests
 through process of democratization

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