North Africa _ SW Asia

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					              North Africa
              & SW Asia




M. Anderson
North Africa & SW Asia
Natural Environment
           Distinctive hot & arid
           climate – evaporation rates
           are greater than
           precipitation.
           Highest temps. in the
           world, but lack of cloud
           cover makes nights cold,
           and frosts possible in
           winter.
Natural Environment
                Coasts of No.
                Africa and East
                Mediterranean
                have rainy
                winters and dry
                summers.
                An attractive
                climate for N.
                European
                tourists.
 Climate
Ideal conditions for
growing citrus, olives,
grapes, & early veggies.
Natural Environment
               Turkey & Iran
               have higher
               elevations which
               reduces
               temperatures and
               evaporation
               making the
               precipitation more
               effective.
               Grasslands and
               forests.
Natural Environment




Soils are poor throughout the region.
They are best in the Mediterranean climate
and valley basins, where annual flooding
replenishes the nutrients.
Water Resources
               Scarce water
               resources are under
               pressure.
                Underground water
               is being used heavily
               and not being
               replenished.
               Most fresh water
               comes from the
               mountainous, wetter
               regions and flows
               into the arid land.
         Water seller in Marrakech.
                        Water
                      Resources




Gorge de Torda
looking to desert.
Skoura desert
irrigation farming.
Water Resources
              Mountains of
              Turkey and Iran
              force air to rise
              causing rain &
              snow.
              Winter snow
              provides spring
              melt-water that
              feeds the Tigris &
              Euphrates Rivers.
              The rivers flood
              downstream,
              carrying sand and
              mud into Syrian
              & Iraqi lowlands.
Water Resources                The Nile River is fed from
                               equatorial rains @ Lake
                               Victoria and the Ethiopian
                               mountains and flows north
                               through the desert into
                               Egypt.
                               The White and Blue Nile
                               tributaries come together
                               at Khartoum, Sudan to
                               form the Nile.



Blue Nile falls in Ethiopia.
Reed boats in the Sudan.
Water Resources
           Lower flows from
           both tributaries along
           with increased
           demands on the
           water from the
           source countries
           have threatened
           Egypt and the
           Sudan, even after
           the building of the
           Aswan Dam.
    Water Resources
The extension of irrigated lands using these water
resources have increased the regions economic
productivity, but lessen the amount of water
downstream.



                                               Irrigated
                                               sugar
                                               cane
                                               fields
                                               near
                                               Thebes.
  Water
Resources

 Richer oil
 countries like
 Kuwait and Saudi
 Arabia have
 desalinization
 plants to provide
 freshwater for
 coastal settlements.
Religion &
 Politics
             Historically – the
             region has been a
             battleground for
             external influence.
             Politically- Resistance
             to the West
             Islamic religious ideas
             revived to resist the
             external influences of
             the world economic
             system and Western
             culture.
              Major tensions exists
             between Islamic
             activists and more
             conservative groups.
Religion &   1948, Creation of Israel,
             the Jewish state, in the
 Politics    midst of Islamic countries.
               The rocks of this region,
Economy: Oil   the Persian Gulf, contain
               2/3 of earth’s known oil
               reserves.
  Economy:
     Oil
After WWI , exploitation
of oil gave this area
renewed strategic
significance w/in the
global economy.
1991 Gulf War,
highlighted jealousies w/in
the region that are linked
to the inequalities of
resource and income
distributions
The region is in the semi-
periphery.
              Economy: Oil




1970’s. Most of the initial wealth from oil was spent on
importing foreign goods, arms and services rather than on
investing in domestic agriculture and industrial production.
Some countries went heavily into debt, like Algeria.
Other countries, like Libya were able to adjust their economy
to the ups and downs of the market.
                Economy: Oil
Non-oil producing countries went into debt in the 1970’s.
Their economies were helped by aid from other Arab countries
and by many of their residents working in the oil-rich countries.
Economy: Oil




               Many oil nations,
               rely heavily on
               immigrant labor
               to run the oil
               fields and plants,
               than developing
               skills internally.
 OPEC - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries –
  formed in 1960.
 It includes the producers @ the Persian Gulf and Venezuela.
 It protects the interests of producing countries and gains higher
  and more stable prices for oil.
                                                         OPEC
   OAPEC


1968, OAPEC – Org. of
Arabic Petroleum
Exporting Countries. –
formed by Saudi Arabia,
Kuwait and Libya to
counterbalance the Arab
league pressures to use oil
as a weapon in the
struggle against Israel.
                                                  Oil
                                                Embargo


After the successful oil embargo of 1973, during the Arab-Israeli
War, OPEC became the controlling factor in world distribution.
Prices rose 4x.
During the mid and late 1970’s, many OPEC countries invested a
portion of the oil profits in new roads, hospitals, airports, military
hardware, and government buildings.
                                          Economy:
                                             Oil




Kuwait invested heavily overseas, so by late 1980’s, these
investments generated more income than oil sales.
This income kept Kuwait solvent for several years, enabling
them to re-build after the destruction caused by the Iraqi
invasion.
Culture: An Islamic Region
               93% Islamic. The
               established culture &
               religion of the area.
               Source of religious,
               political & technical
               cultures (farming,
               urbanization,
               transportation) that
               diffused outward.
               SW Asia & Nile River
               valley formed two of the
               worlds early cultural
               heart-lands.

                Fez street.
                  Religions: Judaism
                                 Judaism – worships
                                 Yahweh, the creator
                                 and lawgiver.
                                 Beginning in
                                 Palestine @ 3000
                                 BC, Jews spread
                                 through SW Asia &
                                 Europe.
                                 The Romans
                                 destroyed Jerusalem
                                 in 70A.D. and
Romans destroying the Jewish     dispersed them.
Temple.
                Religions: Christianity

                                               Christianity
                                               stemmed from
                                               Jewish
                                               elements in
                                               Palestine.
                                               Jesus Christ
                                               was their
                                               prophet.
                                               Orthodox –
                                               east, and
                                               Catholic –
                                               west.
    It became the official religion of the Roman Empire in
300A.D.and spread throughout Europe, SW Asia, and into
Africa.
 Religions: Islam

   Islam – “The
  reconciliation to God”
  arose in Arabia in AD
  600’s. Muslims.
  After the death of the
  prophet Muhammad, his
  teachings spread W & S
  through No. Africa, Spain
  & Central Asia.


Alabaster Mosque in Cairo.
                                            Religions: Islam



 Main Muslim group– orthodox, Sunni Muslims.
 Sunnites, base their way of life on the Koran. Rigid behavior is
imposed by local caliphs, leaders.
 Shia Muslims, Shiites, look to Ali, Mohammed’s son-in-law as
their Imam, interpreter of the Koran.
They comprise 90% of the Iranian population, and the ruling
minority group in Syria’s dictatorship.
“Islamic Fundamentalism”
               A radical movement
               confined to minority sects
               of Islam.
               Terrorism.
               Fundamentalism requires
               Islamic states to separate
               themselves from the
               “satanic” influences of the
               Western world.
               They are a source of
               radical agitation and are
               often persecuted by many
               governments.
Religions: Islam

                   Gender inequalities
                   are a feature of
                   Muslim countries,
                   especially in Shiite
                   countries like Iran.
                   Some Arabic
                   countries have made
                   great strides in
                   women’s education.
                     Languages
 Arabic – is the main written language and spread with Islam in
the 600’s AD
Persian – predates Arabic @ 3000 BC. Arian origin from
Persia (Mesopotamia). Common in Iran and Shiite sects.
          Languages
     Berber – African origin,
     predates Arabic Morocco
     & Algeria. Most speak
     both languages.




Blue Berber. City walls in Rabat.
                        Languages
Kurdish – predates Arabic. Common in hilly lands of SE
Turkey, N Iraq and Syria. Kurds want a separate state.
Turkish – came to central Asia in 700’sAD and spread to SW
Asia. Official language in Turkey. Uses Roman script.
Hebrew – official language of Israel. Related to Arabic.
Language of the Jewish scriptures.
Politics   Arab League – created in
           1945 to encourage United
           Action of Arab countries. &
           founding members were the
           only Arab states at the time.
           Now increased to 21.
           PLO- Palestine Liberation
           Org. – demands on
           reestablishing the country of
           Palestine.
           OIC- Org. of the Islamic
           Conference. – Includes all
           Muslim countries, 45.
           Concentrates on trade issues
           and stays away from religious
           politics.
Plate Tectonics   African plate crashed into
                  Eurasian plate forming the
                  Atlas Mts. of North Africa,
                  Alps of Europe and the
                  Taurus, Zagros and Elburz
                  Ranges in Turkey and Iran.
                   They are young folded
                  mountain ranges that extend
                  from N Africa, south and
                  Alpine Europe to the
                  Himalayas in Southern Asia,
                  which were formed by the
                  Indian plate crashing into the
                  Asian plate.
                  Rocks that were formed in
                  the seas between the plates
                  were uplifted to form the
                  mountains.
                                          Plate Tectonics




The Mediterranean Sea and Tigris – Euphrates River valley
occupy the site of closing ocean; the Red Sea is an opening
ocean and growing.
Oil Traps   The compression and
            folding of the sedimentary
            rock provided many
            places where oil and
            natural gas could be
            trapped.
 Oil
Traps
   Plate Tectonics

The rift that forms the Red
Sea, splits into two at it’s
Northern End, around the
Sinai Peninsula.
East : the Jordan River
and West : the Sea of
Galilee toward the Dead
Sea.
Environmental Problems
                Arid environments
                are particularly fragile
                and susceptible to
                pollution.
                The oil industry is a
                major polluter of
                atmosphere, land
                seepage’s, and waters
                in the surrounding
                area.
                The Persian Gulf has
                lost most of its plant
                and animal life as a
                result of pollution.
Environmental
  Problems
  The huge oil slick of the
  Gulf War caused less
  damage than it might
  have, had the area not
  been already so polluted.
  The burning of the oil
  wells by the Iraqis added
  large quantities of Carbon
  gasses to the Atmosphere,
  the full impact of which is
  still unknown.
        Environmental Problems




 Irrigation farming in arid regions also requires good
management if high rates of evaporation are not to leave so much
salt in the soils that crop productivity is reduced or destroyed. –
Salinization.
Poor management of irrigation in Iraq left 60% of the watered land
too saline for further use.
North
Africa




 Western-most sector of the Arab world.
 Many of its political and economic ties are w/ Europe – Spain,
 France & Italy
 Algeria, Morocco & Tunisia have strong ties w/ France; Libya w/
 Italy.
 All countries are Arabic.
 1979, Arab League headquarters moved to Tunisia.
   Arid
Environment
 Environment – harsh,
 arid, mountainous.
 Cultivated coastal areas.
 Desert interiors
 High Atlas Mountain
 ranges.
 The upland Atlas Mt. Area
 is the Maghreb.

 Chella in Rabat.
   Arid
Environment




              Above: Aut
              Benhuddou.
              Left: El Kelaa des
              Magouna.
                 Economies
                   Diversifying
                   economies.
                   Oil revenues
                   from Algeria,
                   Libya and
                   Tunisia are
                   being reinvested
                   in broadening
                   the economic
Paper factory.     base via
                   manufacturing.
              Politics
                         Algeria - Independence won
                         by a war w/ France in 1950’s.
                         Democratically elected
                         government w/ socialist
                         parties & military.
                         1992 – army takeover & civil
                         war w/ Islamic militants.
                          Late 1900’s terrorist activity
                         has devastated the economy
                         & people.
                         Morocco & Tunisia take
                         steps to avoid involvement.
Fez market.              Morocco – political stability
                         w/ it’s moderate king.
         Politics
 Tunisia is modernizing
 under democratic rule.
  Libya – is under military
 rule of Col. Muammar
 Qaddafi since 1969.
 Western Sahara / former
 Spanish Sahara is under
 Moroccan rule, however
 negotiations for
 independence are in UN.


Gorge de Dadles,
Morocco
                                                     Popu-
                                                     lation


Considerable jump in population but family planning and
lowering birth rate is succeeding along w/ women’s education.
Most of the population growth is in urban areas.
This creates problems for the education system and employment
prospects.
Algeria & Morocco have 20% unemployment.
     Population
 Only Libya has labor
 shortages and needs
 immigrants.
 Many North Africans have
 migrated to France &
 Europe for low-paying
 jobs.




El kelaa des mgoura market.
800BC – the coast was settled by Mediterranean traders who
established the Kingdom of Carthage.
This was conquered by Rome, then overrun by Vandals in 400 AD.
Retaken by Byzantine King.
Arabs invaded on 600’s AD and converted the Berber tribes to
Islam.

                                              History


                                         Ancient city of
                                         Moulay Idriss
                                         (est. 788 A.D.)
                                           History:Moors
                                      Moors, nomadic people of
                                      the northern shores of
                                      Africa, originally the
                                      inhabitants of Mauritania.
                                      They were chiefly of Berber
                                      and Arab stock.

The name of Mauri was applied by the Romans to all non-
  romanized natives of North Africa still ruled by their own chiefs,
  until the 3rd century AD.
Since the Mauri were a dark-skinned people in comparison to
   Europeans, 'Moor' came to be applied indiscriminately by
   English speakers to blacks, muslims, saracens, Persians or
   Indians.
                                              History: Moors
                                             In the 8th cent. the
                                             Moors were
                                             converted to Islam
                                             and became fanatic
                                             Muslims.

They spread SW into Africa and NW into Spain.
The Moors were Muslims, but they were generally tolerant of the
  Christians and Jews who lived in Spain.
Shakespeare's Othello was 'the Moor of Venice.' During the 17th
  century, Africans were sometimes distinguished from others as
  blackamoors.
The Moors were able administrators who built Spain into a thriving
center of culture and scholarship.
Muslim invasion of Spain followed until the Moors were expelled
in 1500 AD, when many moved back to N. Africa.
   History:Moors
 Moorish Architecture in
 Spain: Alhambra.
  History: Pirates
From the 1200’s pirate
groups controlled the port
cities, the area being
known as the Barbary
Coast.
The fishermen and coastal
dwellers of 17th-century
Britain lived in terror of
being kidnapped by
pirates and sold into
slavery in North Africa.
Hundreds of thousands
across Europe met
wretched deaths on the
Barbary Coast .
History: Pirates   Slaves in Barbary could be
                   black, brown or white,
                   Catholic, Protestant,
                   Orthodox, Jewish or
                   Muslim.
                   Contemporaries were too
                   aware of the sort of people
                   enslaved in North Africa
                   to believe, as many do
                   today, that slavery,
                   whether in Barbary or the
                   Americas, was a matter of
                   race.
                   In the 1600s, no one's
                   racial background or
                   religion automatically
                   destined him or her for
                   enslavement.
                             As they aged or their
     History: Pirates        owner's fortunes
                             changed, slaves were
                             resold, often repeatedly.
                             The most unlucky ended
                             up stuck and forgotten
                             out in the desert, in some
                             sleepy town such as Suez,
                             or in the Turkish sultan's
                             galleys, where some
                             slaves rowed for decades
                             without ever setting foot
                             on shore.
                             During the 1800’s the
                             Europeans & US stopped
                             the pirate attacks and
Monk buying the freedom of   France annexed much of
slaves.                      this territory.
History: Barbary Coast



                         France set up commercial
                         citrus farms & wineries.
                         After WWII, nationalist
                         groups fought for
                         independence.
                         1956: Morocco & Tunisia.
                         1962: Algeria.
                         Libya: 1952.
                         Then oil was discovered.
                                                 Agricultural
                                                Development




 Many of the problems facing N. Africa stem from the economies
set up by the colonial countries.
Land was divided among European settlers who used irrigation
water for intensive commercial farming that was tied to European
markets.
Export crops – fruit, olive oil, dates, figs, wine & cotton.
Agricultural
Development
Water is at a
premium.
Problems of drought
& locust attacks.
Morocco has ½ of its
economy dependent
on agriculture.
                     Manufacturing
Manufacturing was not encouraged by colonial powers, but is
growing now along with service industries and oil production.
Manufacturing provides 20 – 30% of Morocco & Algeria’s GDP.
Food production, textiles, & Construction materials.




Fez
Economic Development
             Oil and Natural Gas are
             now the chief mining
             products of N. Africa.
             Algeria & Libya supply ¼
             of Europe’s oil & natural
             gas, steel & aluminum.
             All countries have oil
             refineries & petro-
             chemical plants.
             Morocco supplies 1/2 of
             its phosphate exports to
             Europe.
             Morocco tourist trade.
      Fez




Nougats & henna
hand painting.
Economic Development
          1980’s, The International
          Monetary Fund required these
          countries to cut internal budget
          deficits & reduce the public
          sector of the economy.
          Privatization and export
          production were encouraged.




        Silk thread spools & spices.
Gorge de Teldra
Nile Valley
 Egypt & Sudan:
 Eastern Sahara desert.
 The Nile is the life
 blood of this region.
 Nile Waters agreement,
 1959, shares the use of
 the Nile eaters between
 Egypt and Sudan.
                                                   Popu-lation


Increased populations have made it difficult to modernize and
diversify their economies.
Both need aid from core countries and other Arab neighbors.
Population is concentrated in the Nile river valley.
                                                   EGYPT




                                                 Cairo.




Egypt - is the largest Arab country in population – 66 million.
Egypt retains control of the Suez canal, which has been
recently widened & upgraded to accommodate supertankers.
Grows cotton for Britain’s textile industry.
EGYPT: Economy
                 1956, Egypt became a
                 socialist state with
                 new priorities for
                 growing food and
                 manufacturing for
                 internal markets.
                 Agricultural Reform of
                 1952 - Land holdings
                 were gradually reduced
                 to 49 acres to allow
                 more people to share.
                 Cultivation area rose
                 steadily.
                 Subsidence and
                 Salinization became a
                 problem and some
                 desert lands needed to
                 be abandoned.
                                                              E
                                                              G
                                                              YP
                                                              T


Secure water supply to support farming & power source.
Building of the Aswan High dam.
Pres. Nasser utilized Russia’s help in building the dam and
Egypt grew economically faster than the rest of Africa.
He died in 1970.
                 Lake Nasser stores 3x Egypt’s
                 annual water use.
EGYPT: Economy   Power – supplies for iron, steel
                 and chemical plants. Textiles,
                 cars, TV’s, arms and food
                 processing.
Temple at Abu Simbel; Overlooking Lake Nasser
   Temple at Abu
   Simbel; Overlooking
   Lake Nasser



   EGYPT:
   Economy

 His successors shifted foreign policy to accommodate Israel and
in turn received aid from the US.
This isolated Egypt from the rest of the Arab countries.
Today, Egypt has a diverse economy based on farming, w/
substantial manufacturing and tourism.
Largely nationalized industries are over-regulated.
                                             Cairo

Egypt's chief problem today seems to be that the Nile's narrow
strip of green surrounded by almost-lifeless desert sand dunes
contains more and more people -- so much so that the population
in Egypt is growing by a million every eight months.
A country that just prior to World War II had a population of an
estimated six million now has around twelve times as many.
People




         Camel with load in Giza;
         Pottery market in Cairo.
                                               Population

                                              Population control is
                                           a problem but is
                                           improving.
                                              Cairo – 11 million;
                                           Alexandria – 4 million;


In the late 1970’s worries over being able to sustain the growing
population led to mass media and government support for family
planning backed by US aid.
Further progress depends on raising the status of women in
Egyptian society.
      Sudan
   The largest country
in this region, but the
poorest.
    Gained
independence in 1956.




   Sudan is heavily dependent on agriculture.
   Droughts and political instability plague the country.
   Political leaders tried to impose language and religion on the
   southern Christian and Native communities.
   Drought worsened and war broke out in the south.
Sudan
        Economic plight caused
        by civil wars.
        Destroyed production in
        the south.
        Over a million people
        have died, 1 ½ million
        have been misplaced.
        Products: cotton &
        livestock.
        No major mineral
        products.
        Small scale production &
        manufacturing, paper
        mills, textiles, oil refinery.
Egyptian History
            Civilization emerged in
            the Nile river valley @
            3200BC.
            Centers in Memphis in the
            north, and Thebes in the
            south.
            The Nubian kingdom
            (Sudan) was part of this
            Egyptian empire.
            Egyptian empire based on
            slave labor and annual
            Nile river floods.
            Mapping & surveying.
                 Egyptian History
                               Romans, Alexander the
                              Great conquered in
                              322BC and the empire
                              ended. This lasted up to
                              500AD
                              Arabs conquered Egypt
                              in 600’s AD but did not
                              control modern Sudan
                              until 1500’s.
                              Egypt suffered
                              invasions from the
                              Turks and Mongols
                              before becoming a part
                              of the Ottoman Empire
Kufu Great Pyramid
                              in the 1500’s.
                              British occupied Egypt
 Economic
Development
              Slump in
              1990’s due to
              terrorist
              activity.
              Tourism
              slowed.
              Also a drop
              in massive
              aid received
              from US.
Great Sphinx.
Sphinx before Excavation
Beni Hassan
Luxor Temple
Temple of Horus at Edfu
Temple of Horus at Edfu
Great Temple Deir el Bahrain in Thebes.
Valley of the Kings
Temple Khrum in Esna
Karnack
Karnack
Stepp Pyramid in Saqqara
View of Pyramids from Cairo
Giza Area Map
Limestone building blocks
Great Pyramid of Kufu
END

				
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