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Anywhere and Everywhere

      PGI Course
        40 CEU
   Kimberly Blackmon
 Need to Incorporate into Curriculum

Basic Literacy: Literacy skills such as decoding and knowledge of high-frequency
words that underlie virtually all reading tasks.
Intermediate Literacy: Literacy skills common to many tasks, including generic
comprehension strategies, common word meanings, and basic fluency.
Disciplinary Literacy: Literacy skills specialized to history, science, mathematics,
literature, or other subject matter.
     Why is Everyone Talking About
          Adolescent Literacy
• Inoculation Fallacy
• Proficient readers do not need strategies
  taught to them*
• Discussion, analyzing, critiquing, different
  perspectives higher level skills
• Professional development stressed while
  getting initial certification
• Quantity of reading: the more you read the
  more your world knowledge is expanded
• Nature of reading: different formats
 3 Interactive Elements of Reading
• Climate
  - attitude
  - confidence
  - social aspect
• Reader
  - active process
  - monitor and adjusting
• Text
  - Appropriate level
  - Interesting
• Discussion on survey results
 Motivating Students to Read in Content Area
  Classroom: Six-Evidence Based Principles
• Elevating Self-Efficancy
• Engendering Interest in New Learning
• Connecting Outside with Inside School
• Making an Abundance of Interesting Texts
• Expanding Choice and Options
• Structuring Collaboration for Motivation
        Reader: Prior Knowledge
• Definition
  -   refers to all the knowledge which readers have
      acquired through their lives synonymous with world
      knowledge,background knowledge
• Schema Theory
  - about how knowledge is represented and about
      how that representation facilitates the use of
      knowledge in various ways
  -   knowledge is packaged into units called schemata
  -   acquire schemata through their experiences - both
      real and vicarious
  -   major problems involved in comprehension is that
      all people hardly ever share the same schemata
Strategies to Activate Prior Knowledge
1.   Brainstorming: List, Label, Group Activity
2.   Prequestions(PReP)
3.   Vocabulary Previews: RIVET Activity
4.   Anticpation Guides Activity
5.   Guided Imagery Activity
6.   KWL
-used to set a purpose for the lesson, activate or build prior knowledge
 -used to get students interested in the text’s concept(s)
 -helps students become aware of how much they know about a topic
1. Identify a key concept that is reflected in the text. Be sure to
determine a concept that is specifically appropriate to the text. Don’t
use “birds” as your topic if the text only focuses on “owls.”
2. Students work in small groups to generate a list of words or phrases
listed vertically on paper that are related to the key concept. Be sure
that students are working in groups—social activities encourage
students to generate more knowledge because they are triggering the
knowledge in one another.
                  List – Group – Label
-similar to Brainstorming
-organize the knowledge that they have generated
1. Identify a key concept that is reflected in the text. Be sure to
determine a concept that is specifically appropriate to the text. Don’t
use “birds” as your topic if the text only focuses on “owls.”
2. Students work in small groups to generate a LIST of words or phrases
listed vertically on paper that are related to the key concept. Be sure
that students are working in groups—social activities encourage
students to generate more knowledge because they are triggering the
knowledge in one another.
3. Students GROUP the brainstormed list by identifying words that have
something in common. Several variant groupings are usually
possible, and a particular word often fits in more than one group.
4. Students LABEL the groups with a key word that describes the
commonality among the words in the group.
- teacher gets students to elaborate on concepts
- Conversation starters:
What comes to mind when you hear the word (or phrase) _________?
What do you already know about the text?
What does this remind you of?
Based on your prior knowledge of __________, what questions come
   to mind?
What information might be in this text?
What do you know that will help you understand the text?
What is your schema for this text?
Do the words and pictures remind you of something else that you’ve
What do the pictures tell you about the text?
This text makes me think about…
        Vocabulary Previews: RIVET
-   used to activate prior knowledge, to make predictions; to introduce
- similar to the game of Hangman
1. Choose 6 to 8 interesting and important words from the text
2. Create a visual representation of the word using lines for each
letter in the word. Provide your students with a copy of this.
3. Teacher starts to fill in the letters of the first word, one by one.
Have the students fill in their sheets and ask them to predict what
the word might be.
4. Continue this practice for each of the words. Make sure that the
students understand the meanings of the words.
5. Using the list of words, students make predictions about the text.
Record the predictions.
6. Encourage the students to ask questions prompted by the list of
words. Record the questions.
7. Read the text. Return to the predictions to authenticate or revise.
                       Anticipation Guides
    -       group of statements that students respond to before reading the text
    -       make predictions and contrast them with the text.
    -       purpose is to activate prior knowledge, and make predictions and connections

Steps in constructing an Anticipation Guide:
1. Analyze the material to be read and identify the major concepts to be learned.
2. Write the major concepts in short, clear, concise statements. The teacher must
use their knowledge of the students’ background and determine how the main
concepts will interact with the students’ beliefs to construct these statements.
3. Put these statements in a format that allows for anticipation and prediction.
They can be ordered as they are discussed in the text or most to least

Steps in Implementing an Anticipation Guide:
1. Students individually complete the Anticipation Guide prior to reading the
2. As a class, discuss the students’ predictions before reading the text. Allow for
a wide range of responses as students use their varying background
3. Students read the text selection and evaluate their responses to the
Anticipation Guide as compared to the author’s ideas.
4. As a whole class, discuss how the students’ predictions compare and contrast
with the author’s intended meaning.
  Guided Imagery with Five Senses
- allows for students to visualize concepts prior to
  Activate/Build knowledge
  Foster self-image
  Explore concepts visually
  Solve/clarify problems
  Explore their imagination
- find a story in which the author has described several
  excellent images throughout the story
- instruct students to close their eyes and listen as the
  work is reads
- Column format
- The K stands for Know
  List what they already know (K) about the
  particular concept to activate prior knowledge
- The W stands for Want to Know
   List what they want to know or do not know;
  allows students to see gaps in thinking
- The L stands for Learn
   As they are reading, write down information that
  they learned
- After reading, hold a class discussion on results
  Reader: Active Phase of Reading
- Definition
  - during this phase the reader adjust and
  monitors reading skills by actively constructing
  -process the text by predicting information to
   come(inferring), clarifying words, phrases, and
  sentences that are confusing, summarizing, and
  asking questions
Metacognition- thinking about thinking
        Strategies for Active Phase
•   SQ3R Activity
•   QAR
•   Graphic Organizers Activity
•   ReQuest: Teacher and Whole Class
•   Say Something: Small Groups
•   Reciporical Teaching
•   Guided Reading Plan Activity
•   Story Mapping
•   Journals
Survey: The reader previews the material to develop a general
  outline for organizing information.
Question: The reader raises questions with the expectation of
  finding answers in the material to be studied.
Read: The reader next attempts to answer the questions
  formulated in the previous step.
Recite: The reader then deliberately attempts to answer out loud
  or in writing the questions formulated in the second step.
Review: The reader finally reviews the material by rereading
  portions of the assignment in order to verify the answers
  given during the previous step.
         Steps to the SQ3R Method
1. Lead students in a survey of a reading selection. Pay
   special attention to headings, subheadings, topic
   sentences, and highlighted words.
2. Build a question for each heading and subheading in the
   text selection.
3. Ask students to read the selection carefully, keeping the
   questions in mind as they read.
4. Have students "recite" the answers to the questions by
   verbalizing them in a group discussion or writing them
   down. This act of "restating" thought in spoken or written
   form reinforces learning.
5. Repeat this process for all of the questions.
6. Finally, have students review all of their spoken or written
           Graphic Organizers
- visual means of relating concepts
- numerous types of organizers
  zers%20for%20Reading. Pdf
                 Story Mapping
- type of graphic organizer used with literature
  or fiction works
- print and interactive online
          Character Mapping
              Say Something
- in small groups, students read the text and
  stop periodically
- students must say something about a
  prediction of theirs, a question, a comment, or
- provide a worksheet with the column
  headings “Prediction,” “Question,”
  “Comment,” and “Connection”
        Say Something Questions
“I think that ______________ will happen.”
“I predict that…”
 “I wonder why…”
 “I don’t understand…”
 “I liked ___________ in the story.”
 “I disliked __________ in the story.”
 “One interesting part of the story was…”
“This story reminds me of…”
 “This story is like…”
 “This character makes me think about…”
           Reciporical Teaching

- as a whole class or in small groups
- contain 4 basic components: predicting,
   questioning, summarizing, and clarifying
        Guided Reading Plan Activity
-    note ideas that they remember very well and those that are
-   emphasizes rereading, a good strategy for clarifying ideas while reading
GRP Steps:
1. Prepare students for reading.
2. Assign a portion of the text to be read OR read aloud a
   portion of the text.
3. After reading the portion of text, students will turn their
  books face down.
• 4. Have students make two columns on a sheet of paper. Mark
  the left column “Ideas I Know.” Mark the right column
• 5. Redirect students into their books/chapters to reread the
  portion of the text and revise the ideas on their chart.
- generally used with independent reading of
  fiction works
- can include general recall
- can include reflection on any connections
  made with material
- Examples
        Post Reading Strategies
- some overlap with active reading strategies
- design to extend understanding
- drawing, writing, creating
                 Vocabulary: Frayer Model
-    a graphical organizer used for word analysis and vocabulary building.
-    four-square model prompts
Defining the term
Describing its essential characteristics
Providing examples of the idea
Offering non-examples of the idea

This strategy stresses understanding words within the larger context of a reading selection by requiring students, first,
      analyze the items (definition and characteristics) and, second, to synthesize/apply this information by thinking
of examples and non-examples

Steps to the Frayer Model:
     Explain the Frayer model graphical organizer to the class. Use a common word to demonstrate the various
     components of the form. Model the type and quality of desired answers when giving this example.
     Select a list of key concepts from a reading selection. Write this list on the chalkboard and review it with the class
     before students read the selection.
     Divide the class into student pairs. Assign each pair one of the key concepts and have them read the selection
     carefully to define this concept. Have these groups complete the four-square organizer for this concept.
     Ask the student pairs to share their conclusions with the entire class. Use these presentations to review the entire
     list of key concepts.
                        Frayer Model
Definition in your own words           Facts/characteristics

Examples                                     Nonexamples
     Vocabulary: Latin Connection
- specific terms in content areas based on latin
-  knowing one root can give you reasonable definitions of
   many words.
- knowing one suffix (word ending) can give you the part of
   speech of a word.
- knowing one prefix (word beginning) can give you part of the
                     Text: Features
Common Text Features to Explicitly Teach Students

Table of contents
Inset photos
   Teaching Expository Text Structure

1. Find short examples of specific text structure
    types i.e. textbooks, newspapers, magazines
2. Model for the students how to determine the
    text structure:
a. Read the text selection together
b. Identify any words that signal or cue the reader
   to a particular structure.
c. Graph the text according to its structure by using
   a graphic map. Don’t use generic maps.
                Text Structure: Key Words
Time order             after, at the same time, before, finally, following, in the first place, last, later,
                       meanwhile, not long after, now, on, previously, when

Comparison/contrast    as well as, but, but also, by contrast, conversely, either/or, even if, even though,
                       in contrast, in spite of, instead, not only, on the other hand, opposed to, to the
                       contrary, unless, yet

Cause/effect           as a result of, because, consequently, if/then, nevertheless, since, therefore, this led

Listing/enumeration    and, first, second, finally, I must add, in addition, in addition, next, not only, others,
                       specifically, then
Structure of an Newspaper Article
 Structure of an Newspaper Article
• Structure of a Newspaper Article
  Each newspaper article has a title (called the headline) that is set in large
  type. The writer of a newspaper article is often not credited; if the author
  is mentioned, this credit is called the author's byline.
• The beginning of each newspaper article (the first paragraph) is called the
  lead (one or two sentences long); the lead should summarize the main
  facts of the article, telling the 5 W's (who, what, when, where, and why)
  and how. The first paragraph should also contain a hook, something that
  grabs the reader's attention and makes the reader want to read the rest of
  the article.
• The nut graph is the paragraph that contains the core information about
  the story and tells the reader why the story is important.
• The remainder of the article contains supporting paragraphs that go into
  more detail about the topic, often including quotes and interesting facts.
  The less important information should appear later in the article, since the
  article may be cropped (shortened) by the editor (the person who puts
  the newspaper together) to make the article fit on the newspaper page.
           Fiction Aspects

Question          Ideas

Predict           Organization

Infer             Voice

Connect           Word Choice

Feel              Sentence Fluency

Evaluate          Conventions

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