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					    FACTORS INFLUENCING MALAYSIAN
    STUDENTS’ INTENTION TO STUDY AT A
    HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION




       Presented By:
1
       Prof Dr Karl Wagner
       Pooyan Yousefi Fard
OUTLINE

      1   Introduction


      2   Literature Review


      3   Research Methodology


      4   Data Analysis and Findings

      5   Discussion and Conclusion
                                       2
         Introduction

                  Pre-school education



                   Primary Education              (Six Years)

Compulsory
 Education                        Pre-Secondary (One Year)                     The targeted
                                                                              sample in study
                  Secondary Education             (Five Years)



                                            University       Overseas Pre-U
  STPM       GCE A-Level   Matriculation    Foundation        (CPU, SAM)
                                               Year



                                                                                           3
                   Tertiary Education
       Introduction
                               Research Objective
1. To understand the importance of the main factors such as cost of
   education, degree (content and structure), physical aspect and
   facilities, value of education, and institutional information that
   will affect students’ intention to study at a HEI.
2. To identify the significant importance and influence of family
   and friends towards Malaysian students’ intention to further
   study at a HEI.

              Implications of Research

    The outcome of this research could be beneficial to both
   students (as the customers of educational institutions), and
  institutions (as the providers of the services) to obtain better
                                                                   4
               future planning and decision making
       Introduction
   NUMBER OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL
   INSTITUTIONS IN MALAYSIA


As at 31 Dec 2007, total education institutions registered with
Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia is shown below:

           Public Universities              20
           Public Polytechnics              58
           Private Institutions            543
In early 1990, there were 7 public universities in Malaysia,
compared to 20 in 2007, an increase of 13 new public universities
or 86% in nearly 2 decades.
Increase in number of higher education institutions in Malaysia
has provided students more options in selecting higher          5
education institutions for their tertiary study.
                 Literature Review
                                                             Previous Studies
      David Chapman (1981) is one of the pioneer researchers that developed a Model of Student College
       Choice and he concluded that there are three external influences that affect student’s college choice;
       significant persons, fixed college characteristics and college efforts to communicate with student.

      A Multi-attribute Model was employed to identify the important attributes and its impact level in
       influencing the potential students’ selection (Joseph and Joseph, 1998).

      In fact, there are several studies have been done on this goal based on different models. The
       literatures of previous studies are summarized as below:
                                                       Kind
         Reference           Analysis Applied            of         Top Five Factors Identified/ Main Finding
                                                       Study
1.     Chapman        Model of Student College         QT/Q    1. Significant persons and
       (1981)         Choice (combined model)           L      2. Fixed college characteristics
                                                               3. College efforts to communicate with student
2.     Krampf and     Multiple discriminant analysis    QT     Finding: Identifies the steps a prospective user would
       Heinlein                                                follow
       (1981)                                                  1. Attractiveness of the campus
                                                               2. Recommendation from family
                                                               3. Closeness to home                              6
                                                               4. Good programme in their major
                                                               5. Friendliness of the campus atmosphere
Notes : QT = Quantitative, QL = Qualitative
          Literature Review
                     Proposed important attributes in this study

      Joseph and Joseph (1998, 2000) have carried out two similar
       studies with the same designed multi-attribute model in two
       different countries, New Zealand and Indonesia.
New Zealand (1998)                                 Indonesia (2000)




Note: general = course and career information = influences of family

       Findings showed there were differences in the impact level
        of important attributes that affect students’ choice between
        two different cultural frameworks.                             7
     Literature Review
      Proposed important attributes in this study (cont’d)


According to the empirical finding in literature, a total of six factors
 are proposed as independent variables with one dependent variable.

  Independent Variable (IV)            Dependent Variable (DV)
      Cost of education
     Degree (Content and
          Structure)
  Physical Aspects, Facilities       Students’ Intention to study at
        and Resources                    a Higher Educational
                                               Institution
       Value of Education
    Institutional Information
                                                                            8
    Family, Friends and Peer
   Literature Review
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
 Independent Variables, IVs
       Cost of Education
                                    H1


 Degree (Content and Structure)
                                    H2
                                         Dependent Variable, DV

 Physical Aspects, Facilities and   H3
           Resources                      Intention to Study at a
                                           Higher Educational
                                    H4
       Value of Education                       Institution

                                    H5


    Institutional Information
                                    H6



   Family, Friends and Peers                                        9
   Research Methodology


SAMPLE
Students who are currently attending the pre-university level
 programme
Sampling processes were curried out in selected tuition
 centres, matriculation centre and some private institutions
There are many interests for HEI marketers to understand
 about what factors that influencing the students’ intention to
 study at a HEI
The convenience method of sampling was employed


                                                                  10
        Research Methodology

                                                Instrument Design

The instrument to gain primary data is a self-administered questionnaire containing three sections:

I.   The importance of factors influencing respondents’ intention to study at a HEI (six IVs) and
     respondents’ intention to study one potential Dependent Variable). Responses to the items were
     measured on a five-point Likert scale where 1 meant “Strongly Disagree” and 5 meant
     “Strongly Agree”.

II. The ranking of most important attributes.

III. Demographics.


Completed by face to face interviews and self-administered questionnaire

survey.                                                                                         11
        Research Methodology


RESULT OF SAMPLING (CONT’D)                                                              Age Group
                                Gender

                                                                        120                  63%
                                                                        100
                                                                        80
                                              Male, n =71   Number of
                                                                        60
                                                43.8%        Student
                                                                        40                            13%
                                                                                      9.9%
Female, n =91                                                           20                                      5.6%    4.9%   3.1%
                                                                               0.6%
   56.2%
                                                                         0
                                                                              15 or 16-17 18-19 20-21         22-23    24-25 above
                                                                              below                                           25
                                                                                                     Year



                          Ethnic Group                                                   Religion



                                                                              Hinduism    Others
                        Others
     Malaysian Indian                                                       n =17,10.5% n =1, 0.6%                     Islam
                      n =7, 4.3%             Malay
      n =24, 14.8%                                                                                                 n =50, 30.9%
                                         n =48, 29.6%


                                                               Buddhism
                                                             n =57, 35.2%
                  Malaysian                                                                                  Christianity         12
                   Chinese                                                                                  n =37, 22.8%
                n = 83, 51.2%
     Data Analysis and Findings



DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (CONT’D)
 Factors that ranked as the one (most important) by respondents (N = 162)
                                              Number of
Category                                     respondent, n      Percentage, %
Cost of Education                                 48               29.63
Value of Education                                43               26.54
Degree (Content and Structure)                    40               24.69
Family, Friends and Peer                          16                9.88
Physical Aspects, Facilities and Resources        8                 4.94
Institutional Information                         7                 4.32

 The total score of the three first factors is about 80.86 %
 Majority of respondents would consider the three factors are their
  primary concern in decision making process of their further study             13
   Data Analysis and Findings



INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS
Correlations between independent variables and dependent variable
                                                                       Intention to study
    Cost of education                            Pearson Correlation         .39**
                                                 Sig. (2-tailed)              .00
    Degree (content and structure)               Pearson Correlation         .41**
                                                 Sig. (2-tailed)              .00
    Physical aspects, facilities and resources   Pearson Correlation         .55**
                                                 Sig. (2-tailed)              .00
    Value of education                           Pearson Correlation         .46**
                                                 Sig. (2-tailed)              .00
    Institutional information                    Pearson Correlation         .56**
                                                 Sig. (2-tailed)              .00
    Family, friends and peers                    Pearson Correlation         .24**
                                                 Sig. (2-tailed)              .00


   There is a significant relationship between each IV and DV                              14
        Discussion and Conclusion



 DISCUSSION
 Comparison of ranking order of importance for three distinct nations

Rank     New Zealand (1998)             Indonesia (2000)             Malaysia (2008)
 1     Value of Education         Course and Career             Cost of Education
                                  Information**
 2     Degree (Content and        Physical Aspect, Facilities   Value of Education
       Structure)                 and Resources
 3     Cost of Education          Cost of Education             Degree (Content and
                                                                Structure)
 4     Physical Aspect,           Degree (Content and           Family, Friends and Peers
       Facilities and Resources   Structure)
 5     General*                   Value of Education            Physical Aspect, Facilities
                                                                and Resources
 6                -                             -               Institutional Information
                                                                                       15
  Discussion and Conclusion


CONCLUSION
                                Hypothesis                                        Result
 H1   There is a significant relationship between cost of education and          Accepted
      students’ intention to study at a higher educational institution
 H2   There is a significant relationship between degree (content and            Accepted
      structure) and students’ intention to study at a higher educational
      institution
 H3   There is a significant relationship between physical aspects, facilities   Accepted
      and resources and students’ intention to study at a higher educational
      institution
 H4   There is a significant relationship between value of education and         Accepted
      students’ intention to study at a higher educational institution
 H5   There is a significant relationship between relevant information           Accepted
      provided by the institution and students’ intention to study at a higher
      educational institution
 H6   There is a significant relationship between family, friends and peer       Accepted
      and students’ intention to study at a higher educational institution


                                                                                            16
        Discussion and Conclusion


 LIMITATION OF STUDY
    The sample size (N = 162) is insufficient to represent the whole
 population. In addition, sample were only sampled from the area of
 Klang-Valley, it might not give a good picture of view that reflecting
 the whole population.


FURTHER RESEARCH
 •A quantitative study as such may pave the way for a following
 qualitative study o explore the hows and circumstances of
 implementing the factors in the HEIs in Malaysia.

 •Perhaps such following studies could be using a
  comparative method.
                                                                          17
18
DEFINITION OF VARIABLES
      Independent Variable
  1. Cost of education (IV1)
     Definition: Students’ financial consumptions during study
      Measurable items
      - Reasonable cost
      - Accommodation at reasonable cost
      - Availability of financial aids
      Sample item
      An excellent institution provides education at a reasonable cost
  2. Degree (Content and Structure) (IV2)
     Definition: The availability and suitability of the offered courses to students
      Measurable items
      - Wide range of courses
      - Reasonable entry requirement
      - Specialist programmes
      Sample item
      An excellent institution provides a wide range of courses for students to select 19
      from
        Literature Review

DEFINITION OF VARIABLES (CONT’D)
     Independent Variable
3.   Physical Aspects, Facilities and Resources (IV3)
     Definition: Institutes’ structures and properties
     Measurable items
     - Ideal Location
     - Environment conducive to learning
     - Superb recreation and other facilities
     - Good social life on campus
     - Necessary resources available
     - Clean and safe environment
     - Good faculty
     Sample item
     An excellent institution is situated in an ideal location
4.   Value of Education (IV4)
     Definition: The preserved importance and principles of quality education
     Measurable items
     - Reputable degree programmes
     - Academic value
     - Recognition of degree programmes                                         20
     Sample item
     An excellent institution will have a reputable degree programme
     Literature Review

DEFINITION OF VARIABLES (CONT’D)
     Independent Variable
5.   Institutional Information (IV5)
     Definition: Information made available by institutions to students
     Measurable items
     - Information given on career opportunities
     - Information provided to choose area of study
     - Information related to post-graduate or further study
     Sample item
     An excellent institution provides its students with information regarding career
     opportunities
6.   Family, Friends and Peer (IV6)
     Definition: Influences of family members, friends and peer that affect students’ intention
     to study
     Measurable items
     - Family members influences
     - Friends influences
     - Peer influences
                                                                                              21
     Sample item
     Students rely on family members when it comes to choosing an excellent institution
   Literature Review


DEFINITION OF VARIABLES (CONT’D)

      Dependent Variable
   1 Intention to Study at a Higher Educational Institution (DV)
     Definition: Students’ intention to further their study at a higher
     educational institution
      Measurable items
      - Willingness to further study
      - recommend a higher educational institution to others
      - Say favorable thing regarding a higher educational institution
      - Willingness to spend for a a higher educational institution
      Sample item
      I would further my study at a higher educational institution
                                                                          22
   Discussion and Conclusion



IMPLICATION

 Our research has shown that HEI administrators,
 marketers and policy makers should focus on
 •Cost of education
 •Degree (content and structure).

  Other factors
 •Influences from family members
 •Friends and peer,
 •Physical aspects and facilities of HEI
 •Institutional information
                                                   23
               Research Methodology

 RESULT OF SAMPLING (CONT’D)
                                                           Currently Studying



                                                                 Others
                                                                                        STPM/Form Six
                                                              n =12, 7.4%
                                 Oversea Pre-U                                           n =48, 29.6%
                                 n =28, 17.3%

                                   University
                                  Foundation                                                 Matriculation
                                  Programme                       GCE A-Level                n =20, 12.3%
                                 n =19, 11.7%                     n =35, 21.6%




                       Household Number                                                           Family Monthly Income
                                         54.3%
                                                                                                                     75.9%
          90           43.8%                                                           140
          80                                                                           120
          70
                                                                                       100
          60
Number of 50                                                               Number of   80
 Student 40                                                                 Student    60           13.6%
          30                                                                                                                        10.5%
          20                                                 2.5%                      40                                                24
          10                                                                           20
           0                                                                            0
               Small size (1-4   Average size (5-8 Large Size (above                         Low (RM 2000 or Medium (RM 2001 High (RM 10001
                 persons)            persons)         8 persons)                                  less)        - RM 10000)      and above)
                                            Data Analysis and Findings



                     NORMALITY TESTS                                                                                                                                                                                                   Histogram
                                                                     Independent Variables, IVs
                                   The sum of cost of education                                               The sum of degree (content and structure)                             The sum of physical aspects, facilities and resources


            25                                                                       40                                                                               20




            20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Dependent Variable, DV
                                                                                                                                                                      15
                                                                                     30




                                                                                                                                                          Frequency
Frequency




                                                                         Frequency




            15                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The sum of intention to study
                                                                                                                                                                      10
                                                                                     20


            10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     25


                                                                                                                                                                       5
                                                                                     10
             5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mean =3.84
                                                                                       Mean =3.73                                                                   Mean =3.8                                                           Std. Dev. =0.679
                                                                                     Std. Dev. =0.865                                                             Std. Dev. =0.78                                                            N =162
                                                                                          N =162                                                                    0 N =162
             0                                                                        0                                                                                    2                3             4            5           6




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Frequency
                     2              3               4            5                                      2             3             4              5                                                                                               15
                                                                                                                                                                           The sum of physical aspects, facilities and resources
                             The sum of cost of education                                           The sum of degree (content and structure)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   10


                                  The sum of value of education                                                                Histogram                                                        The sum of family, friends and peers

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5
            40                                                                       40                                                                               40




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.00       3.00         4.00         5.00         6.00
            30                                                                       30                                                                               30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The sum of intention to study
Frequency




                                                                         Frequency




                                                                                                                                                          Frequency




            20                                                                       20                                                                               20




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (N = 162)
            10                                                                       10                                                                               10



                                                                                       Mean =3.95                                                                 Mean =3.92                                                              Mean =3.26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             25
                                                                                     Std. Dev. =0.836                                                           Std. Dev. =0.735                                                        Std. Dev. =0.749
                                                                                          N =162                                                                     N =162                                                                  N =162
             0                                                                        0                                                                           0
                 1       2              3       4            5       6                                  2             3             4              5                      1             2             3        4           5       6
                             The sum of value of education                                                  The sum of institutional information                                      The sum of family, friends and peers

				
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