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Morphology

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					  Morphology
  An Introduction to
the Structure of Words

  By Christian Monson
                    Goals
• Introduction to morphology
  – look at one interesting morphological
    phenomenon—allomorphy
• To help you read linguistic texts
  – what features can morphemes realize
            What is a Word?
• There are no spaces in spoken language

   Hewenttotownonhishorse
   Hew entt otow non hi shor se
   He went to town on his horse
 Example of Words (Hungarian)
a) Jánosénekel
   John sings

b) Máriaénekel
   Mary sings

c) Máriafut
   Mary runs
 Example of Words (Hungarian)
a) Jánosénekel
   John sings

b) Máriaénekel
   Mary sings

c) Máriafut
   Mary runs
              What is a Word?
• Possible Criteria
   – Recurring units of form and meaning
   – The smallest things you can say in isolation
   – Pauses are not possible inside a word
• There are many exceptions to these rules
   – Linguists always qualify what they mean by a word
• In this class words will be separated by spaces.
   – Even if the orthography of the language does not use spaces
                Morphemes
• Smallest unit of form and meaning
  – Here too there are exceptions but most linguists
    pretend that morphemes really do exist
Example of Morphemes
       (Hungarian again)

  keresek           I seek
  keresel           you seek
  keres             he/she/it seeks
  hiszek            I believe
  hiszel            you believe
  hisz              he/she/it believes
Example of Morphemes
       (Hungarian again)

  keresek           I seek
  keresel           you seek
  keresØ            he/she/it seeks
  hiszek            I believe
  hiszel            you believe
  hiszØ             he/she/it believes
             Allomorphs
• Same meaning
• Different form
• Complementary distribution
        Allomorphy Example:
            English Plural
bags, crabs, accidents, names, lollipops, brushes, churches,
maps, toes, faces, beds, books, prizes, flies, giraffes,
deaths, judges, garages…
        Allomorphy Example:
            English Plural
bags, crabs, accidents, names, lollipops, brushes, churches,
maps, toes, faces, beds, books, prizes, flies, giraffes,
deaths, judges, garages…
                  s            z       *z
              accidents      beds      faces
                books        bags      prizes
              lollipops     crabs    churches
                maps        names     brushes
               giraffes      toes     judges
               deaths        flies    garages
                * = reduced vowel
      Allomorph Environments
• Each allomorph has a separate environment
• Environments are complementary
   – Wrong: s occurs after consonants
   – Because: z and *z also occur after consonants
• Environments are complete
   – Wrong: z occurs after vowels
   – Because: z also occurs after voiced non-sibilants
• No unused environments
   – Wrong (usually): The plural of words ending in the
     phoneme p do not exist
              English Plural Cont.

• Identify the allomorph environments
• Generalize if possible
  – may require phonology—not covered in this class.
              English Plural Cont.

• Identify the allomorph environments
• Generalize if possible
  – may require phonology—not covered in this class.

    Allomorph                s                  z      *z
   Environment               ?                  ?      ?
              English Plural Cont.

• Identify the allomorph environments
• Generalize if possible
  – may require phonology—not covered in this class.

    Allomorph                s              z            *z
    Word-Final          t, k, p, f, d, g, b, m, v, l, s, z, ch,
     Phoneme          th(voiceless) r, and vowels sh, dg, ž
              English Plural Cont.

• Identify the allomorph environments
• Generalize if possible
  – may require phonology—not covered in this class.

    Allomorph                s              z            *z
    Word-Final          t, k, p, f, d, g, b, m, v, l, s, z, ch,
     Phoneme          th(voiceless) r, and vowels sh, dg, ž
     Generalize              ?                  ?         ?
              English Plural Cont.

• Identify the allomorph environments
• Generalize if possible
  – may require phonology—not covered in this class.

    Allomorph                s              z            *z
    Word-Final          t, k, p, f, d, g, b, m, v, l, s, z, ch,
     Phoneme          th(voiceless) r, and vowels sh, dg, ž
                       voiceless           voiced
     Generalize       non-sibilant       non-sibilant   sibilants
                      consonants           sounds
Complementary Distribution
            Complementary Distribution

All Sounds
(consonants + vowels)
             Complementary Distribution

 Consonants (b, d, f, g, k, l, m, …)

All Sounds
(consonants + vowels)
             Complementary Distribution
                            Sibilants (s, z, sh, ch, dg, …)

 Consonants (b, d, f, g, k, l, m, …)

All Sounds
(consonants + vowels)
             Complementary Distribution
                            Sibilants (s, z, sh, ch, dg, …)
                                                              Voiced (b, d, dg, g, l, m, …)
 Consonants (b, d, f, g, k, l, m, …)

All Sounds
(consonants + vowels)
             Complementary Distribution
                            Sibilants (s, z, sh, ch, dg, …)
                                                              Voiced (b, d, dg, g, l, m, …)
 Consonants (b, d, f, g, k, l, m, …)

All Sounds
(consonants + vowels)




            *z
             Complementary Distribution
                            Sibilants (s, z, sh, ch, dg, …)
                                                              Voiced (b, d, dg, g, l, m, …)
 Consonants (b, d, f, g, k, l, m, …)

All Sounds
(consonants + vowels)




            *z

             s
             Complementary Distribution
                            Sibilants (s, z, sh, ch, dg, …)
                                                              Voiced (b, d, dg, g, l, m, …)
 Consonants (b, d, f, g, k, l, m, …)

All Sounds
(consonants + vowels)




            *z

             s

             z
   Allomorphy Example:
 Hungarian Present Tense 1sg

hoz-ok          vár-ok         szűn-ök         hisz-ek
bring-1sgPres   wait-1sgPres   cease-1sgPres   believe-1sgPres
keres-ek        tud-ok         isz-ok          kér-ek
seek-1sgPres    know-1sgPres   drink-1sgPres   ask-1sgPres
mos-ok          vesz-ek        ad-ok           hív-ok
wash-1sgPres    buy-1sgPres    give-1sgPres    call-1sgPres
köt-ök          üt-ök          főz-ök          tart-ok
tie-1sgPres     hit-1sgPres    cook-1sgPres    hold-1sgPres
   Allomorphy Example:
 Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
               ok                        ek              ök
ad-ok           isz-ok          vesz-ek         köt-ök
give-1sgPres    drink-1sgPres   buy-1sgPres     tie-1sgPres
tart-ok         hív-ok          keres-ek        főz-ök
hold-1sgPres    call-1sgPres    seek-1sgPres    cook-1sgPres
vár-ok          hoz-ok          kér-ek          üt-ök
wait-1sgPres    bring-1sgPres   ask-1sgPres     hit-1sgPres
tud-ok          mos-ok          hisz-ek         szűn-ök
know-1sgPres wash-1sgPres       believe-1sgPres cease-1sgPres
       Allomorphy Example:
     Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph     ok       ek     ök
Environment    ?        ?      ?
         Allomorphy Example:
       Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek           ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i)   ö, ő, ü, ű
         Allomorphy Example:
       Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek           ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i)   ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized           ?                ?            ?
        Allomorphy Example:
      Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek         ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i) ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized        back             front front-rounded
        Allomorphy Example:
      Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek         ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i) ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized        back             front front-rounded

          All Vowels
        Allomorphy Example:
      Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek         ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i) ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized        back             front front-rounded

          All Vowels
        Front Vowels
        Allomorphy Example:
      Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek         ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i) ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized        back             front front-rounded

           All Vowels
         Front Vowels
 Front Rounded Vowels
        Allomorphy Example:
      Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek         ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i) ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized        back             front front-rounded

           All Vowels
         Front Vowels
 Front Rounded Vowels
        Allomorphy Example:
      Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek         ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i) ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized        back             front front-rounded

           All Vowels
         Front Vowels
 Front Rounded Vowels
        Allomorphy Example:
      Hungarian Present Tense 1sg
Allomorph             ok               ek         ök
Stem Vowel a, á, (i), í, o, ó, u, ú e, é, (i) ö, ő, ü, ű
 Generalized        back             front front-rounded

           All Vowels
         Front Vowels
 Front Rounded Vowels
          Features
• Nouns
                     Features
• Nouns
  – number
     • singular, dual, plural
  – case
     • nominative, accusative, dative, …
  – gender/class
     • male, female, neuter
     • animate, inanimate, man-made object, shape, …
          Features
• Verbs
                         Features
• Verbs
  – Person
     • first, second, third, third person far removed, …
  – Number
  – Tense
     • present, past, future, remote past, ...
  – Aspect
     • perfective, imperfective, habitual, repetitive, …
  – Mood
     • indicative, conditional, subjunctive (doubt or possibility), …
       Other Parts of Speech
• Adjectives
• Adverbs
• Determiners and Specifiers
          Other Parts of Speech
• Adjectives
   – Degree
      • positive, comparative, superlative, etc.
   – Number, Gender, Case
• Adverbs
   – Degree, …
• Determiners and Specifiers
   – Case
   – Who knows!
      • This is what Linguists try to elicit and categorize

				
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posted:10/24/2012
language:English
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