Fluency by xiaopangnv

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									        Welcome to the
 Comprehensive Center-Region VI
    Audio Web Conference
          Workshop

Sheryl Beglinger
Training and Outreach Specialist
Fluency – the ability to:
   read a text accurately and quickly
   recognize words automatically when
    reading silently
   group words quickly in ways that help
    them gain meaning from what is begin
    read
   read aloud effortlessly and with expression
   have their reading sound natural, as if they
    were speaking.
        Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks
       for Teaching Children to Read
How to Teach Fluency*
   Repeated Oral Reading
     Teacher-student      assisted reading
     Readers    theater
     Paired reading
     Tape-assisted reading (reading while
      listening)
     Partner (or buddy) reading
     Cross-age tutoring
   Independent Silent Reading
*Focus on Fluency (2003) by Jean Osborn, MEd; Fran Lehr, MA
   (2003)
Teacher-student assisted reading

   Includes:
    A  model of fluent reading, provided by the
      teacher or an adult
     Student reading the same text with guidance
      on word recognition and expression from the
      teacher or adult
     Student re-reads the passage until the
      reading is fluent – usually three or four re-
      readings
Ways to implement teacher-student
assisted reading
   Echo Reading
     Can  be used with small groups or whole class
     Teacher reads aloud a selection of the text
      and students repeat the section as they point
      to the word they are reading
Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction *
   First day
      Story is read aloud to class and discussed
      Review key vocabulary and design
       comprehension exercises around the story
      Sometimes, echo reading of story is used
       where teacher reads a paragraph, class
       echoes it back.
      Story is sent home to be read with parent or
       other readers (Children are expected to read
       15 min. at home for at least 4 days a week)
      *Kuhn, M.H. and S. Stahl. (2000) “Fluency: a review of
      developmental and remedial practices.” CIERA Report 2-008.
FORI* (cont.)
   Next day:
     Children reread story with partner-one
      partner reads page while other
      monitored reading, then switch roles
      until story is finished
     Teacher does some extension activities
      and then moves onto another story
     Later in the day, time is set aside for
      students to read books of their own
      choosing either alone or with partner
FORI (cont.)*
   Results
     1st year – 4 teachers in two schools, 2nd year
      – expanded to 10 teachers in three schools
     Both years, students gained on average 2
      years in reading growth as measured by
      informal reading inventory
     All children but 2, out 105 who began the 2nd
      gr. year reading at a primer level or higher,
      were reading at a 2nd gr. level or higher at the
      end of the year
         *Kuhn, M.H. and S. Stahl. (2000) “Fluency: a review of developmental and
    remedial practices.” CIERA Report 2-008.
Readers Theater
 Students rehearse and perform a play
  for peers or others
 Scripts are derived from books that are
  rich in dialogue
 Students are assigned speaking roles
 Provides a legitimate reason to re-read
  text and to practice fluency
 Particularly effective in motivating
  students with reading difficulty
Readers Theater Scripts

       Teaching Heart.net

       Reading Lady

       Aaron Shephard (ages 8 – 15)

       Lisa Blau

       More Information on Readers Theater
Paired Reading
   With Adult
     Session  begins with the adult reading the
      passage first
     Child and adult reading passage together
      several time in unison
     Child reads passage alone
Taped-assisted reading
   Students read along in their books with an
    audiotaped fluent reader
      Students point to each word as the
       reader says it
   After listening to the entire selection,
    students choose one passage to practice
   Students read aloud with the tape
    repeatedly until they can read it
    independently
   Students read the passage to the teacher
Partner/Buddy Reading
   Teacher first reads text aloud, pointing to the
    words that are read, and modeling expressive
    reading
   Students follow along in their books
   Pairs of students take turns reading a
    passage from the story to each other
   Fluent reader first reads the passage
    following the teacher’s model
   Struggling reader re-reads the passage until it
    can be read independently, usually after four
    re-readings
Partner Selection Process
     1.    Sam
                    1. Group 1 reader always
     2.    Julie       reads first to set the pace
     3.    Martin      and ensure accuracy
     4.    Susan    2. Group 2 reader reads and
     5.    Kelly       attempts to match the pace
     6.    Brent       of his or her partner
     7.    Rob      3. Teacher closely monitors
     8.    Jo          reading fluency, moving
                       around the room to listen to
     9.    Matt        each set of partners
     10.   Bob
Cross-age tutoring
   Older student who is a struggling reader is
    paired with a younger students who is also
    having difficulty reading
   Older student practices reading a passage
    from the younger student’s textbook until it
    can be read with accuracy, and expression.
   Older student reads the passage alone first,
    and then with the younger student several
    times.
   Younger student reads the passage aloud to
    the older student who will offer support and
    guidance.
General Principles of Fluency Training for
Students with Reading Disabilities*
   Repeated Reading can lead to improvements
    in reading speed, accuracy, comprehension,
    and expressions
   Students should be reading texts repeatedly
    at instructional or independent levels three or
    four times orally
   Multiple readings of single words or phrases
    may improve fluency
   Short, frequent periods of fluency practice
    should be scheduled on a regular basis with
    incentives
*Meyer, Marianne S., (1999) “Repeated Reading to Enhance Fluency: Old
Approaches and New Directions”. Annals of Dyslexia, Vol. 49, 283-306.
Effective repeated procedures
   Provide students with many opportunities to
    practice reading
   Provide students with guidance in how fluent
    readers read and with feedback to help them
    become aware of and correct their mistakes
   Found to improve reading ability of
    developing readers until at least 5th grade,
    and also helps struggling readers at higher
    grade levels.
Independent Silent Reading
For it to succeed:
 Teach students how to select books at
  appropriate reading levels and related to their
  reading interests
 After silent reading, set aside time for
  students to discuss what they read.
 Give parents tips on how to read with their
  child

Research has shown that even 15 minutes a
 day of independent reading can expose
 students to more than a million words of text
 in a year.
Text and the Development of
Fluency
 Sight word vocabulary: need to be
  recognized instantly for successful reading
  to occur. (107 words make up almost half
  the total words in written text)
 Content vocabulary
     Even with several readings, selections that
     contain a large number of one-use multi-
     syllabic words can hinder the development of
     fluency for some students
Selecting appropriate text
 Struggling readers need practice reading
  texts that will allow them to develop a
  large sight word vocabulary and to
  increase their confidence as readers to the
  point where they can tackle more difficult
  situations
 Researchers differ on whether to use
  independent level or instructional level text
  to build fluency
Helpful Websites

    Different forms of repeated reading
 instruction

    Activities for Increasing Reading Rate
Helpful Websites
    Readability Analysis and CBA
    (Curriculum Based Assessment)
    probe generator

    Level Estimator

    Dr. Edward Fry’s Instant Words
Fun Websites
   Clifford’s Big Ideas from PBSKids

   Printable Stories from Between the Lions

   Book Adventure

   The Indian Reading Series: Stories and
   Legends from the Northwest
           Wrap-Up
Questions/Concerns?


Remember – next week will be on
Tuesday, April 20th at 4:00 p.m.

								
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