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					                Augmented Reality for Haptic Display in
                  Robot-Assisted Surgical Systems
   THE PROBLEM                                                                             TESTING
   • Tele-manipulated MIS robots do not include
                                                                                           • We will validate the system using ten subjects (surgeons
     significant haptic (tactile or force) feedback
                                                                                             and non surgeons with varying levels of experienced on
   • This lack of feedback is detrimental to
                                                                                             the da Vinci) performing an instrument tie with and without
     performance of some surgical tasks
                                                                                             the augmented reality system
                                                                                           • We will compare performance with and without the
                                                                                             augmented reality system.
                                                                                           • All experiments performed at the Johns Hopkins Medical

                                                                                           THE FUTURE

                                                                                           • Comprehensive experiments with tasks that rely more
     Da Vinci Surgical System                            View from surgeon’s console         heavily on force
     (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.)                                                            • Try different sensory substitution methods

 • Experiments were conducted with visual and
   auditory feedback
 • Showed that sensory substitution of haptic
   information improves repeatability of applied
   suture forces and minimizes suture breakage

 • Develop an augmented reality system for visual
                                                                                          Design of overlay that changes colors as forces are being applied and tracks
   sensory substitution of haptic information where                                       instrument tips using kinematics tool tracker.
   forces are displayed to surgeons in an intuitive                                    PEOPLE INVOLVED
   and accessible way.
                                                                                       • Graduate Students: Takintope Akinbiyi, Carol Reiley, Sunipa Saha
 • Determine the effectiveness of forces displayed
                                                                                       • Research Faculty: Darius Burschka
   visually to the user using a tele-manipulation
   system.                                                                             • Principle Investigator: Allison M. Okamura
 1) Inexpensive strain gauges added to lower shaft of                                  • Clinicians: David Yuh
    micro-forceps tool of da Vinci Surgical System to
                                                                                       • Industrial Collaboration: Christopher Hasser, Intuitive Surgical Inc.
    measure bending forces. Using specialized
    cannulas to allow for strain gage wire.
 2) Orientation and position of tool end effector and
    endoscope are tracked using robot kinematics
    and used in computer vision for tool tracking.                                     REFERENCES
 3) Superimpose a spherical overlay on each tool,
                                                                                       • T. Akinbiyi, A. M. Okamura, D. D. Yuh, “Dynamic
    whose colors change in response to the forces
                                                                                         Augmented Reality for Haptic Display in Robot-Assisted
    measured at tool tip. Overlays follow tool in real
                                                                                         Surgical Systems,” Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 13, J.D.
                                                                                         Westwood, et al., IOS Press, pg. 33, 2005.
         Wires through
         tool shaft                                                                    • A. M. Okamura, “Methods for Haptic Feedback in
                           Strain       Special “clamshell”
                                        cannulas                                         Teleoperated Robot Assisted Surgery,” Industrial Robot,
                                                                                         Vol. 31, No. 6., pp. 499-508, 2004.
                                                                 Tool End
                                                                                         SUPPORTED BY:
                                                                                         • NSF EEC-9731478
                                                                                         • Whitaker Foundation RG-02-911
                                                                                         • NIH R01-EB002004

                                                                                       Engineering Research Center for Computer Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology

Two pairs of strain gauges in full bridge configuration to maximize sensitivity and
measure bending forces are mounted on a da Vinci instrument

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