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					Plants
          Plant Identification
• Many things are taken into consideration
  when trying to identify a plant.
• Roots, stems, leaves and flowers will help
  in the identification process.
          Plant Identification
• You have two main categories of plants.
   –Monocots – grasses, grain crops, lilies,
    gladiolas, and palm trees
       Plant Identification
–Dicots - most of the other plants such
 as the shrubs, trees, and flowers.
      Types of Roots
• Tap Root
   –Have a main central root and
    may have some lateral
    branching
   –E.g. Carrots
            Types of Roots
• Fibrous
  –Have many roots of equal size and a lot
   of lateral branching
  –Fibrous roots are generally much more
   diffuse and closer to the surface
       Types of Roots

• Nitrogen fixing roots - members of
  the Leguminosae family (alfalfa, peas
  and clover) have a bacteria that
  infects their roots and forms nodules.
  The bacteria are able to fix
  atmospheric nitrogen, to a form, that
  the plant can use.
Dicot Seed
Monocot Seed
   Mature Structure of Woody vs
       Herbaceous Stems
• Herbaceous stems
  –Lack secondary growth - because
   plants only live one year/growing
   season (annuals)
   Mature Structure of Woody vs
       Herbaceous Stems
• Woody stems
  –Plants living and growing over multiple
   seasons have secondary growth
   (xylem, phloem) increasing diameter of
   the stems
         Parts of a Dicot Leaf
• Leaf blade – expanded, usually flat
  portion of a leaf – contains chloroplasts
• Petiole – connects the blade of a leaf to a
  stem or branch – holds leaf up for better
  air flow and to catch the light
         Parts of a Dicot Leaf
• Veins – threads of vascular tissue (xylem
  & phloem)
• Node – place on a stem where leaves or
  branches normally originate
• Stem – used for support of leaf
Where leaf would be
attached to the branch   Petiole
or stem at the node.




                           Veins
  Leaf
  Blade


  Dicot Leaf
       Parts of a Monocot Leaf
• Node – where leaf arises or originates
  from
• Blade – leaf blade – flat upper portion of
  leaf
• Stem – used for support of leaf,
  inflorescence, and seed heads
       Parts of a Monocot Leaf
• Sheath – part of leaf that holds leaf to
  stem – encases stem
• Ligule – membrane-like tissue extending
  up from the sheath (on inside) – keeps
  dirt and moisture out – clear membrane
  on leaf where attaches to stem
                   Monocot Leaf
         Blade
          Sheath



                                Node



Collar                        Auricle
            Stem

                     Ligule
Differences Between Monocot and
           Dicot Leaves
  • Monocots – blade like leaf blade –
    wrap around the stem – no petiole –
    have main vascular bundles running
    parallel along length of leaf
  • Dicots – Have both a leaf blade and a
    petiole – single midrib (Vascular
    bundles) with branches
           Two Types of Leaves
• Simple leaves – composed of a single leaf
  and a petiole
                   Blade




Petiole
          Simple
          Leaf
         Two Types of Leaves
• Compound leaves – are composed of a
  blade that includes several leaflets and a
  petiole – also contain a rachis (connects
  leaflets to the petiole) – two types:
      Two Types of Leaves
–Palmately Compound – (chestnut) –
 the lobes or divisions come together
 and are attached at one place at the
 base
Leaf
Blade
                  Palmately
                  Compound
                  Leaf


        Petiole
 Two Types of Leaves

–Pinnately Compound – compound
 leaf with the leaflets on two
 opposite sides, but off of one node
 – ex: ferns, ash, hickory
                          Leaflets

Leaf Blade




                  Pinnately
        Petiole
                  Compound
                  Leaf
          Leaf Arrangement
• Monocots – have only one type of
  arrangement – leaf comes off of a node –
  ex: grasses and grain crops
     Leaf Arrangement

 Dicots– flowering plants
   Alternate – one leaf per node
   Opposite – two leaves per node
   Whorled – three or more leaves per
    node
   Leaf Arrangements

 Whorl  – look like helicopter blades – ex:
  Bedstraw
 Alternate – one on each side of the
  stem, are not opposite of each other
  but every other one
 Opposite – one on each side of the
  stem and opposite of each other
  Arrangement of Veins

• Four types of vein arrangements:
   –Parallel veins – veins are small and
    run more or less parallel – most
    are long and narrow – ex:
    Buckhorn Plantain, grasses and Iris
    – mostly monocots
     Arrangement of Veins
–Netted veins – are large and small –
 the small ones connecting to each
 other to form a net – mostly dicots
     Arrangement of Veins
–Pinnately veined – with one larger
 midvein and smaller veins coming off
 along its length – mostly dicots
      Arrangement of Veins
–Palmately veined- with two or more
 large veins arising at or near the base
 of the leaf blade (palm) – leaves are
 usually broad or fat – mostly dicots
Parallel Veins




Netted
Veins


             Palmately
             Veined
 Pinnately
 Veined
              Flowers
–Dicots –have sepals and/or petals in
 multiples of four or five
–Monocots – have sepals in multiples of
 threes

Angiosperms – flowering plants.
Gymnosperms – cone bearing plants.
  Parts of a Flower

   Sepals                 Petals

                        Stamens (anther
                        & filaments)


Pedicel               Pistil
                      (stigma,style &
                      ovaries)
Parts of a Flower



       Pedicel



                    Sepals
    Receptacle
Types of Monocots and Dicots
Vascular Bundle of Monocots

              • In monocots, the
                vascular bundles in
                the stem cross
                section are usually
                scattered or more
                complex of an
                arrangement as
                compared to dicots.
Vascular Bundle of Dicots

             • The vascular bundles
               in the stem cross
               section of dicots are
               arranged in a circle,
               or ring.
Comparison of Plants

          • Monocot is on the
            left
             – Oat plant
          • Dicot is on the right
             – Bean plant


          • Notice the difference
            in the two plants
Characteristics of Dicots
Characteristics of Monocots

				
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posted:10/24/2012
language:English
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