intro by xiaopangnv


									      WEB AUDIT

                               What is Intelligence Artificial?
      Web review by MOSSAN Aurélie and AMROUNI Alban


      The term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy. How is it being

referred to today?

      Artificial Intelligence is a multi-disciplinary field, which involves at least psychology,

cognitive science, computer science and neuroscience. Psychologists, cognitive psychologists in

particular, play a prominent role in the research of artificial intelligence because much of

A.I.'s success depends on the reverse-engineering of human intelligence. John McCarthy of

Stanford University, known as the father of artificial intelligence, says:

      Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world.

Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines.

      AI is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like


      The science of AI is not just about computers.

      To equip a computer with a human intelligence so that it is infallible, so that it does not

have any defects (like humans), poses a deep dilemma concerning ethics Artificial intelligence

gives the possibility of making a being higher than man.

      2. SUMMARIES

         The first article was written by Hugo de Garis.

      This article discusses how intelligists will be able to construct true electronic brains,

called artilects, within one to two human generations.

      This prospect raises the moral dilemma of whether human beings should or should not

allow artilects to be built, and whether artilects should or should not be allowed to modify

themselves into superbeings, beyond human comprehension. This dilemma will probably

dominate political and philosophical discussion in the 21st century.
         The second article is by Marvin Minsky

      Marvin Minsky think it will be possible, when our knowledge will be more advanced, to

program a computer to be self-conscious, by providing machines with ways to examine their

own mechanisms while they are working.

      he asks the question to know if the computer could reach richer mental lives than

people have and even might be better than ourselves.

      He also thinks there is a problem of the ethical dilemma but for him it is possible that

people will change opinion on the subject and will accept the idea of an artificial intelligence.

         The third article was authored by Mike Dobra

      The author said that computers are ubiquitous in today's world. He raises the question

know whether or not computers could become intelligent. And he pretends to show why

computers will become intelligent. He explains that there are different goals for IA

according to points of view.


Some texts do not exist anymore and there are not enough links to find appropriate sources.

      There is no biography of the authors and no summary of their work. We can’t know if

they are scientists or university professors or both.


      This site is very poor, in its form and in its contents . This site shows us that there are

only three authors who have written on the subject. In reality, there are many more

scientists who have covered the theme.

The documents are short and the summaries too succinct to show us what their real works.

The site is too short and the style has not been arranged. No home page, no index. All the

site fit to one page, the caractor police is not attractive, there are no colors.

There is no translation of the summaries in order to have a better comprehension of texts.

The students who made the web review didnt place on line the originals documents.

The text of Hugo de Garis desn’t exist anymore, and it has been taken off the Web.

The lexicons are not complete and not sufficiently relevant.

There is no biography of the authors.

The links of this web revue no longer exist. And do not permit to find the texte of origine.
The students didn’t use different sites concerning the researches on artificial intelligence,

sites like MIT or AAAI, which are the most important research organisations.

      5. VERDICT

      This topic makes as reflect upon the superiority human intelligence over the computer.

To give conscience and human feeling to a computer or an artificial body is a real revolution

for humanity. We can realize this by observing the complexity of the debate about this. That

is why we have chosen this theme because this constantly moving computer technology

requires permanent reactualization.

                                                                           Philippe FERRARA

                                                                                 Yan GUMIEL

                                                                               LAP 2001-2002

To top