Digestive by xiaopangnv


• The appendix is a fingerlike pouch
  attached to the large intestine and
  located in the lower right area of the
• Symptoms of appendicitis may include
  abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea,
  vomiting, constipation or diarrhea,
  inability to pass gas, low-grade fever, and
  abdominal swelling.
• A doctor can diagnose most cases of
  appendicitis by taking a person’s medical
  history and performing a physical
  examination. Sometimes laboratory and
  imaging tests are needed to confirm the
• Appendicitis is typically treated by
  removing the appendix.
• Appendicitis is a medical emergency that
  requires immediate care.
• Everyone has gas in the digestive tract.
• People often believe normal passage of gas to be excessive. 1-4 pints / 14
  times a day
• Gas comes from two main sources: swallowed air and normal breakdown
  of certain foods by harmless bacteria naturally present in the large
• Many foods with carbohydrates can cause gas. Fats and proteins cause
  little gas.
• Foods that may cause gas include
    – beans
    – vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, onions, artichokes, and
    – fruits, such as pears, apples, and peaches
    – whole grains, such as whole wheat and bran
    – soft drinks and fruit drinks
    – milk and milk products, such as cheese and ice cream, and packaged foods prepared
      with lactose, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing
    – foods containing sorbitol, such as dietetic foods and sugar-free candies and gums
• Symptoms: belching, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain.
• Reduce the discomfort: changing diet, taking digestive enzymes, and
  reduce the amount of air swallowed.
                  Crohn’s Disease
•   sores called ulcers in intestines
•   Men and women, 20-30 – runs in families
•   abdominal pain and diarrhea
•   Treatment may include:
    –   drugs
    –   minerals and vitamins
    –   surgery
    –   nutritional support
• hot spices, alcohol, greasy foods, and sometimes
  milk products may make diarrhea and abdominal
  pain worse.
                     Gall Stones
• Gallstones form when bile hardens in the gallbladder.
• Gallstones are more common among older adults; women;
  American Indians; Mexican Americans; people with
  diabetes; those with a family history of gallstones; people
  who are overweight, obese, or undergo rapid weight loss;
  and those taking cholesterol-lowering drugs.
• Gallbladder attacks often occur after eating a meal,
  especially one high in fat.
• Symptoms can mimic those of other problems, including a
  heart attack, so an accurate diagnosis is important.
• Gallstones can cause serious problems if they become
  trapped in the bile ducts.
• Laparoscopic surgery to remove the gallbladder is the most
  common treatment.
                               Kidney Stones
•   The main symptom is severe pain that starts suddenly and may go away suddenly, felt in the belly
    area or side of the back , may move to groin area (groin pain) or testicles (testicle pain)
•   Other symptoms: Abnormal urine color, Blood in the urine , Chills, Fever ,Nausea ,Vomiting, Kidney
•   A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. One or more stones can be in the kidney or
    ureter at the same time.
•   Treatment:
    Kidney stones that are small enough usually pass on their own.
    Drink at least 6 - 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large amount of urine. Some people might
    need to get fluids through a vein (intravenous).
    Pain relievers, medicine to decrease stone formation or help break down and remove the material
    that is causing the stone. When the stone passes, the urine should be strained and the stone saved
    and tested to determine the type.
•   Surgery is usually needed if:
    stone is too large to pass on its own , stone is growing , stone is blocking urine flow and causing an
    infection or kidney damage
•   Today, most treatments are much less invasive than in the past.
    Ultra-sound shock waves.
    Ureteroscopy may be used for stones in the lower urinary tract.
    Standard open surgery (nephrolithotomy) may be needed if other methods do not work or are not
•   If you have a history of stones, drink plenty of fluids (6 - 8 glasses of water per day) to produce
    enough urine. Depending on the type of stone, you might need to take medications or other
    measures to prevent the stones from returning.
•   You may need to change your diet to prevent some types of stones from coming back.
                        Lactose Intolerant
•    inability or insufficient ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and milk products.
•   Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the
    cells lining the small intestine.
•   Most people with lactose intolerance can tolerate some amount of lactose in their diet.
•   Symptoms can include abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, gas, diarrhea, and nausea.
•   dietary changes.
•   calcium and vitamin D alternatives
    Rhubarb                           1 cup 348 mg
    Sardines, with bone,              3 oz. 325 mg
    Spinach,                          1 cup 291 mg
    Salmon, canned, with bone, 3 oz. 181 mg
    Soy milk, unfortified,            1 cup 61 mg
    Orange,                           1 medium 52 mg
    Broccoli, raw,                    1 cup 41 mg
    Pinto beans, cooked,              1/2 cup 40 mg
    Lettuce greens,                   1 cup 20 mg
    Tuna, white, canned,                          3 oz. 12 mg
•   calcium and other dietary supplements may be needed.
•   Milk and milk products are often added to processed foods. Checking the ingredients on food
    labels is helpful in finding possible sources of lactose in food products.
•   A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus.
•   Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)—such as aspirin and
    ibuprofen—is the second most common cause of peptic ulcers.
•   Neither stress nor spicy food causes peptic ulcers. But like smoking or drinking
    alcohol, either can make ulcers worse and prevent healing.
•   If H. pylori caused the ulcers, antibiotics are taken to kill the germ.
•   If NSAIDs caused the ulcers, a doctor will decide the best treatment.
•   Medicines that reduce stomach acid and protect the lining of the stomach and
    duodenum help ulcers heal.
•   Tips to help prevent ulcers caused by H. pylori infection include
     – washing your hands after using the bathroom and before eating
     – eating properly prepared food
     – drinking water from a clean, safe source
•   Tips to help prevent ulcers caused by NSAIDs include
     – stopping NSAIDs, if possible
     – taking NSAIDs with a meal
     – using a lower dose of NSAIDs
     – talking with your doctor about medicines to protect your stomach and duodenum while taking
     – asking your doctor about switching to a medicine that won’t cause ulcers
                      Inguinal Hernia
• intra-abdominal fat or part of the small intestine, also called the small
  bowel, bulges through a weak area in the lower abdominal muscles.
• An inguinal hernia occurs in the groin—the area between the abdomen
  and thigh.
• can occur any time from infancy to adulthood and is much more common
  in males than females.
• Symptoms of an inguinal hernia usually appear gradually and include a
  bulge in the groin, discomfort or sharp pain, a feeling of weakness or
  pressure in the groin, and a burning, gurgling, or aching feeling at the
• A strangulated hernia, in which the blood supply to the incarcerated small
  intestine is jeopardized, is a serious condition and requires immediate
  medical attention. Symptoms include extreme tenderness and redness in
  the area of the bulge, sudden pain that worsens quickly, fever, rapid heart
  rate, nausea, and vomiting.
• An inguinal hernia is diagnosed through a physical examination.
• Inguinal hernias may be repaired through surgery. Surgery is performed
  through one incision or with a laparoscope and several small incisions.
   Heartburn – Acid Reflux -GERD
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in
  which food or liquid travels backwards from the
  stomach to the esophagus
• Avoid alcohol and tobacco
• Avoid dietary fat, chocolate, caffeine, peppermint,
  onions, garlic, citrus juices, and tomato products
  (which may cause lower esophageal pressure)
• Avoid lying down after meals
• Sleep with the head of the bed elevated
• Take medication with plenty of water
• Weight reduction
• OTC antacids after meals and at bedtime, although
  they do not last very long
             Cirrhosis of the Liver
• loss of liver cells and irreversible scarring of the liver.
• Alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C are common causes
  of cirrhosis, although there are many other causes.
• Cirrhosis can cause weakness, loss of appetite, easy
  bruising, yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and
• Treatment of cirrhosis is designed to prevent further
  damage to the liver, treat complications of cirrhosis,
  and preventing or detecting liver cancer early.
• Transplantation of the liver is becoming an important
  option for treating patients with advanced cirrhosis.
• Constipation may be present if you have three or fewer bowel
  movements in a week or if the stool is hard, dry, painful, or difficult
  to pass.
• Constipation affects almost everyone at one time or another.
• In most cases, following these simple steps will help prevent
    –   Eat a variety of foods, especially vegetables, fruits, and grains.
    –   Drink plenty of liquids.
    –   Exercise regularly.
    –   Visit the restroom when you feel the urge to have a bowel movement.
• Fiber pills and powders may help relieve constipation.
• Most people with mild constipation do not need laxatives. However,
  your doctor may recommend a laxative for a limited time if you
  have constipation that does not improve. LIMITED!
• Some medicines can cause constipation.
• Diarrhea is a common problem that usually resolves on
  its own.
• Diarrhea is dangerous if a person becomes dehydrated.
• Causes include viral, bacterial, parasitic infections, food
  intolerance, reactions to medicine, intestinal diseases,
  and functional bowel disorders.
• Treatment involves replacing lost fluid and electrolytes.
   – medication to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection.
   – Children may need an oral rehydration solution to replace
     lost fluid and electrolytes. (Pedialyte)
   – Reye’s Syndrome – Pepto (salicylic acid)
• Call the doctor if the person with diarrhea has severe
  pain in the abdomen or rectum, a fever of 102 degrees
  or higher, blood in the stool, signs of dehydration, or
  diarrhea for more than 3 days.
• IBS means your bowel doesn’t work the right way.
• IBS can cause cramping, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and
• IBS doesn’t damage the bowel or lead to other health
• The doctor will diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. You
  may need to have medical tests to rule out other health
• Stress doesn’t cause IBS, but it can make your symptoms
• Fatty foods, milk products, chocolate, alcohol, and caffeinated
  and carbonated drinks can trigger symptoms.
• Eating foods with fiber and eating small meals throughout the
  day may reduce symptoms.
• Treatment for IBS may include medicine, stress relief, and
  changes in eating habits.
• Pancreas doesn’t produce enough (or any) insulin to
  break down carbs
• Who gets it? : African-Americans,Hispanic
              Americans, Native Americans,Asian-
              Americans,Pacific Islanders
• Signs & Symptoms:Frequent urination, Excessive thirst
  ,Extreme hunger, Unusual weight loss, Increased
  fatigue, Irritability, Blurry vision
                  Types of Diabetes
• Type 1 diabetes
  - formerly juvenile diabetes – now called “insulin dependent”
  - pancreas produces no insulin – must take multiple shots daily
  - 5-10% of Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 1
• Type 2 diabetes
  - formerly adult onset diabetes – lots of kids getting it because of
    Poor diets.
  - Most Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 2
• Gestational diabetes
  Immediately after pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational
  diabetes are found to have diabetes, usually, type 2.
• Pre-diabetes
  Pre-diabetes is a condition that occurs when a person's blood
  glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a
  diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. There are 57 million Americans who
  have pre-diabetes, in addition to the 23.6 million with diabetes.
  Other terms related to diabetes
• Hyperglycemic – too much sugar in bloodstream
• Hypoglycemic – too little sugar in bloodstream
• Issues related to diabetes
  Loss of circulation, Infections,Loss of eyesight
   – Other organs (kidneys & heart) put under stress
Treatments: healthy diet & exercise,
  Insulin (synthetic, beef or pork) can be
  administered by pills, shots or a pump
    Does this mean I have to just sit around &
                  do nothing?
                                                Not hardly!!
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                                                people all
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