• The appendix is a fingerlike pouch
attached to the large intestine and
located in the lower right area of the
• Symptoms of appendicitis may include
abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea,
vomiting, constipation or diarrhea,
inability to pass gas, low-grade fever, and
• A doctor can diagnose most cases of
appendicitis by taking a person’s medical
history and performing a physical
examination. Sometimes laboratory and
imaging tests are needed to confirm the
• Appendicitis is typically treated by
removing the appendix.
• Appendicitis is a medical emergency that
requires immediate care.
• Everyone has gas in the digestive tract.
• People often believe normal passage of gas to be excessive. 1-4 pints / 14
times a day
• Gas comes from two main sources: swallowed air and normal breakdown
of certain foods by harmless bacteria naturally present in the large
• Many foods with carbohydrates can cause gas. Fats and proteins cause
• Foods that may cause gas include
– vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, onions, artichokes, and
– fruits, such as pears, apples, and peaches
– whole grains, such as whole wheat and bran
– soft drinks and fruit drinks
– milk and milk products, such as cheese and ice cream, and packaged foods prepared
with lactose, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing
– foods containing sorbitol, such as dietetic foods and sugar-free candies and gums
• Symptoms: belching, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain.
• Reduce the discomfort: changing diet, taking digestive enzymes, and
reduce the amount of air swallowed.
• sores called ulcers in intestines
• Men and women, 20-30 – runs in families
• abdominal pain and diarrhea
• Treatment may include:
– minerals and vitamins
– nutritional support
• hot spices, alcohol, greasy foods, and sometimes
milk products may make diarrhea and abdominal
• Gallstones form when bile hardens in the gallbladder.
• Gallstones are more common among older adults; women;
American Indians; Mexican Americans; people with
diabetes; those with a family history of gallstones; people
who are overweight, obese, or undergo rapid weight loss;
and those taking cholesterol-lowering drugs.
• Gallbladder attacks often occur after eating a meal,
especially one high in fat.
• Symptoms can mimic those of other problems, including a
heart attack, so an accurate diagnosis is important.
• Gallstones can cause serious problems if they become
trapped in the bile ducts.
• Laparoscopic surgery to remove the gallbladder is the most
• The main symptom is severe pain that starts suddenly and may go away suddenly, felt in the belly
area or side of the back , may move to groin area (groin pain) or testicles (testicle pain)
• Other symptoms: Abnormal urine color, Blood in the urine , Chills, Fever ,Nausea ,Vomiting, Kidney
• A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. One or more stones can be in the kidney or
ureter at the same time.
Kidney stones that are small enough usually pass on their own.
Drink at least 6 - 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large amount of urine. Some people might
need to get fluids through a vein (intravenous).
Pain relievers, medicine to decrease stone formation or help break down and remove the material
that is causing the stone. When the stone passes, the urine should be strained and the stone saved
and tested to determine the type.
• Surgery is usually needed if:
stone is too large to pass on its own , stone is growing , stone is blocking urine flow and causing an
infection or kidney damage
• Today, most treatments are much less invasive than in the past.
Ultra-sound shock waves.
Ureteroscopy may be used for stones in the lower urinary tract.
Standard open surgery (nephrolithotomy) may be needed if other methods do not work or are not
• If you have a history of stones, drink plenty of fluids (6 - 8 glasses of water per day) to produce
enough urine. Depending on the type of stone, you might need to take medications or other
measures to prevent the stones from returning.
• You may need to change your diet to prevent some types of stones from coming back.
• inability or insufficient ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and milk products.
• Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the
cells lining the small intestine.
• Most people with lactose intolerance can tolerate some amount of lactose in their diet.
• Symptoms can include abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, gas, diarrhea, and nausea.
• dietary changes.
• calcium and vitamin D alternatives
Rhubarb 1 cup 348 mg
Sardines, with bone, 3 oz. 325 mg
Spinach, 1 cup 291 mg
Salmon, canned, with bone, 3 oz. 181 mg
Soy milk, unfortified, 1 cup 61 mg
Orange, 1 medium 52 mg
Broccoli, raw, 1 cup 41 mg
Pinto beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 40 mg
Lettuce greens, 1 cup 20 mg
Tuna, white, canned, 3 oz. 12 mg
• calcium and other dietary supplements may be needed.
• Milk and milk products are often added to processed foods. Checking the ingredients on food
labels is helpful in finding possible sources of lactose in food products.
• A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus.
• Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)—such as aspirin and
ibuprofen—is the second most common cause of peptic ulcers.
• Neither stress nor spicy food causes peptic ulcers. But like smoking or drinking
alcohol, either can make ulcers worse and prevent healing.
• If H. pylori caused the ulcers, antibiotics are taken to kill the germ.
• If NSAIDs caused the ulcers, a doctor will decide the best treatment.
• Medicines that reduce stomach acid and protect the lining of the stomach and
duodenum help ulcers heal.
• Tips to help prevent ulcers caused by H. pylori infection include
– washing your hands after using the bathroom and before eating
– eating properly prepared food
– drinking water from a clean, safe source
• Tips to help prevent ulcers caused by NSAIDs include
– stopping NSAIDs, if possible
– taking NSAIDs with a meal
– using a lower dose of NSAIDs
– talking with your doctor about medicines to protect your stomach and duodenum while taking
– asking your doctor about switching to a medicine that won’t cause ulcers
• intra-abdominal fat or part of the small intestine, also called the small
bowel, bulges through a weak area in the lower abdominal muscles.
• An inguinal hernia occurs in the groin—the area between the abdomen
• can occur any time from infancy to adulthood and is much more common
in males than females.
• Symptoms of an inguinal hernia usually appear gradually and include a
bulge in the groin, discomfort or sharp pain, a feeling of weakness or
pressure in the groin, and a burning, gurgling, or aching feeling at the
• A strangulated hernia, in which the blood supply to the incarcerated small
intestine is jeopardized, is a serious condition and requires immediate
medical attention. Symptoms include extreme tenderness and redness in
the area of the bulge, sudden pain that worsens quickly, fever, rapid heart
rate, nausea, and vomiting.
• An inguinal hernia is diagnosed through a physical examination.
• Inguinal hernias may be repaired through surgery. Surgery is performed
through one incision or with a laparoscope and several small incisions.
Heartburn – Acid Reflux -GERD
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in
which food or liquid travels backwards from the
stomach to the esophagus
• Avoid alcohol and tobacco
• Avoid dietary fat, chocolate, caffeine, peppermint,
onions, garlic, citrus juices, and tomato products
(which may cause lower esophageal pressure)
• Avoid lying down after meals
• Sleep with the head of the bed elevated
• Take medication with plenty of water
• Weight reduction
• OTC antacids after meals and at bedtime, although
they do not last very long
Cirrhosis of the Liver
• loss of liver cells and irreversible scarring of the liver.
• Alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C are common causes
of cirrhosis, although there are many other causes.
• Cirrhosis can cause weakness, loss of appetite, easy
bruising, yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and
• Treatment of cirrhosis is designed to prevent further
damage to the liver, treat complications of cirrhosis,
and preventing or detecting liver cancer early.
• Transplantation of the liver is becoming an important
option for treating patients with advanced cirrhosis.
• Constipation may be present if you have three or fewer bowel
movements in a week or if the stool is hard, dry, painful, or difficult
• Constipation affects almost everyone at one time or another.
• In most cases, following these simple steps will help prevent
– Eat a variety of foods, especially vegetables, fruits, and grains.
– Drink plenty of liquids.
– Exercise regularly.
– Visit the restroom when you feel the urge to have a bowel movement.
• Fiber pills and powders may help relieve constipation.
• Most people with mild constipation do not need laxatives. However,
your doctor may recommend a laxative for a limited time if you
have constipation that does not improve. LIMITED!
• Some medicines can cause constipation.
• Diarrhea is a common problem that usually resolves on
• Diarrhea is dangerous if a person becomes dehydrated.
• Causes include viral, bacterial, parasitic infections, food
intolerance, reactions to medicine, intestinal diseases,
and functional bowel disorders.
• Treatment involves replacing lost fluid and electrolytes.
– medication to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection.
– Children may need an oral rehydration solution to replace
lost fluid and electrolytes. (Pedialyte)
– Reye’s Syndrome – Pepto (salicylic acid)
• Call the doctor if the person with diarrhea has severe
pain in the abdomen or rectum, a fever of 102 degrees
or higher, blood in the stool, signs of dehydration, or
diarrhea for more than 3 days.
• IBS means your bowel doesn’t work the right way.
• IBS can cause cramping, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and
• IBS doesn’t damage the bowel or lead to other health
• The doctor will diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. You
may need to have medical tests to rule out other health
• Stress doesn’t cause IBS, but it can make your symptoms
• Fatty foods, milk products, chocolate, alcohol, and caffeinated
and carbonated drinks can trigger symptoms.
• Eating foods with fiber and eating small meals throughout the
day may reduce symptoms.
• Treatment for IBS may include medicine, stress relief, and
changes in eating habits.
• Pancreas doesn’t produce enough (or any) insulin to
break down carbs
• Who gets it? : African-Americans,Hispanic
Americans, Native Americans,Asian-
• Signs & Symptoms:Frequent urination, Excessive thirst
,Extreme hunger, Unusual weight loss, Increased
fatigue, Irritability, Blurry vision
Types of Diabetes
• Type 1 diabetes
- formerly juvenile diabetes – now called “insulin dependent”
- pancreas produces no insulin – must take multiple shots daily
- 5-10% of Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 1
• Type 2 diabetes
- formerly adult onset diabetes – lots of kids getting it because of
- Most Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 2
• Gestational diabetes
Immediately after pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational
diabetes are found to have diabetes, usually, type 2.
Pre-diabetes is a condition that occurs when a person's blood
glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a
diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. There are 57 million Americans who
have pre-diabetes, in addition to the 23.6 million with diabetes.
Other terms related to diabetes
• Hyperglycemic – too much sugar in bloodstream
• Hypoglycemic – too little sugar in bloodstream
• Issues related to diabetes
Loss of circulation, Infections,Loss of eyesight
– Other organs (kidneys & heart) put under stress
Treatments: healthy diet & exercise,
Insulin (synthetic, beef or pork) can be
administered by pills, shots or a pump
Does this mean I have to just sit around &
Nick Jonas Smokin’ Joe Frasier Art Shell