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					                                      CHAPTER I

                                   INTRODUCTION




A.     Background of the Study

       Philippines is an agricultural country. The geographical location of this country

in the Tropic plays the major role to this fact. Aside from rice, Filipinos produce most of

the crops that they use to make food that they serve in their dining tables. In the

countryside, houses have different kinds of vegetables, fruits and root crops planted on

their backyards. Unfortunately, people living in urban places don’t have backyards.

There are a few plants that will grow with only one light in a windowless office or a one-

room apartment whose single window faces into an air shaft. (House Plants, 1975)

       Artificial lighting is the answer for almost any kind of plant that can be grown if

enough artificial light is provided, even in situations where no other light is available.

Artificial lights allow regular people to plant whole gardens in places where no plant

would ordinarily grow.

       A lesson in cell metabolism-energy and photosynthesis mentions that

“chlorophyll absorbs most red, orange, blue, and violet light. It reflects green and yellow

light, giving its body a green coloring”. This statement got the researchers curious and

wondered if plants act differently to the green and yellow colors of light, then they should

have different reactions and effects to every color of light. (Capco C., Yang G., 2010).
                                                                                              2


       This study aimed to find if there exist a significiant difference in the growth of

plants when exposed to different colors of light specifically red, yellow, green, blue, and

white. In this case, the researchers chose the mongo plant since it grows quickly and the

researchers can quickly gather the needed data immediately.



B.     Statement of the Problem

       This study determined and compared the effect of different colors of light on the

growth of mongo plants. Furthermore, it addressed the following questions:

       1)      What is the growth of the mongo seeds exposed to different colors of light

               and sunlight in terms of:

                      a.      Onset of true leaf

                      b.      Number of sprouts

       2)      What is the growth of the mongo sprouts exposed to different colors of

               light and sunlight in terms of:

                      a.      Number of leaves

                      b.      Sprout height

                      c.      Biomass

       3)      Is there a significant difference among the growth of mongo seeds in terms

               of onset of true leaf and number of sprouts?

       4)      Is there a significant difference among the growth of mongo sprouts in

               terms on number of leaves, sprout height and biomass?
                                                                                                  3


C.     Objectives of the Study

       This study aims to assess the growth of a mongo plant when exposed to different

colors of light specifically red, yellow, green, blue, and white and verify if there is a

significant difference. Specifically, it aims to compare the growth of mongo seeds in

terms of onset of true leaf and number of sprouts while number of leaves, sprout height

and biomass of the mongo sprout.



D.     Hypothesis of the Study

       1)      There is no significant difference among the growth of mongo seeds in

               terms of onset of true leaf and number of sprouts.

       2)      There is no significant difference among the growth of mongo sprouts in

               terms on number of leaves, sprout height and biomass.



E.     Significance of the Study

       This study determines the effect of different colors of light to the growth of

mongo plants. This study improves CEA (controlled-environment agriculture) by

minimizing the expenses but still having the same and more beneficial results. CEA

enables the grower to manipulate a crop’s environment to the desired condition.

Improvising or improving such practice can be more beneficial.

       Common housewives that like gardening inside their house can benefit from this

study. They make it possible to grow healthy plants in any spot in the house as long as it

has an artificial source of light with the best color if light. The results of this study could

also help gardeners make plants grow healthier and flower abundantly by supplementing
                                                                                               4


colored lights. Businessmen more specifically flower shop owners could introduce

artificial lighting to their gardens to enhance growth. Farmers could apply artificial

lighting in their farms which could help them produce better rice, crops, fruits, vegetables

and etc.



F.     Scope and Limitations of the Study

       This study is limited to the determination of the effect of the different colors of

light such as red, yellow, blue, green, and white on the growth of the mongo plant (Vigna

radiata) in terms of onset of true leaf, number of sprouts for mongo seeds and number of

leaves, sprout height and biomass for mongo sprouts. Simulation of artificial lights was

implemented using cold frames covered with colored water cellophane to suit the light

color needed then exposed to fluorescent lamp. Thirty seeds were assigned each to a cold

frame with a single color. Growth of mongo plant is monitored and recorded for a period

of two (2) weeks. The experimentations were done at the researcher’s home for the

school year 2011-2012.



G.     Definition of Terms

Biomass                                       It is the total mass of the mongo plant after

                                              the experimentation.

Cold Frame                                    It is a small movable greenhouse used for

                                              plants used for the experiment.

Colors of light                               The colors to be use are red, yellow, green,

                                              blue, and white. This will serve as the only
                                                                                   5


                              light that the plant can have during growing

                              process.

Controlled group              This is the group that is not given any

                              special    treatment.     In   this   study,   the

                              experimental group is the pot of plants that

                              is exposed to the sunlight.

Experimental group            This is the group that is given a special

                              treatment. In this study, the experimental

                              group is the pot of plants that is given one

                              different color of light.

Mongo Plant (Vigna radiata)   It is the test subject of the experiment. It will

                              be use to determine if different color of light

                              can affect its growth.

Number of leaves              These are the total number of leaves of the

                              mongo plant after the first second week of

                              the experimentation.

Onset of true leaf            This is the particular time that leaves may

                              appear during photosynthesis using the

                              artificial lights.

Sprout height                 It is the height of the mongo plant after the

                              first     and        second    week     of     the

                              experimentation.
                                      CHAPTER II


         REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES




       According to Jones (1991), visible light spectrum is the section of the

electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen by the human eye. It is also known as the

optical spectrum of light with wavelength ranging from approximately 400 mm to 700

mm. The perceived color is dependent on the wavelength of the light. We actually

interact with light in the form of white light which contains many or all of these

wavelength ranges within them. When shining white light passes through a prism causes

the wavelength to bend at slightly varying angles due to optical refraction. Therefore, the

resulting light is split across the visible color spectrum. This results to rainbow

characterized by airborne water particles acting as the refractive medium. The order of

wavelength is best remembered by “Roy G Biv for Red, Orange, yellow, green, Blue,

Indigo and violet.

       When sunlight strikes the leaves of a plant, the light-wave energy is absorbed by

the chlorophyll. The chlorophyll absorbs most red, orange, blue, and violet light. It

reflects green and yellow, giving its body a green colorin. The idea that plants react

differently to different colors of light could be concluded. The use of artificial light was

considered in this study. (Capco C., Yang G., 2010).
                                                                                                  7


       Artificial lighting is any lighting that is not sunlight. Generally speaking, artificial

lighting is lighting which is manmade, such as fluorescent, tungsten, mercury vapor,

sodium vapor, halogen, compact fluorescent, etc. It can be turned on and off at a flick of

a switch. There are also very special types of artificial light for specific purposes like

infrared heat lamps, ultraviolet lights for plant growth. Although not sunlight, artificial

light still has the same effect to the plant during photosynthesis. The researchers would

use colors red, blue, green, yellow and white as basis for the colors of the water

cellophanes in conducting this study. (Answers.com, 2011)

       Every transformation is an energy that occurs at the cellular and molecular levels.

In cells, there are two basic patterns by which organisms transform energy, the

autotrophic and heterotrophic pattern. In autotrophic cells, light energy is transformed to

chemical energy that can be used by cells. Green plants contain this type of cell.

Photosynthesis is a process by which living plant cells combine carbon dioxide and water

in the presence of chlorophyll and light energy. The light excites the electrons to receive

NADP and also splits water into oxygen and hydrogen. In the experimentation, the

primary key to the plant growth of the test subjects which is the mung bean is the light.

(Capco C., Yang G., 2010)


       Mung bean is commonly known in the Philippines as munggo or monggo is the

seed of vigna radiata which is native to India. These beans are small, ovoid in shape and

green in color. Mung bean seeds are either sprouted for fresh use or canned for shipment

to restaurants. The sprouts are high in protein about 21-28%, calcium, phosphorus and

certain vitamins. Because these beans can easily be digested it can replace scarce animal

protein in our diet. Due to its major use as sprout, a high quality seed with excellent
                                                                                            8


germination is required. The food industry prefers about 9-10 grams of fresh sprout for

each gram of seed. Larger seed characterized with glassy and green color is oftentimes a

preference.




                      Figure 1. Mongo seeds


        In mung bean, both upright and vine type of growth habit occur with plants

varying from one to five feet in length. There are many kinds of mongo beans. The most

common varieties are the native and Imelda. The grains of the native/Imelda variety are

green and yellow. Retailers sell both green and yellow in the market place. In the

experimentation, the Imelda variety would be used since it is common and can be easily

bought in the market place. Mungbeans grow best on fertile sandy, loam soils with good

internal drainage; their growth is poor on heavy soils with poor drainage. They could be

planted on vegetable gardens, green houses, cold frames, etc. (Department of Agriculture,

2005)


        Cold frames are less expensive than greenhouses, take up less space and are

cheaper to keep warm. Their main disadvantage is that the gardener works outside and

not inside in the warm and dry as with a greenhouse. In the vegetable garden, cold frames
                                                                                               9


are frequently used for producing winter or early crops of such vegetables as carrots. The

frame can be in a permanent position in the garden or moved, rather like a large cloche,

onto the vegetable bed itself. The vegetables can be grown either directly in the soil or in

growing bags. Another basic use is to afford protection and warmth to trays of seeds or

seedlings. The mung beans would be planted in the cold frame during the experiment

whilst being observed. (Anderson, D. 2011)


       According to the study of Jungao and Omlero (2011), the researchers determined

the significant impact on plants’ growth when exposed to different genres of music. The

study aimed to know the best genre of music for growing plants by exposing mongo

plants to a genre of music changed weekly, the first week was classical music, second

week was jazz, third week was pop and the last was rock. The study concluded that jazz

is the best and rock music was not good for plants.


       The cultivation of lettuce and radish was experimented using different

combinations of red components and high pressure sodium lamps and it was found out

that red and blue components are favorable for growth of lettuce. In respect to the

reference plants, content of nitrates in lettuce grown under the illumination in red was by

20% lower with no significant difference among treatments which were grown under the

illumination in blue. The results of this study confirmed that plant growth can be

modulated by applying spectrum provided by emission of different LEDs. Even

illumination with spectrum consisting of two (2) components (one in red region and

another in blue region) when properly selected can be beneficial in respect to illumination

using conventional lamps. (Urbonavičiūt A., Pinho P., Samuolien G., Duchovskis P.,

Vitta P., Stonkus A., Tamulaitis G., Žukauskas A., and Halonen L, 2007 )
                                                                                              10


        In the study of Whiting, (2007) it stated “light quality refers to the color or

wavelength reaching the plant's surface. A prism (or raindrops) can divide sunlight into

respective colors of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.” The study also

concluded that blue light is considered to be the primary responsible for vegetative leaf

growth while red light encourages flowering.

        From the different related studies, the information is gathered that it is possible

that the blue and red colors can greatly affect the growth of a plant. Another study says

that blue is responsible for leaf growth and red develops flowering. With these in mind,

the researchers focused on the impact on growth of mongo when exposed to different

colors of light.
                                     CHAPTER III

                                  METHODOLOGY




A.     Research Design

       This study aimed to determine the different effects of the colors of light on the

growing plants by means of the looking on the growth of mongo seeds and sprouts. To

attain this, the researchers used two groups, the controlled group where a plant would

only be exposed to sunlight and the experimental group where water cellophane was used

to selectively provide necessary color. The water cellophane in this study has variations

of colors such as colors red, yellow, green, blue, and white. A plant was exposed just to

a single color throughout this whole study.

       Since this study is concerned about the significant effects of a color of light to a

growing plant, the researchers observed the growth of the mongo plant weekly from the

very beginning of the experiment. Extraneous variables or factors that could affect on the

behaviour of the subject being studied were strictly maintained to be able to get the

desired data from this investigation. All subjects were watered everyday by 500mL of

water. The cold frame was placed outdoors to be exposed to the light for the whole day.

The plants were observed for two weeks to attain the said data.
                                                                                                12


B.       Materials and Equipment

 Materials

         ½ or 1 kilo of Mongo seeds                   Cloth

         1 ½ kg Soil                                  Marker

         5 Water cellophanes (red, yellow,            Measuring cup

          green, blue and white)                       Tape measure

         6 Cold frames                                Water

         Barbeque Sticks                           

Equipment

        Analytical Balance



C. General Procedures:

Gathering of Materials

         Water cellophane, barbecue sticks, and a kilo of mongo seeds were bought from

the store. A sack of garden soil was also bought.

Preparation of Cold Frame

         The researchers hired a carpenter to construct a cold frame with the dimensions

12”x12”x14” as shown in Figure 8 of Appendix A. The cold frame was filled with loam

soil. Loam soil is an equal mix or sand, silt, and clay which can make the plants grow

healthier. The soil in the cold frame were ensured equal in every pot so that it will not

affect the subject materials or the factor that is being tested. A cloth was divided into six

equal parts for the six set-ups. The cloth was assigned to specific colors of light. The

cloth was used as the place for the seeds to grow into sprouts.
                                                                                              13


       The cold frames have holes or open parts at the side; the holes served as the

entrance of air for the plants to breathe. Each cold frame has different colored water

cellophanes: red, yellow, green, blue and white. The last cold frame was assigned to the

controlled group which is exposed to sunlight. If the color of the water cellophane is red,

this means that all other colors of light were reflected and only red is absorbed and will

pass through the cold frame.

Preparation of Seeds Set-up

       Thirty (30) mongo seeds were selected for each cloth which means there are 180

mongo seeds for the five colors (red, blue, green, yellow and white) of light and sunlight

(control). Each seeds were laid on top of each cloth. Water was sprinkled to the seeds to

help them grow into sprouts. Observations were made for the whole day until it grows

into sprouts. After three (3) days of observation, the mongo seeds are now full blown

sprouts.

Preparation of Sprout Set-up

       Among the thirty (30) seeds grown, five (5) best sprouts of nearly equal growth

were selected for the next part of experimentation. The other sprouts not selected were

removed from the cold frame. The five (5) selected sprouts were arranged in

approximately two inches away from one another to let the plants breathe in each of the

cold frame exposed to different color of light. Observations were made and recorded

every week for two weeks.

Monitoring of Growth

       After the preparation for the set-up for was done, the next task was to take care of

the plants. All the subject materials were watered equally everyday with 500mL of water.
                                                                                           14


The plants were exposed to light for a whole day until the seeds will grow into sprouts.

The number of sprouts and onset of true leaf for each cold frame were monitored and

recorded within the three-day period of sprout growing.

       When sprouts have grown, barbeque sticks were stuck on the soil beside each

mongo plant sample where markings of weekly height level were noted so as not to

disturbed plant growth while measuring their height. The barbeque sticks were then

removed at the end of experimentation and each markings per week recorded. Aside

from sprout height, the number of leaves was monitored and recorded every week while

the biomass was taken after the end of the experimentation by measuring mongo sprouts

using an analytical balance.



D.     Statistical Tools for Data Analysis

       The data gathered was analyzed and interpreted using appropriate tools. The

average was used to declare results of various parameters such as onset of true leaf,

number of leaves, sprout height and biomass. ANOVA was used in order to know if

there is a significant difference among results. Post-hoc analysis was done to verify

which set-up is significantly different.
                                                                                                       15


                                           Growth of seeds
                                             assessment




   Prepare the cloth and             Pick 10 seeds for each                   Lay seeds on top of
     sacks and assign                      treatment.                         each cloth; expose
          colors.                                                               seeds to light.




                    Observe and record                        Water the seeds,
                          data.                              observe until seeds
                                                             grow into sprouts.




                                         Growth of seeds
                                           assessment




 Pick 5 sprouts for each              Put soil in the cold                  Assign colors and put
       treatment.                    frame and plant the                    water cellophanes into
                                            seeds.                               each frame.




   Observe and record               Monitor growth, water                    Sunlight will change in
         data.                      the plants with 500mL                    color when passing in
                                      of water everyday                        the frames glass.


Figure 2. Flowchart
                                                                                              16




                                                    CHAPTER IV

                                            RESULTS AND DISCUSSION




       In this chapter, the results of the gathered data from the experiment are presented

to compare the effects of different colors of light on growth of mongo. The discussions

of the results of the analyzed data are also presented in this chapter. The results are

shown in graphs and tables to provide easy explanations and easy visuals. The raw data

are shown in the appendices.

Growth of Mongo Seeds

       The growth of mongo seeds into sprouts by just letting them rest on a piece of

cloth and exposing them to different colors of light: sunlight, white, red, green, blue and

yellow were monitored. The researchers recorded and analyzed the onset of true leaf and

the number of leaves of the sprouts in every set-up as shown in Figures 2 and 3.


                                              Onset of True Leaf
                  Number of Hours




                                    100
                                     80
                                     60
                                     40
                                     20
                                      0



                                                         Color of Light

                                          Figure 3. Graph of onset of true leaf
                                                                                                 17


         Figure 3 represented the gathered data of the onset of true leaf. The first leaf

from the plants exposed to light in which the colors were yellow, red, green, and white

appeared on the third day or until 72 hours of the experiment. The first leaf of the plants

exposed to light in which the colors were blue and sunlight only grew until the fourth day

or 96 hours of the experiment.



                                                Number of Sprouts
                                  12

                                  10
              Number of Sprouts




                                   8

                                   6                                                     Day 3
                                   4                                                     Day 4

                                   2

                                   0
                                       Sunlight White   Red     Green    Blue   Yellow
                                                        Color of Light

                                         Figure 4. Graph of the number of sprouts


       Figure 4 represents the data gathered of the experiment. No seed grew into sprout

until the third day of the experiment. On day three, the seeds exposed to the light in

which the colors were white, red, green and yellow grew: white which has four sprouts

grown; red which has two sprouts grown; green where only a seed grew and yellow

where three seeds grew into sprouts. On the fourth day, sunlight has one sprout; white has

11; five sprouts grew in the set-ups which have red, green and blue light; and yellow has

10 sprouts.
                                                                                                  18


Growth of Mongo Sprouts

          The growth of mongo sprouts was continually monitored for two (2) weeks. The

growth in terms of number of leaves and sprout height was recorded every week and

biomass taken after two weeks. Results are shown in figure



                                          Week 1: Number of Leaves
                                  2
              Number of Leaves




                                 1.5


                                  1


                                 0.5


                                  0
                                       Sunlight   White   Red      Green   Blue   Yellow
                                                          Color of Light

                                  Figure 5. Graph of the number of leaves after a week



          Figure 5 represents the number of leaves of the plants on week one of the

experiment. Each group has five plants: trial one, trial two, trial three, trial four and trial

five. This was the result of the gathered data. All of the plants in each group have two

leaves.
                                                                                                      19



                                         Week 2: Number of Leaves
                                5

                                4

             Number of Leaves   3

                                2

                                1

                                0
                                    Sunlight   White   Red      Green   Blue   Yellow
                                                       Color of Light

                                Figure 6. Graph of the number of leaves after two weeks

       Figure 6 represents the number of leaves of the plants on the second week of the

experiment. This was the result of the gathered data. All of the plants exposed to sunlight

and yellow had had 5 leaves. All of the plants exposed to the light in which the color was

white had five leaves except for T5. All of the plants in each remaining group in which

the light was colors red, blue and green have not yet grown another leaf from week one,

they still had two leaves each.


   WHERE IS THE TABLE OR GRAPH FOR SPROUT HEIGHT FOR FIRST
                           WEEK?

Table 1. ANOVA Results for Sprout Height on the First Week
 Source      SS               df             MS         F                                   p-value
 Treatment   296.379        5                59.2758    8.29                              .0001
 Error       171.548        24               7.1478
 Total       467.927        29

       This is the ANOVA result conducted for the mongo plant’s sprout height of the

second part of the experiment after the first week. The null hypothesis (Ho) that there is

no significant difference among the group where the subjects were exposed to sunlight to

the groups where the lights used were color white, red, green, blue and yellow was
                                                                                               20


compared against the alternative hypothesis (H1) that at least one group differs from the

others.

          The ANOVA table shows the p-value = 0.001. Since p-value is less than α = 0.05,

then there is enough evidence to support the claim that at least one group differs. It would

then proceed to post-hoc analysis to determine which group differs. Table 2 compares the

p-value of the different samples.

Table 2. Posthoc Analysis on Statistical Tests for Sprout Height during 1st Week
                       White           Sunlight Red        Yellow Blue        Red
                       19.12           20.10      24.30    25.18      27.00 27.16
White      19.12
Sunlight 20.10         .5676
Red        24.30       .0053           .0204
Yellow     25.18       .0015           .0061      .6075
Blue       27.00       .0001           .0004      .1234    .2925
Green      27.16       .0001           .0003      .1037    .2531      .9254

          In post-hoc analysis, the groups were compared. White is significantly different

with red since the p-value=0.0053 which is less than α=0.05. White is significantly

different with yellow since the result of p-value=0.0015 which is less than α=0.05. White

is significantly different with blue their p-value=0.0001 which is less than α=0.05. White

is significantly different with the green since the p-value=0.0001 which is less than

α=0.05. Sunlight has a significant difference compared to red since the resulted p-

value=0.0204 which is less than α=0.05. Sunlight has a significant difference compared

to yellow since the p-value=0.0061 which is less than the α=0.05. Sunlight has a

significant difference compared to blue since the p-value=0.0004 which is less than the

α=0.05. Sunlight has a significant difference compared to green since the p-value=0.0003

which is less than the α=0.05.
                                                                                            21


  WHERE IS THE TABLE OR GRAPH FOR SPROUT HEIGHT FOR SECOND
                           WEEK?

Table 2. ANOVA results for sprout height on the second week
           One factor ANOVA

                                                  Std.
                              Mean      n         Dev
             33.41            33.98     5         2.159      Sunlight
             33.41            32.08     5         2.858      White
             33.41            32.16     5         5.633      Red
             33.41            32.34     5         2.924      Green
             33.41            32.84     5         2.072      Blue
             33.41            37.06     5         1.088      Yellow
                              33.41     30        3.356      Total


             ANOVA
             table
                                                                          p-
             Source           SS        df        MS      F             value
             Treatment        92.243 5            18.4486 1.89          .1337
             Error            234.344 24          9.7643
             Total            326.587 29


       The One factor ANOVA shows the different means and standard deviations of

each group. With the results, we can see that the group that is exposed to yellow has the

biggest mean among the other groups and it also has the least standard deviation. White

has the smallest mean among the other groups. Finally, red has the greatest standard

deviation.

       This is the ANOVA result conducted for the mongo plant’s sprout height of the

second part of the experiment after the second week. The null hypothesis that there is no

significant difference among the group where the subjects were exposed to sunlight to the

groups where the light used were color white, red, green, blue and yellow was compared

against the alternative hypothesis that at least one group differs from the others.
                                                                                                 22


       The ANOVA table shows the p-value=1.337 which is greater than α=0.05. With

this result, we do not reject the null hypothesis (Ho) that there is no significant difference

among the group where the subjects are exposed to sunlight with the groups that are

exposed to the different colors of lights.


               WHERE IS THE TABLE OR GRAPH FOR BIOMASS?


  Table 3. ANOVA Results for Biomass After a Month

   ANOVA table

     Source        SS         Df         MS          F         p-value

                                                                8.91E-

   Treatment     2.2852        5      0.45705      19.63          08

      Error      0.5589       24      0.02329

      Total      2.8441       29



     Post hoc analysis

          p-values for pairwise t-

                  tests

                              Red        Green      Yellow       Blue      White    Sunlight

                             0.790       0.824      0.824       0.844      1.402     1.408

       Red        0.790

      Green       0.824      .7277

     Yellow       0.824      .7277      1.0000

      Blue        0.844      .5810       .8376      .8376
                                                                                                23


                            1.48E-      3.50E-     3.50E-      5.85E-

      White      1.402        06          06          06         06

                            1.28E-      3.01E-     3.01E-      5.01E-

    Sunlight     1.408        06          06          06         06       .9509



       These tables represent the biomass of the plants on the second part of our

experiment. These were the results of the gathered data from week one. Each group

which is exposed to different colors of light has a corresponding group number: group

one refers to sunlight, group two pertains to white, group three refers to red, group four

indicates green, group five pertains to blue and group six indicates yellow.

       One-way ANOVA was used to compare the null hypothesis that there is no

significant difference between the biomass of the plants exposed to sunlight from the

biomass of the plants exposed to light in which the colors were white, red, green, blue

and yellow against the alternative hypothesis that there is at least one groups’ biomass

that differs from the other groups’ biomass.

       Based in the results of the one-way ANOVA, it was shown in the ANOVA table

that the p-value is equal to 8.91x10-8, which is less than the level of significance α= 0.05.

Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore, there is enough evidence to support the

claim that at least one group’s biomass differs from the other groups’ biomass. And so

post-hoc analysis was used to determine which of the groups differ.

       On the post-hoc analysis, the groups were compared to identify the group that

differs. Sunlight is significantly different form red since the p-value is 1.28x10-6 which is

less than α=0.05. Sunlight is significantly different form green since the p-value is
                                                                                               24


3.01x10-6 which is less than α=0.05. Sunlight is significantly different form yellow since

the p-value is 3.01x10-6 which is less than α=0.05. Sunlight is significantly different form

blue since the p-value is 5.85 x10-6 which is less than α=0.05. White is significantly

different form red since the p-value is 1.48x10-6 which is less than α=0.05. White is

significantly different form green since the p-value is 3.5x10-6 which is less than α=0.05.

white is significantly different form yellow since the p-value is 3.5x10-6 which is less

than α=0.05. White is significantly different form blue since the p-value is 5.85x10-6

which is less than α=0.05.
                                      CHAPTER V

                    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS




A.     Summary

       This study determined the effect of different colors of light on the growth of

mongo using both the seedlings and sprouts was decided. Mongo was used since this

plant grows fast. The seeds were observed for days until sprouts were grown. The onset

of true leaf and number of sprouts grown for each set-up were monitored and recorded.

The grown sprouts were then further monitored where height was recorded weekly and

number of leaves and biomass taken after a month. Simulation of artificial lights was

implemented using cold frames covered with colored water cellophane to suit the light

color needed then exposed to fluorescent lamp.

       No seed grew into sprout until the third day of the experiment except for the seeds

exposed to sunlight and blue light which only grew the next day. The plants exposed to

white light have the most number of sprouts and plants exposed to sunlight have the least

number of sprouts. The results showed that on week one, the sprout height of the plants

exposed to sunlight and white light was shorter than the other groups. On week two,

plants exposed to sunlight and yellow light have the most number of leaves and plants

exposed to red, blue, and green lights have the least number of leaves. The biomass of the

plants exposed to sunlight and white light is greater than the other groups.
                                                                                             26


B.      Conclusions

        Based on the results of the gathered data from the experiment, the researchers

concluded the following:

        1.      The seeds started to grow into sprouts on the third and fourth day of the

                experimentation.

        2.      The plants exposed to white light have the most number of sprouts and

                plants exposed to sunlight have the least number of sprouts.

        3.      On week one, the number of leaves from all the samples is the same and

                there is no difference.

        4.      On week two, plants exposed to sunlight and yellow light have the most

                number of leaves and plants exposed to red, blue, and green lights have

                the least number of leaves.

        5.      On week one, the sprout height of the plants exposed to sunlight and white

                light is shorter than the other groups.

        6.      The biomass of the plants exposed to sunlight and white light is greater

                than the other groups.

        7.      ADD HERE ANSWER TO STATEMENT OF PROBLEM # 3 & 4



C.      Recommendations

        To further improve this kind of research, the researchers recommend to future

     researchers the following:

        1.      Find a much bigger place to conduct the experiment

        2.      Extend the duration of the experiment to attain more significant results.
                                                                                27


3.   Try using secondary colors to have more efficient results.

4.   Use artificial lighting instead of water cellophane to see a greater and

     more specific effect to plants.
                                                                                            28


                                     REFERENCES




Books:

         Capco C., Yang G. (2010). Biology: You and the Natural World. Quezon Avenue,
               Quezon City. Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. 927


         Rochford T. (1975). House Plants. London, England. London: Royal Horticultural
               Society

Internet Sources:

         Andrew Zimmerman Jones. (1991). The Visible Light Spectrum Retrieved:
               from:http://physics.about.com/od/lightoptics/a/vislightspec.htm

         Colorado State University Extension. (December 2011). Plant Growth Factors:
                Light. Retrieved from: http://cmg.colostate.edu/gardennotes/142.pdf

         Derrick Anderson. (June 16, 2011). Building and Using Cold Frames in Your
                Vegetable              Garden.            Retrieved             from:
                http://mangorevolution.com/98/househome/gardening/building-and-using-
                cold-frames-in-your-vegetable-garden

         Urbonavičiūt A., Pinho P., Samuolien G., Duchovskis P., Vitta P., Stonkus A.,
               Tamulaitis G., Žukauskas A., Halonen L. (2007). Effect of Short-
               Wavelength       Light      on       Plant     Physiology.       Retrieved
               from:http://www.lightinglab.fi/enlighten/publications/internetui_akvile.pd
               f

         What   Is Artificial Lighting. (September 14, 2007).           Retrieved   from:
                http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_artificial_lighting

         Department of Agriculture, Western Visayas, Philippines. (2005). Mongo.
                Retrieved from: http://www.rfu6.da.gov.ph/agribiz/mongo.htm

Unpublished Research:

         Jungao G., Omlero R. (2011). The Effect of Different Genres of Music to Mongo
                Plant’s Growth. Integrated Developmental School, MSU-Iligan Institute of
                Technology.
                                                                           29


                                     APPENDIX A

                               DOCUMENTATION




Figure 7. Gathering of materials          Figure 8. Cold frame




Figure 9. Preparation of materials         Figure 10. Watering of plants
                                                                                  30




Figure 11. 3rd day of experimentation     Figure 12. 4th day of experimentation




Figure 13. 1st week sprout experimentation Figure 14. Last week experimentation
                                                         31




                     APPENDIX B

                  DATA GATHERED


     Table 4. Raw data of number of sprouts
     Light Exposed Number of Sprouts
                       Day 3     Day 4
           Red            2         5
         Yellow           3        10
         Green            1         5
          Blue            0         5
         White            4        11
        Sunlight          0         1


   Table 5. Raw data of sprout height after one week
     Light
    Exposed            Sprout Height (cm)

                 T1   T2   T3  T4   T5   Tave
       Red      22.3 19 24.5 27.7 28     24.3
     Yellow     23.5 24.3 27.8 22 28.3 25.18
      Green      24 27.2 27.6 27.1 29.9 27.16
      Blue       24 28.4 29.5 26 27.5 27.08
      White     16.7 16 20.7 19 23.2 19.12
     Sunlight   19.5 18    20  20   20   19.5


Table 6. Raw data of sprout height after two weeks
   Light                 Sprout Height (cm)
  Exposed     T1      T2     T3     T4      T5    Tave
    Red      31.5 22.6 35.3         36     34.5 32.96
  Yellow     38.5 37.2 36.5 35.6 37.5 37.02
   Green      33     34.6 29.6 35.5         29   32.32
   Blue      29.6 34.5 32.6 32.7 34.8 32.84
   White     29.4 30.5 36.8 32.4 31.1 32.08
  Sunlight   32.6     32    35.5 32.8       37   33.98
                                                                                                 32



                                Table 7. Raw data of biomass after two weeks
                                Light                      Biomass (g)
                                Exposed     T1     T2    T3      T4     T5          Tave
                                Red         0.81 0.93 0.72 0.55 0.94                0.79
                                Yellow      0.96 0.87 0.73 0.79 0.77                0.824
                                Green       1.02 0.86 0.67 0.92 0.65                0.824
                                Blue        0.75 0.72 0.98 0.83 0.94                0.844
                                White       1.19 1.44 1.7        1.3    1.38        1.402
                                Sunlight    1.27 1.27 1.32 1.65 1.53                1.408



                                          Number of Leaves: Week 1
Sum Total of Number of Leaves




                                10
                                         2        2       2         2      2       2
                                 8
                                         2        2       2         2      2       2        T5
                                 6                                                          T4
                                         2        2       2         2      2       2
                                 4                                                          T3
                                         2        2       2         2      2       2
                                 2                                                          T2
                                         2        2       2         2      2       2
                                                                                            T1
                                 0
                                     Sunlight   White   Red      Green   Blue   Yellow
                                                        Color of Light

                                 Figure 15. Raw data of number of leaves after a week


                                          Number of Leaves: Week 2
Sum Total of Number of Leaves




                                25
                                         5                                         5
                                                  2
                                20
                                         5        5                                5        T5
                                15                                                          T4
                                         5        5                                5
                                10                        2         2      2                T3
                                         5        5       2         2      2       5
                                 5                        2         2      2                T2
                                         5        5       2         2      2       5
                                                          2         2      2                T1
                                 0
                                     Sunlight   White   Red      Green   Blue   Yellow
                                                        Color of Light

                                Figure 16. Raw data of number of leaves after two weeks
                                                                                         33




                               CURRICULUM VITAE



Name: Angela Shemae San Felipe Gonzales

Nickname: Ling-ling, Aila

Birthdate: January 25, 1997

Birthplace: Iligan City

Sex: Female



FAMILY BACKGROUND

Father: Ferzenio Socorro G. Gonzales

Mother: Ma. Olivia S. Gonzales

Siblings: Ray Fergil SF. Gonzales

         Don Lindley SF. Gonzales

         Fer Mykiel SF. Gonzales

         Donelle Jahziel SF. Gonzales

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Elementary: Iligan City East Central School

Secondary: MSU-IIT Integrated Developmental School

HONORS RECEIVED

Elementary    Grade one: 3rd Honor; Grade two: with Distinction; Grade three: with

              Distinction; Grade four: with Distinction; Grade five: with Distinction;

              Grade six: with Distinction
                                                                                        34




                                CURRICULUM VITAE



Name: Rendel John D. Rulona

Nickname: Janjan

Birthdate: July 14, 996

Birthplace: Cebu City

Sex: Male



FAMILY BACKGROUND

Father: Rene J. Rulona

Mother: Maria Delina D. Rulona

Siblings: Renne Joy D. Rulona

         Rhoda Mae D. Rulona

         Jasmin Rose D. Rulona



EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Elementary: South II Central School

Secondary: MSU-IIT Integrated Developmental School

HONORS RECEIVED

Elementary     Grade one: 2nd Honor; Grade two: 2nd Honor; Grade three: 2nd Honor;

               Grade four: 1st Honor; Grade five: 4th Honor; Grade six: Valedictorian

				
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