RURAL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH
INNOVATIVE GOAT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Wilson A. Cerbito, Jonathan N. Nayga, Diosdado Canete,
Manuel C. Galang, Ricardo Azarcon, Edsel Miguel2
Rural-based enterprise development (RED) is a holistic approach to technology commercialization
and enterprise building. A rural-based enterprise consists of three important components: (1) production
system; (2) organization and management; and (3) linkages.
The RED project is implemented in four (4) regions of the country, Region 1,2,3 and 8. In Region 02,
speciﬁcally in Isabela, the focal site is located in the municipality of Echague in Barangays Sto. Domingo,
Anafunan and Malitao Alicia as the control site, in Barangays Aurora, Antonino and Del Pilar.
Comparative baseline data on goats’ technical performance indicate that major problems in goat
production are high mortality rates, due to parasitism and diseases, slow growth of kids resulting to goats
getting smaller, including marketing problems. All farmer-partners (100%) adopted the technology options,
which addresse the mentioned problems. Other technology options preferred by farmers include strategic
deworming, pasture/forage establishment for feeding of improved forage, upgrading and concentrate/vitamin
supplementation with 90.0%, 80.0%, 80.0% and 70.8% adoption rate respectively by farmers-partners in the
focal sites. Goat productivity in focal sites gave evidence of a 110% increase in the number of does from 114
does beginning inventory with 5.7 average doe-level to the current inventory of 240 does with 12.0 average
doe-level from the total 20 farmer-partners.
Upgrading through the infusion of superior breeder bucks coupled with the adoption of complementary
technology options signiﬁcantly improved the quality of offspring and resulted in bigger size. Birth weights of
goats are 2.35 kg, 12.95 kg for weaning weights, and the marketing weight is 26.55 kg. The total targeted
adopters of the project is 80 farmer-partners including spill-over after two years. As of this report, there are
20 farmer-partners involved in the RED project and 60 farmers partners belongs to the spill-over category.
The study realized the Incremental Cost and Return of a 25-Doe Level Goat Enterprise using
Partial Budgeting Analysis of 1-2 cycles (March 2008-March 2009) for PhP 92, 400, PhP 36,960 for 10 Doe
Level and PhP 18,480 for the 5 Doe Level.
Keywords: Goat, enterprise development
Goats are considered as rural sustainable livestock enterprise while ensuring
asset. Although not properly quantiﬁed, food security for the family.
the contributions of goats to rural farming
communities are well recognized. Goats Goats also play other signiﬁcant socio-
have the potential for increased production in economic and cultural roles, i.e., insurance,
relatively short period of time. They require savings, minimal risk accumulation of assets,
little capital investments, can utilize local diversiﬁcation of farm resources, and fulﬁllment
feed resources, and provide opportunities for of various socio-cultural obligations of the
women and children to participate in building a underprivileged rural farmers. However, the
2nd Place, Best Development Paper Category, CVARRD 21st RSRDEH Symposium
RED Region II Project Team, Isabela State University University
goat’s full economic potentials are yet to be Pasture-Ruminant Cluster.
realized. The wide variability in the production
performance ( e.g., birth weight ranging from OBJECTIVES
1.7 kg to 3.16 kg; slaughter weight ranging
from 10 kg to 20 kg, etc.) and product quality The primary goal of the project is to contribute
(e.g. meatiness) of goats in smallholder farms to the Philippine government’s bid to alleviate
is considered a major deterrent to its utilization poverty in rural areas by transforming goat
as reliable livelihood option for small farmers. raising from a subsistence type of farm activity
into a viable livestock-based rural enterprise.
Major causes of these are the low
productivity of existing stocks and low adoption Speciﬁcally, the project aims to:
of improved goat production technologies/
practices. Nevertheless, the experiences and 1. Increase goat productivity by about
results of projects previously implemented in 50% in the focal sites and improve the
various areas of the country as reported by proﬁtability of goat production in this
Alo (2003), Brown et al. (2003), Venturina et areas;
al. (2003) and PCARRD (2003,2004b, 2005,
2006) have demonstrated that application 2. Enhance market access of
of improved packages of technology in smallholder goat producers by
smallholder farms can effectively enhance the improving the quality of their products
production performance and thus, proﬁtability to match consumer preferences;
of goat production in smallholder farms.
3. Enhance adoption of improved goat
Moreover, through the said projects, production technologies by
modalities for effective and efﬁcient adoption of smallholder rural farmers through
technology packages by smallholder farmers action learning strategies;
have been developed and tested on-farm. The
aforesaid successes achieved by smallholder 4. Develop a community-based selection
farmers demonstrated the positive response and breeding system that suits to
of goats in smallholder farms to improved rural farmers’ resources and
packages of production technologies. The capacities for a continual goat genetic
increased productivity (e.g., 98% improvement improvement and sustained supply of
in growth rate) of goats in these farms presents high quality goats;
smallholder goat production as one of the
potential livelihood options for rural farming 5. Determine the productive and
communities to ﬂee from poverty. reproductive performance of improved
goat genotypes raised under
This project is anchored on the smallholder farm conditions; and
successes and learning in enhancing goat
production that were gained from completed 6. Determine the beneﬁts and costs
ILRI-IFAD TAG 443 and CASREN projects accruing from the adoption of
and from a CGIAR-funded on-going project improved production systems and
now being implemented in Bambang, Nueva technologies.
Viscaya (PCARRD, 2005-2006). It hopes,
among others, to contribute in the attainment MATERIALS AND METHODS
of the technical targets, i.e., reduction of pre-
weaning mortality from 25% to 10% and Pre-implementation Meeting of project
increase in slaughter weight from 15 kg to 30 implementers
kg by 2020, of the Industry Strategic Plan of the
Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
An inception meeting-workshop b. Smallholders with at least 5-doe level
between LRD-PCARRD and the implementers goats per family
were held to discuss the project’s concept,
methodology, expected outputs, and other c. Positive receptivity to innovative
pertinent issues. Concerns such as criteria for technologies/development projects
site and farmer selection, data to be gathered
for site characterization, data/information to be d. Have some knowledge and
gathered during regular monitoring activities, understanding of feeds, animal
roles/responsibilities of project partners, etc. performance, production/management
were discussed and ﬁrmed up. systems, e.g. deworming, housing,
Selection of project sites
Prior to project site selection, secondary
data in terms of goat population and largest Characterization of focal sites, farm
goat-producing municipalities in Cagayan Valley households, and selected farmer-partners
were gathered from the Provincial Veterinary
Ofﬁce of the Isabela Provincial Government. Using structured questionnaires, the
focal sites, farm household, and selected
On the basis of the secondary data, farmer-partners were characterized. The
Echague and Alicia Isabela were the top two characterization activity was conducted to:
municipalities with the highest concentration (a) generate baseline information/data for
of goat population. Field validation was future impact assessment studies; (b) identify
undertaken to validate the secondary data constraints in the system being practiced,
gathered and to determine the villages which as well as deﬁne researchable issues; and
will serve as focal and control sites. Echague (c) provide basis in the selection of farmer-
Isabela was selected as the project focal sites partners.
while, Alicia Isabela was identiﬁed to serve as
the control site. Meeting with the ofﬁcers of The site selection focused on
Echague Goat Raisers/Producers Association biophysical, socioeconomic, and institutional
was also done for possible collaboration. characteristics. The biophysical characteristics
determined were climate, vegetation, soil type,
The selection of project sites/focal topography, length of growing period, cropping
villages was based on the following general/ pattern, among others.
indicative criteria: (a) high goat density, (b)
goat production recognized as economically The socioeconomic data gathered were
important, (c) accessibility, (d) high radiation average farm size, tenure status, per capita
effect, (e) presence of support system, among income, average household size, average age
others. The ﬁnal site selection criteria used by and educational level, contribution of livestock
all implementers was decided on the project’s to household income, access to market
inception meeting-workshop. indicators, among others.
Selection of farmer-partners On institutional characteristics, data/
information collected were on access to R&D
The farmer-partners were selected based on institutions engaged in livestock R&D and R&D
the following criteria: facilities, access to credit, farmers’ groups/
cooperatives, marketing infrastructures,
a. Willingness to participate in the project presence of product processing facilities,
among others. On the characterization of the
J.N. Nayga, et. al
selected farmer-partners, data/information some of the project activities already conducted
collected were on household information, to empower the project’s farmer-partners. The
animal systems and labor allocation, crop/food- formation of farmers’ association and activities
feed systems, constraints to production, post- towards enterprise development will still be
harvest practices, agricultural decision making, done. The capability building strategy used
among others. was patterned from the process adopted by
CASREN Philippines (2003). The mentioned
Capability building activities encouraged the farmer-partners to
adopt improved goat production systems and
Technology trainings, cross visits/ other related technologies (Table 1) through
lakbay-aral/ﬁeld days, exhibit to existing action learning strategies developed through
goat farms, training on entrepreneurial skills the ILRI-IFAD and CASREN projects (Alo,
development, participation in goat shows were 2003; Venturina et al., 2003; CASREN, 2003).
46 Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
1Table 1. List of some technologies/improved practices introduced, their description, beneﬁts,
and the science behind the practice.
J.N. Nayga, et. al
Speciﬁc activities focused on enabling
strategies for he farmer-partners to gain access Project market development and business
to technologies and develop innovations to be- components
ﬁt these technology inputs into their resources
and capabilities and enhance their access to The market development and business
markets by producing animals that possess aspect were conducted by the project. To dis-
characteristics preferred by consumers as de- cuss the market and business plan of the RED
scribed by Orden and Jamandre (2003). Com- project, it is best to situate them within an en-
munity-based selection and breeding strategies terprise network. The framework is shown in
will also be presented as an option to improve Figure 1.
productivity and quality of goats.
Figure 1. Framework for Technology-based Rural Enterprise Development Process
Rural-based enterprise development need to be characterized. Based on the
(RED) is a holistic approach to technology baseline information, it will be known whether
commercialization and enterprise building. the technologies and input systems are well in
A rural-based enterprise consists of three place or are insufﬁcient. The insufﬁciency or
important components: (1) production system; unavailability will then be addressed through the
(2) organization and management; and (3) project intervention activities. The technology/
linkages. information needed to support/improve
production systems to enhance performance
Technology-based rural enterprises and enhance the quality of the products is laid
are those where the outputs of R&D, in out for the farmers to choose from.
terms of technology or information, become
prominent and integral to the whole enterprise Technology trainings, cross visits/
operation. Such outputs may serve as inputs lakbay-aral/ﬁeld days, exhibit to existing
to the production system which may be used goat farms, training on entrepreneurial skills
to alter existing practices/processes (e.g. use and development and formation of farmers’
of controlled breeding to allow selection and association, participation in goat shows form
pairing of breeder stocks to produce offspring of part of the project activities to empower the
desired genetic and phenotypic characteristics). project’s farmer-partners who will operate the
The goal of the R&D system is to generate and production systems and manage the enterprise.
utilize this technologies/information to improve Speciﬁc activities focus on enabling strategies
the enterprise system. for the farmer-partners to gain access to
technologies and develop innovations to beﬁt
In this project, the focal sites, farm these technology inputs into their resources
household, and the selected farmer-partners and capabilities and enhance their access to
48 Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
markets by producing animals that possess institutions and the project implementers will be
characteristics preferred by consumers. initiated. Multi-level linkage will be established
starting from the barangay level up to the
The goat raisers were encouraged to provincial level and regional levels. Linkages
form an association. The goat enterprise will then with R&D institutions, ﬁnancial institutions,
be organized and managed by the association. other government support agencies, non-
It will discuss plans on what products to sell governmental organizations and private
– slaughter goats (per head or per kilogram institutions like restaurant and meat shop
live weight). Pricing of the products will be owners, trader, middlemen which are possible
discussed and standardized during meetings. market of slaughter/breeder goats will also be
Arrangements with prospective buyers (traders, established and strengthened.
middlemen, private institutions, and co-farmers)
and promotion of products will be handled by Participatory approaches
the association. By educating these producers,
and by promoting opportunities within the goat The project followed a framework based
industries, producers have an opportunity on the premise that any development endeavor,
to earn extra income and thus improve the to be truly participatory, must ﬁrst and foremost
economic status of their household. takes into account the farmers’ realities – their
situation, aspirations, and capabilities. The
As shown in the same Fig., baseline project basically employed participatory
data that were gathered through the site approaches in identifying and grounding of
characterization, access to support systems interventions as well as in evaluating results of
or if there is difﬁculty in getting such services the said interventions (CASREN Philippines,
will be determined. Linkages that will enhance 2001 with modiﬁcation, Lanting, 2007; Figure
complementation and cooperation among 2). The speciﬁc approaches used were ﬁrmed
different institutions will be established and up by the project implementers and other
promoted. A strong partnership among the local partners.
Figure 2. Participatory methodology (CASREN Philippines, 2001with modiﬁcation,
J.N. Nayga, et. al
In monitoring, the farmer-partners will will enhance complementation and cooperation
ﬁll-out a monthly monitoring form to establish among different institutions were established
data/information on goat inventory, productive and promoted. A strong partnership among the
and reproductive performance, health practices, local institutions and the project implementers
marketing practices, technology adoption, and will be initiated. Multi-level linkage will be
economic data of the farm for the month. established starting from the barangay level
up to the municipal, provincial, and regional
A participatory resource appraisal-focus levels. Linkages with R&D institutions,
group discussion (PRA-FGD) was conducted ﬁnancial institutions, other government support
with the farmers to validate the results of the agencies, and non-governmental organizations
survey and determine the problem-technology- will also be established and strengthened. The
resource match. linkages and partnership with various key
players for development are deemed necessary
Data analysis to ensure the following:
Analysis of data was carried out by � Support and legitimization of the
comparing the performance of adopters and project;
non-adopters. Data on monthly body weight of
animals and mortality rate were analyzed by � Provide technical and support
t-test to compare the performance of animals services;
raised between the adopters and non-adopters.
Likewise, economic beneﬁts/feasibility will � Provide technical and support
be determined using the “before and after” services;
approach, with due consideration of the time
dimension. Other data will be subjected to � Facilitate information dissemination
statistical analysis (to be determined by the and exchange;
different project implementers). A partial budget
analysis will also be done to determine the � Smooth monitoring of project
incremental beneﬁts and costs from adopting activities; and
the introduced production systems.
� Sustainability of the project.
Implementing strategy for the project’s
success and sustainability Timely information dissemination
system were likewise developed by the
The project is being managed by a project management team in cooperation
Project Management Team (PMT), chaired with its partners. Similar to the ILRI-IFAD and
by the Program Leader of DA-RFU 8 in CASREN projects, farmer-partners will be
cooperation with a network of partners from tapped in the promotion of technology mixes
DA-RFU I, Isabela State University (ISU) in and other relevant information to other farmers
Region 2, and Central Luzon State University in the community.
(CLSU) in Region 3. It is being implemented by
the Project Working Group (PWG) in farmers’ Target beneﬁciaries
ﬁelds where farmers themselves play an active
role in decision-making and implementation � Smallholder goat producers
of project activities. The ﬁnal set of roles and � The focal villages/communities
responsibilities were ﬁrmed up during the � The goat industry and allied industries
inception meeting-workshop for the project. (e.g. those trading veterinary
products, other inputs, etc.)
As linkaging were done, linkages that
Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
RESULT AND DISCUSSION interview, and participatory planning and
diagnosis. Secondary data were also used in
Characterization of Project Sites, Farm site characterization. Focus group discussion
Households and Farmer-partners (FGD) was also done to enhance the data
gathered. The baseline information focused
The project focal and control sites on the biophysical, socio-economic, and
(Echague and Alicia Isabela, respectively; institutional characteristics useful in future
(Figure 3), farm households (30) and farmer impact assessment; in identifying constraints,
partners (20) were characterized using and deﬁning researchable issues and project
structured questionnaires, key informants interventions.
Figure 3. RED Project Pilot (Echague) and Control (Alicia) Sites in Isabela, Region II.
J.N. Nayga, et. al
Site characterization. are accessible to market with 1.7 km away from
the market of Echague and 1.36 km away from
The focal and control sites belong to the market of Alicia.
Type I climatic condition with distinct wet and
dry seasons in a year. The average temperature The selling price of goat ranging from
and rainfall is 27.2 0C and 184.1mm per month, P1,300.00 to P2,500.00 per head during market
respectively with a relative humidity of 79 to days and P1,200.00 per head for regular days.
85%. The focal site (Echague) has the bigger Cattle is priced ranging from P13,000.00 to
land area as compared to the control (Alicia) P35,000.00 per head, carabao had priced as
with an area of 3,404 hectares and 1,462.29 much as P15,000 to P48,000 per head while,
hectares, respectively. Agricultural land is the pigs are marketed at P120.00 per kilo live
largest land used of both sites with 1,771.46 weight in the focal site. On the other hand,
hectares for Echague and 1,211 hectares for the control site had observed with P1,200 to
Alicia. P2,500 per head of goat during market days
and P1,200 per head during regular days.
Clay loam soil type is observed in both Cattle is priced at P14,000 to 45,000 per head,
sites but in Echague has mixture with sandy. Carabao with a price of P18,000 to P55,000.00
The land is considered ﬂat ranging from 3% to per head and pigs are sold at P110 per kilo live
5% land slope. Echague farmers had practicing weight. It has noted for both sites that goat,
corn-corn cropping pattern while Alicia has cattle and carabao prices did not established
been practicing a rice-rice cropping pattern for price trends. However, pigs selling price
the whole-year round. The major crop-animal established an increasing trend for both sites.
production system of focal site is corn-goat- Focal site harvested corn with an average of
mango-banana-chicken whereas rice goat- 7 tons per hectare during the main cropping
swine-poultry-ﬁshpond in all areas for the season while, 7.5 tons per hectare during the
control site. second cropping. The control sites harvested
rice with an average of 95 cavans per hectare
Socio-economic Characteristics during main cropping season while, 110 cavans
per hectare during the second cropping. Almost
Echague has a highest population for the same proportion of agricultural land to the
all barangay sites (4915) than Alicia barangay total land area for both sites (Echague and
sites (2462). The population density of the Alicia) with 96.73% and 97.46%, respectively.
control site has 1.68 greater than to the focal Non-farm activities that are prevalent in both
site with 1.44. More number of households sites are sari-sari store, vulcanizing, tricycle
(885) is observed in the Echague than in operator, furniture, construction workers and
Alicia (559). Echague farm households have helpers.
greater average farm size (2.93 hectares) as
compared to Alicia farmers (4.58 hectares). Institutional Characteristics
Both sites have the same tenurial status with
CLT owners, EP owners and leaseholder’s Both sites are within the service area
farmers. Farmers in Echague are older of 46.6 of Cagayan Valley in Agriculture Research,
year old than Alicia farmers with 40.03 year old. Resources and Development (CVARRD) and
They obtained college education as the highest Isabela State University (ISU) in which they
educational attainment for both sites with 90% can access the research and development
for control sites and 66% for focal site. Income programs. They have also in common sources
from raising chicken has contributed much to of credit/funds for the development of their
the total family income with 12.33% in Echague household enterprises that is from the informal
and 15.3% in Alicia and followed by goat with sources like friends, relatives and input
10% in Echague and 12.4% in Alicia. Both sites merchants. Lending institutions are likewise
Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
tapped for credit like banks and cooperatives has less (5 heads).
for both sites.
Production performance of goat in
Both sites have complete educational two sites, control has older (10.4 month old)
facilities particularly day care, elementary and age that comments its ﬁrst parturition while,
high school. For health care facilities, Alicia has the focal site obtained with younger age (10.2
while in focal site in Echague had none. They month old). Both sites have the same average
are members in Small Ruminant Association kidding rate of 2 heads per kidding. Alicia had
(SRA). Some farmers in Echague are members higher average weaning weight of 6.13 kg
in ISU Credit Cooperative whereby the source while, Echague obtained with 5.2 kg per head.
of their funding. Alicia farmers are members They have almost the same weaning age of 3.5
of Agrarian Beneﬁciaries Association (ARBA). month old and 3.6 month old for Echague and
Both sites are with passable and cement farm- Alicia, respectively. The highest average age
to-market roads in almost all areas while some marketed is noticed to the focal site with 12.52
feather roads are earth but passable anytime. month old while, control site has 12.2 month
Most farmers in both sites used cellular phones old. Both sites have the same type of housing
in contacting product buyers and farm product and breeding system used with shed house
suppliers. In Alicia, farmers some times sell and natural breeding, respectively. Goat raisers
their bulk products to the auction market. The don’t practice vaccination in both sites. Both
focal and control sites have abattoirs equipped wet and dry seasons in two sites practiced the
in slaughtering all kinds of animals. Echague same feeding system which is the combination
has feed processing plant that buys farm of tethering and grazing. They have the same
products like cereals in the locality while, Alicia type of basal feed like grasses and legumes for
has dressing plant that caters to the broiler both sites. Some farmers in control site gave
contract growers in the area. food concentrates and rice bran to their goat
animals. The source of feeds are from own and
Household Characterization communal pastures in wet and dry seasons
for both sites. Feeding is done twice a day
Results show that more male and which means that the tethered animals are
female household members in both sites transferred in two places during the day. They
belong to age ranging from 16 to 60 year old have adequate good grasses and legumes
with 31 and 27 family members, respectively as feeds to the animals in both sites. Control
for Echague while, 25 and 29 family members, site has heavier slaughter average weight of
respectively for Alicia. Control site has older 15.2 kg per head than in focal site with 12.3
farmer cooperators with 31.6 year old as kg per head. Neighbors and traders are most
compared to the focal site with 28.30 year prominent buyers of goats at P120.00 per kilo
old. Both sites have obtained highest college live weight for both sites.
educational attainment with 40.63% for Echague
and 41.65% for Alicia. They have obtained the Control sites have an average land
same trainings in livestock production like swine, holdings of 2.6 hectares while, 1.3 hectares
poultry and small ruminant raising except for for the focal sites. Land ownership is owned,
the focal site which they availed large ruminant rented and leasehold for both sites. Some land
training. The focal site has greater in household owners have mortgaged their farm to acquired
size (5 heads) as compared to the control site loans in the banks while, for leasehold they pay
(4 heads). Chicken (15 heads) has the highest a ﬁxed rental after harvest. Farmers in both
number of heads raised by the farmers in focal sites grow crops like corn, rice and vegetables.
site while, ducks (21 heads) for control site. For They used manure as fertilizer to the crops.
small ruminant production, focal site has more On the other hand, they used crop residues as
in numbers (6 heads) kept while, control site feeds to the animals but others they burn it right
J.N. Nayga, et. al
in the ﬁeld in both sites. project sites, all farmers (100%) adopted these
top 3 technology options. Other technology
Farmers engaged in goat raising options preferred by farmers include strategic
encountered common problems in both sites deworming, pasture development and feeding
such as scouring, poor forage and housing. of improved forage, upgrading and concentrate/
The cited causes of these problems are vitamin supplementation with 90%, 85%, 80%
parasitism and bacterial infections, no enough and 70% adoption rate by farmers-partners in
funds for capital, inferior quality of forage focal sites.
and not properly designed goat housing. As
there suggestions, they recommended for the
following solutions: 1) enrich their knowledge in
goat management through training or “lakbay
aral” activities, 2) provide good sources of fresh
and nutritious forage, 3) better goat houses,
and 4) government will provide ﬁnancial and
On the other hand, farmers in both
sites encountered problems in crop production
like higher prices of farm inputs, occurrence of
calamities, outbreak of pests and diseases and
lack of capital. The causes of these problems
are due to high markup price of farm inputs
by the middlemen, typhoons and draught for
calamities, incidence of pests and diseases,
Table 1. Technology Options Adopted by
insufﬁcient access to credit particularly coming
Farmer-Partners in the RED Project
from the government, and not enough technical
assistance from local or national government.
The suggested possible solutions of these * UMMB, Vaccination and Urea-Treated Rice
problems are provide subsidies for farm inputs, Straw are the less-adopted and/or not-adopted
changing cropping pattern (from mono crop to technology options by Farmer-partners.
diversiﬁed farming system), apply right amount
of insecticide and other farm chemicals, and Provision of Housing/Improvement of
government will provide more credit windows Existing Housing
accessible to farmers anytime.
Farmers conﬁrmed that establishment
Technology Options Adopted by Farmer- of housing provides easier and more convenient
Partners in the RED Project Sites raising of goats. With housing, goats are kept
under conﬁnement or semi-conﬁnement
Table 1 shows the technology options system with stall feeding and concentrate
adopted by farmer-partners after a series supplementation as a complimentary technology
of capability-building processes conducted option given the available feed resources in
in the project sites. After a year of project the farm. Animals are also protected from
implementation, results indicated that the most rain, adverse weather conditions, and natural
adopted technologies by farmer-partners are predators, and minimize social problems such
the provision of housing and/or improvement as destruction of crops. Mortalities are reduced
of housing, stall feeding and the use of multi- because goats have limited access to the
purpose tree species as feed supplementation. infective stage of the parasite usually found in
Out of the 20 farmer-partners in the 4 RED grazing areas.
54 Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
Stall-feeding However, some individual farmers also
establish their own forage area or garden. It is
On stall feeding, animals are conﬁned noted that most of them planted napier grass,
or semi-conﬁned and fed cut-and carry with although there are abundant grasses and
available fodder resources during night time multi-purpose tree species in the area as feed
and rainy season. Farmers believed that with resources. As observed, there is no problem
stall feeding reduces parasite infestation, on feed resources since the farmers adopt the
hence, lesser mortality rates due to internal food-feed-system technology
parasitism and better performance of goats.
Goat Productivity Performance of Farmer-
Concentrate Supplementation & Salt Stake Partners in Focal and Control Sites
Feeding supplementation with Population Inventory
concentrates optimizes use of locally available
feed materials such as rice and corn bran and Table 2 shows the changes in the goat
improves nutrition requirements of goats, thus, population inventory in the focal and control
goats grow faster and weigh heavier with better sites. With the 20 initial farmer-partners of
performance and resistance to diseases. the RED project in Isabela, the beginning
population inventory of the focal sites started
Upgrading through the Use of Quality with 144 heads of goats.
After a year of implementation, the
Upgrading is one of the technology number of goats totaled 411 with an increase
options in breeding management to produce of 267 head goats or 185% increase in the
goats with improved potentials for growth population inventory, while an increase of 63%
rate, increase in body size, and thus increase was observed in the control site from the initial
productivity and proﬁtability of goat enterprise. inventory of 92 to 150 heads of goats involving
Superior and quality breeder bucks either 20 goat farmers.
Anglo-Nubian or Boer were introduced to the
existing stocks of farmer-partners in all the In Region II, a remarkable increase of
RED project focal sites. 185% in the population inventory of the focal site
from 144 to 411 head of goats while the control
This technology option is complemented site also revealed 63% in goat population. The
with basket of options on housing, stallfeeding increase in population was due to kiddings
with tree legumes, concentrate supplementation and the purchase of additional breeder stocks
and strategic deworming to attain the desired by some farmers both in the focal and control
effect on the over-all performance of goats. sites.
The results of upgrading technology option are
manifested by the initial performance of kids Doe-Level Inventory
born to superior quality breeder bucks infused
in the RED project sites. In Region II, similarly an increase of
110% (114 does to 240 does) in the number of
Establishment of Forage Area & Pasture does in the focal site due to additional breeders
Development infused by some farmer-partners to augment
their stocks aside from their own produced
In Region II, the farmer-partners breeders on farm. The control site also indicated
adopted a communal area for pasture a slight increase of 63% (92 does to 150 does)
establishment and development as source of in the doe-level population.
forage for cut and carry supplemental feeding.
J.N. Nayga, et. al
Table 2. Doe Level and Population Inventory of Farmer-Partners (Pilot and Control Sites)
As of October 15, 2008
Performance of Experimental Goats in kg birth weight in the control site with 0.77 kg
terms of weight in different stages difference favor to the focal site. For average
weaning weight, focal site goat has obtained
The initial data on birth weights, with 12.95 kg while, 7.28 kg for control site goat.
weaning weights and slaughter weights of It shows that focal site goat has higher weaning
experimental goats in the focal and control sites weight of 5.67 kg as compared to control site
of the RED project is summarized in Tables 3. goat. Pertaining to slaughter weight goat, the
focal site had obtained with 26.55 kg which is
Birth weight of goats in the focal site higher as compared to slaughter weight goat in
obtained with average of 2.35 kg while 1.58 control site with 12.98 kg.
Table 3. Birth weight, 3 months and 8 months of Experimental Goats in Pilot and
56 Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
Generally, the effect of upgrading Results show that mortality rate was
through the infusion of superior breeder bucks 45% in the Control sites. The cause of mortality
to an existing stock signiﬁcantly improved the rate was mainly due to the effect of diarrhea
quality of offspring and resulted in bigger size and pneumonia. Other causes of mortalities in-
and heavier kids in the focal sites. clude weakness at birth. Mortality rates (7%) in
the focal sites were lower compared to that of
Apparently, these results are compli- the control sites of the RED project.
mented with technology options adopted by
farmer-partners. These technologies are the Data on kidding interval is not yet in-
provision of housing or improvement of hous- cluded due to insufﬁcient information generated
ing facilities, stall feeding, strategic deworming, as of this report. However, an initial data shows
concentrate supplementation, and the applica- that breeder does get in-heat and are rebred
tion of other important management practices earlier than before as observed by some farm-
on goat production systems. ers which can be traced due to the presence
or availability of breeder bucks at all times.
Statistical analyses revealed signiﬁ- The over-all improvement in the management
cant differences between the focal and the con- systems from traditional to innovative practic-
trol sites in relation to birth weights, weaning es is clearly manifested in the performance of
weights and slaughter weights. goats.
n= number of observations; *
Signiﬁcant: AN=Anglo-Nubian; B=Boer
Table 4. Performance of Experimental Goats in the Focal Site by Bloodline (N x B; Upgrades x
B; Upgrades x AN x Boer)
Organizational and Enterprise Development that as backyard goat raisers, it is more effec-
tive and efﬁcient to produce goats by individual
Formation of Goat Raisers Association raiser. The RED project focal sites have orga-
One of the expected outputs of the RED proj- nized by themselves as goat raisers/producers
ect is to empower the project’s farmer-part- association and named “Echague Goat Rais-
ners in the operation and management of ers Association”. The formation of the asso-
goat-based enterprises. As revealed in the ciation shows form a part of the project activi-
results of the FGD, farmers agreed to orga- ties to empower the project’s farmer-partners
nize themselves for purposes of marketing who will operate the production systems and
of their products. However, they still believe manage the enterprise. It was form in order to
J.N. Nayga, et. al
strengthen their participation and involvements introduction of technology options to en-
in the project. hance the productivity of goats, there were a
number of activities conducted on enterprise
Enterprise Development and Identiﬁed development. Organizing the farmers into an
Priority Goat-Based Enterprises association is an initial step towards promot-
The RED projects’ concept goes beyond pro- ing opportunities in the thriving and promising
duction with evolving process toward develop- goat-based industries.
ing goat-based enterprises as an innovative
approach in livestock enterprise development, In Isabela, Region II, entrepreneurial
thereby transforming traditional backyard goat activities such as marketing of slaughter goats
raising into a viable and proﬁtable agribusi- and chevon processed products (one of the
ness venture. breakthroughs/strengths of ISU technology
generated/developed) were the main focused
Although the ﬁrst year of the RED of the enterprise project on the second year of
project implementation focused more on the the RED project implementation.
Table 5. Goat-Based Enterprises identiﬁed by Farmer-Partners/Goat Raisers
* Enterprise Development either by individual farmer-partner or by the Goat Raisers
/Producers Association as a group.
Spill-over activities in pilot site of our RED farmer partners with a total of. To
mention, they are the following groups and pre-
Spill-over is one of the outputs of the sented in Appendix H.
project as indicated in the proposal. There
were 80 spill-over goat raisers coming from 1. Backyard Raisers in Echague, Isabela
several groups who signify their interests to 2. World Vision Farmer Partners
join the group and get involved in goat raising 3. DOLE Farmer Partners
when they observed the existing performance 4. Heifer Farmer Partners
58 Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
5. Expected 5 Municipalities in Isabela product cum marketing cycle needed to estab-
lish a sustainable industry for goat and sheep.
a. Echague Isabela
b. Jones Isabela REFERENCES CITED
c. Cauayan Isabela
d. Santiago City Alo, A.M.P. 2003. ILRI-IFAD TAG 443. Devel-
e. Alicia Isabela opment and testing of an integrated approach
to the control of gastrointestinal parasites in
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS small ruminants. Participatory diagnosis in the
Philippines. (Progress Report). PCARRD, Los
The project followed a framework Banos, Laguna.
based on the premise that any development
endeavor, to be truly participatory, must ﬁrst Beltran, M.A.G., Pagatpatan, L. Tablarain,
and foremost takes into account the farmers’ R., Briones, R.C. and Data, T. 2006. Enhanc-
realities – their situation, aspirations, and ca- ing goat productivity through the adaptation of
pabilities. The speciﬁc approaches used were technologies of the Farmer Livestock School
ﬁrmed up by the project implementers and oth- on Integrated Goat Management. Paper pre-
er partners. sented during the PCARRD NSARRD, Novem-
ber 2006. Los Banos, Laguna. 40 p.
Speciﬁc activities will focus on en-
abling strategies for the farmer-partners to gain Brown, E.O., Alo, AM.P., Cruz, E.M. Ventu-
access to technologies and develop innova- rina, V.M., Villar, E.C. Gabunada, Jr., F.G.
tions to beﬁt these technology inputs into their and Lambio, E.T. 2003. Financial analysis of
resources and capabilities and enhance their the basket of technology options for goat worm
access to markets by producing animals that control. Paper presented during the 2003 Phil-
possess characteristics preferred by consum- ippine Society Of Animal Science National
ers. Convention, 23-24 October 2003. Heritage Ho-
tel, Metro Manila.
Recognizing that the effective imple-
mentation of a certain modalities such partici- PCARRD, 2003. Improving crop-livestock pro-
patory enterprises will work well at the local lev- duction systems in rainfed areas of Southeast
els and it will result into the following scene: Asia. A country report of the Philippines (Prog-
ress Report). PCARRD, Los Banos, Laguna.
• Address food security;
• Increase income to smallhold farmers;
• Create more job opportunities in the
• A good means to improve the status
quo of rural folks; and
• Establish a sustainable industry for
goat and sheep.
With the initial pilot projects conduct-
ed, the team has proven that such participatory
enterprises work well at the local levels. The
integration of small ruminants farming systems
with meat products processing and packag-
ing and application of different technology op-
tions complements the necessary production to
J.N. Nayga, et. al 59