RURAL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH
                                     (REGION II)1

                   Wilson A. Cerbito, Jonathan N. Nayga, Diosdado Canete,
                      Manuel C. Galang, Ricardo Azarcon, Edsel Miguel2


         Rural-based enterprise development (RED) is a holistic approach to technology commercialization
and enterprise building. A rural-based enterprise consists of three important components: (1) production
system; (2) organization and management; and (3) linkages.

        The RED project is implemented in four (4) regions of the country, Region 1,2,3 and 8. In Region 02,
specifically in Isabela, the focal site is located in the municipality of Echague in Barangays Sto. Domingo,
Anafunan and Malitao Alicia as the control site, in Barangays Aurora, Antonino and Del Pilar.

          Comparative baseline data on goats’ technical performance indicate that major problems in goat
production are high mortality rates, due to parasitism and diseases, slow growth of kids resulting to goats
getting smaller, including marketing problems. All farmer-partners (100%) adopted the technology options,
which addresse the mentioned problems. Other technology options preferred by farmers include strategic
deworming, pasture/forage establishment for feeding of improved forage, upgrading and concentrate/vitamin
supplementation with 90.0%, 80.0%, 80.0% and 70.8% adoption rate respectively by farmers-partners in the
focal sites. Goat productivity in focal sites gave evidence of a 110% increase in the number of does from 114
does beginning inventory with 5.7 average doe-level to the current inventory of 240 does with 12.0 average
doe-level from the total 20 farmer-partners.

         Upgrading through the infusion of superior breeder bucks coupled with the adoption of complementary
technology options significantly improved the quality of offspring and resulted in bigger size. Birth weights of
goats are 2.35 kg, 12.95 kg for weaning weights, and the marketing weight is 26.55 kg. The total targeted
adopters of the project is 80 farmer-partners including spill-over after two years. As of this report, there are
20 farmer-partners involved in the RED project and 60 farmers partners belongs to the spill-over category.

         The study realized the Incremental Cost and Return of a 25-Doe Level Goat Enterprise using
Partial Budgeting Analysis of 1-2 cycles (March 2008-March 2009) for PhP 92, 400, PhP 36,960 for 10 Doe
Level and PhP 18,480 for the 5 Doe Level.

Keywords: Goat, enterprise development

         Goats are considered as rural                   sustainable livestock enterprise while ensuring
asset. Although not properly quantified,                  food security for the family.
the contributions of goats to rural farming
communities are well recognized. Goats                           Goats also play other significant socio-
have the potential for increased production in           economic and cultural roles, i.e., insurance,
relatively short period of time. They require            savings, minimal risk accumulation of assets,
little capital investments, can utilize local            diversification of farm resources, and fulfillment
feed resources, and provide opportunities for            of various socio-cultural obligations of the
women and children to participate in building a          underprivileged rural farmers. However, the

    2nd Place, Best Development Paper Category, CVARRD 21st RSRDEH Symposium
     RED Region II Project Team, Isabela State University University

goat’s full economic potentials are yet to be          Pasture-Ruminant Cluster.
realized. The wide variability in the production
performance ( e.g., birth weight ranging from                               OBJECTIVES
1.7 kg to 3.16 kg; slaughter weight ranging
from 10 kg to 20 kg, etc.) and product quality         The primary goal of the project is to contribute
(e.g. meatiness) of goats in smallholder farms         to the Philippine government’s bid to alleviate
is considered a major deterrent to its utilization     poverty in rural areas by transforming goat
as reliable livelihood option for small farmers.       raising from a subsistence type of farm activity
                                                       into a viable livestock-based rural enterprise.
        Major causes of these are the low
productivity of existing stocks and low adoption                  Specifically, the project aims to:
of improved goat production technologies/
practices. Nevertheless, the experiences and                 1. Increase goat productivity by about
results of projects previously implemented in                   50% in the focal sites and improve the
various areas of the country as reported by                     profitability of goat production in this
Alo (2003), Brown et al. (2003), Venturina et                   areas;
al. (2003) and PCARRD (2003,2004b, 2005,
2006) have demonstrated that application                     2. Enhance market access of
of improved packages of technology in                           smallholder goat producers by
smallholder farms can effectively enhance the                   improving the quality of their products
production performance and thus, profitability                   to match consumer preferences;
of goat production in smallholder farms.
                                                             3. Enhance adoption of improved goat
        Moreover, through the said projects,                    production technologies by
modalities for effective and efficient adoption of               smallholder rural farmers through
technology packages by smallholder farmers                      action learning strategies;
have been developed and tested on-farm. The
aforesaid successes achieved by smallholder                  4. Develop a community-based selection
farmers demonstrated the positive response                      and breeding system that suits to
of goats in smallholder farms to improved                       rural farmers’ resources and
packages of production technologies. The                        capacities for a continual goat genetic
increased productivity (e.g., 98% improvement                   improvement and sustained supply of
in growth rate) of goats in these farms presents                 high quality goats;
smallholder goat production as one of the
potential livelihood options for rural farming               5. Determine the productive and
communities to flee from poverty.                                reproductive performance of improved
                                                                goat genotypes raised under
         This project is anchored on the                        smallholder farm conditions; and
successes and learning in enhancing goat
production that were gained from completed                   6. Determine the benefits and costs
ILRI-IFAD TAG 443 and CASREN projects                           accruing from the adoption of
and from a CGIAR-funded on-going project                        improved production systems and
now being implemented in Bambang, Nueva                         technologies.
Viscaya (PCARRD, 2005-2006). It hopes,
among others, to contribute in the attainment                     MATERIALS AND METHODS
of the technical targets, i.e., reduction of pre-
weaning mortality from 25% to 10% and                  Pre-implementation            Meeting        of   project
increase in slaughter weight from 15 kg to 30          implementers
kg by 2020, of the Industry Strategic Plan of the

                                                     Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
          An    inception     meeting-workshop          b.   Smallholders with at least 5-doe level
between LRD-PCARRD and the implementers                      goats per family
were held to discuss the project’s concept,
methodology, expected outputs, and other                c.   Positive receptivity to innovative
pertinent issues. Concerns such as criteria for              technologies/development projects
site and farmer selection, data to be gathered
for site characterization, data/information to be       d.   Have some knowledge and
gathered during regular monitoring activities,               understanding of feeds, animal
roles/responsibilities of project partners, etc.             performance, production/management
were discussed and firmed up.                                 systems, e.g. deworming, housing,
Selection of project sites
                                                        e.   Enterprising
        Prior to project site selection, secondary
data in terms of goat population and largest         Characterization of focal sites, farm
goat-producing municipalities in Cagayan Valley      households, and selected farmer-partners
were gathered from the Provincial Veterinary
Office of the Isabela Provincial Government.                   Using structured questionnaires, the
                                                     focal sites, farm household, and selected
         On the basis of the secondary data,         farmer-partners were characterized.      The
Echague and Alicia Isabela were the top two          characterization activity was conducted to:
municipalities with the highest concentration        (a) generate baseline information/data for
of goat population.      Field validation was        future impact assessment studies; (b) identify
undertaken to validate the secondary data            constraints in the system being practiced,
gathered and to determine the villages which         as well as define researchable issues; and
will serve as focal and control sites. Echague       (c) provide basis in the selection of farmer-
Isabela was selected as the project focal sites      partners.
while, Alicia Isabela was identified to serve as
the control site. Meeting with the officers of                 The site selection focused on
Echague Goat Raisers/Producers Association           biophysical, socioeconomic, and institutional
was also done for possible collaboration.            characteristics. The biophysical characteristics
                                                     determined were climate, vegetation, soil type,
         The selection of project sites/focal        topography, length of growing period, cropping
villages was based on the following general/         pattern, among others.
indicative criteria: (a) high goat density, (b)
goat production recognized as economically                   The socioeconomic data gathered were
important, (c) accessibility, (d) high radiation     average farm size, tenure status, per capita
effect, (e) presence of support system, among        income, average household size, average age
others. The final site selection criteria used by     and educational level, contribution of livestock
all implementers was decided on the project’s        to household income, access to market
inception meeting-workshop.                          indicators, among others.

Selection of farmer-partners                                   On institutional characteristics, data/
                                                     information collected were on access to R&D
The farmer-partners were selected based on           institutions engaged in livestock R&D and R&D
the following criteria:                              facilities, access to credit, farmers’ groups/
                                                     cooperatives,      marketing     infrastructures,
     a. Willingness to participate in the project    presence of product processing facilities,
                                                     among others. On the characterization of the

J.N. Nayga, et. al
selected farmer-partners, data/information           some of the project activities already conducted
collected were on household information,             to empower the project’s farmer-partners. The
animal systems and labor allocation, crop/food-      formation of farmers’ association and activities
feed systems, constraints to production, post-       towards enterprise development will still be
harvest practices, agricultural decision making,     done. The capability building strategy used
among others.                                        was patterned from the process adopted by
                                                     CASREN Philippines (2003). The mentioned
Capability building                                  activities encouraged the farmer-partners to
                                                     adopt improved goat production systems and
        Technology trainings, cross visits/          other related technologies (Table 1) through
lakbay-aral/field days, exhibit to existing           action learning strategies developed through
goat farms, training on entrepreneurial skills       the ILRI-IFAD and CASREN projects (Alo,
development, participation in goat shows were        2003; Venturina et al., 2003; CASREN, 2003).

 46                                                Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
1Table 1. List of some technologies/improved practices introduced, their description, benefits,
            and the science behind the practice.
J.N. Nayga, et. al
         Specific activities focused on enabling
strategies for he farmer-partners to gain access      Project market development and business
to technologies and develop innovations to be-        components
fit these technology inputs into their resources
and capabilities and enhance their access to                   The market development and business
markets by producing animals that possess             aspect were conducted by the project. To dis-
characteristics preferred by consumers as de-         cuss the market and business plan of the RED
scribed by Orden and Jamandre (2003). Com-            project, it is best to situate them within an en-
munity-based selection and breeding strategies        terprise network. The framework is shown in
will also be presented as an option to improve        Figure 1.
productivity and quality of goats.

Figure 1. Framework for Technology-based Rural Enterprise Development Process

        Rural-based enterprise development            need to be characterized. Based on the
(RED) is a holistic approach to technology            baseline information, it will be known whether
commercialization and enterprise building.            the technologies and input systems are well in
A rural-based enterprise consists of three            place or are insufficient. The insufficiency or
important components: (1) production system;          unavailability will then be addressed through the
(2) organization and management; and (3)              project intervention activities. The technology/
linkages.                                             information needed to support/improve
                                                      production systems to enhance performance
          Technology-based rural enterprises          and enhance the quality of the products is laid
are those where the outputs of R&D, in                out for the farmers to choose from.
terms of technology or information, become
prominent and integral to the whole enterprise                 Technology trainings, cross visits/
operation. Such outputs may serve as inputs           lakbay-aral/field days, exhibit to existing
to the production system which may be used            goat farms, training on entrepreneurial skills
to alter existing practices/processes (e.g. use       and development and formation of farmers’
of controlled breeding to allow selection and         association, participation in goat shows form
pairing of breeder stocks to produce offspring of     part of the project activities to empower the
desired genetic and phenotypic characteristics).      project’s farmer-partners who will operate the
The goal of the R&D system is to generate and         production systems and manage the enterprise.
utilize this technologies/information to improve      Specific activities focus on enabling strategies
the enterprise system.                                for the farmer-partners to gain access to
                                                      technologies and develop innovations to befit
       In this project, the focal sites, farm         these technology inputs into their resources
household, and the selected farmer-partners           and capabilities and enhance their access to

 48                                                 Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
markets by producing animals that possess            institutions and the project implementers will be
characteristics preferred by consumers.              initiated. Multi-level linkage will be established
                                                     starting from the barangay level up to the
          The goat raisers were encouraged to        provincial level and regional levels. Linkages
form an association. The goat enterprise will then   with R&D institutions, financial institutions,
be organized and managed by the association.         other government support agencies, non-
It will discuss plans on what products to sell       governmental organizations and private
– slaughter goats (per head or per kilogram          institutions like restaurant and meat shop
live weight). Pricing of the products will be        owners, trader, middlemen which are possible
discussed and standardized during meetings.          market of slaughter/breeder goats will also be
Arrangements with prospective buyers (traders,       established and strengthened.
middlemen, private institutions, and co-farmers)
and promotion of products will be handled by         Participatory approaches
the association. By educating these producers,
and by promoting opportunities within the goat                The project followed a framework based
industries, producers have an opportunity            on the premise that any development endeavor,
to earn extra income and thus improve the            to be truly participatory, must first and foremost
economic status of their household.                  takes into account the farmers’ realities – their
                                                     situation, aspirations, and capabilities. The
         As shown in the same Fig., baseline         project basically employed participatory
data that were gathered through the site             approaches in identifying and grounding of
characterization, access to support systems          interventions as well as in evaluating results of
or if there is difficulty in getting such services    the said interventions (CASREN Philippines,
will be determined. Linkages that will enhance       2001 with modification, Lanting, 2007; Figure
complementation and cooperation among                2). The specific approaches used were firmed
different institutions will be established and       up by the project implementers and other
promoted. A strong partnership among the local       partners.

Figure 2. Participatory methodology (CASREN Philippines, 2001with modification,
                 Lanting, 2007)

J.N. Nayga, et. al
         In monitoring, the farmer-partners will       will enhance complementation and cooperation
fill-out a monthly monitoring form to establish         among different institutions were established
data/information on goat inventory, productive         and promoted. A strong partnership among the
and reproductive performance, health practices,        local institutions and the project implementers
marketing practices, technology adoption, and          will be initiated. Multi-level linkage will be
economic data of the farm for the month.               established starting from the barangay level
                                                       up to the municipal, provincial, and regional
        A participatory resource appraisal-focus       levels.      Linkages with R&D institutions,
group discussion (PRA-FGD) was conducted               financial institutions, other government support
with the farmers to validate the results of the        agencies, and non-governmental organizations
survey and determine the problem-technology-           will also be established and strengthened. The
resource match.                                        linkages and partnership with various key
                                                       players for development are deemed necessary
Data analysis                                          to ensure the following:

         Analysis of data was carried out by                 � Support and legitimization of the
comparing the performance of adopters and                      project;
non-adopters. Data on monthly body weight of
animals and mortality rate were analyzed by                  � Provide technical and support
t-test to compare the performance of animals                   services;
raised between the adopters and non-adopters.
Likewise, economic benefits/feasibility will                  � Provide technical and support
be determined using the “before and after”                     services;
approach, with due consideration of the time
dimension. Other data will be subjected to                   � Facilitate information dissemination
statistical analysis (to be determined by the                  and exchange;
different project implementers). A partial budget
analysis will also be done to determine the                  � Smooth monitoring of project
incremental benefits and costs from adopting                    activities; and
the introduced production systems.
                                                             � Sustainability of the project.
Implementing strategy for the project’s
success and sustainability                                      Timely    information     dissemination
                                                       system were likewise developed by the
        The project is being managed by a              project management team in cooperation
Project Management Team (PMT), chaired                 with its partners. Similar to the ILRI-IFAD and
by the Program Leader of DA-RFU 8 in                   CASREN projects, farmer-partners will be
cooperation with a network of partners from            tapped in the promotion of technology mixes
DA-RFU I, Isabela State University (ISU) in            and other relevant information to other farmers
Region 2, and Central Luzon State University           in the community.
(CLSU) in Region 3. It is being implemented by
the Project Working Group (PWG) in farmers’            Target beneficiaries
fields where farmers themselves play an active
role in decision-making and implementation                   � Smallholder goat producers
of project activities. The final set of roles and             � The focal villages/communities
responsibilities were firmed up during the                    � The goat industry and allied industries
inception meeting-workshop for the project.                    (e.g. those trading veterinary
                                                               products, other inputs, etc.)
        As linkaging were done, linkages that

                                                    Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
           RESULT AND DISCUSSION                  interview, and participatory planning and
                                                  diagnosis. Secondary data were also used in
Characterization of Project Sites, Farm           site characterization. Focus group discussion
Households and Farmer-partners                    (FGD) was also done to enhance the data
                                                  gathered. The baseline information focused
        The project focal and control sites       on the biophysical, socio-economic, and
(Echague and Alicia Isabela, respectively;        institutional characteristics useful in future
(Figure 3), farm households (30) and farmer       impact assessment; in identifying constraints,
partners (20) were characterized using            and defining researchable issues and project
structured questionnaires, key informants         interventions.

Figure 3. RED Project Pilot (Echague) and Control (Alicia) Sites in Isabela, Region II.

J.N. Nayga, et. al
Site characterization.                                are accessible to market with 1.7 km away from
                                                      the market of Echague and 1.36 km away from
         The focal and control sites belong to        the market of Alicia.
Type I climatic condition with distinct wet and
dry seasons in a year. The average temperature                 The selling price of goat ranging from
and rainfall is 27.2 0C and 184.1mm per month,        P1,300.00 to P2,500.00 per head during market
respectively with a relative humidity of 79 to        days and P1,200.00 per head for regular days.
85%. The focal site (Echague) has the bigger          Cattle is priced ranging from P13,000.00 to
land area as compared to the control (Alicia)         P35,000.00 per head, carabao had priced as
with an area of 3,404 hectares and 1,462.29           much as P15,000 to P48,000 per head while,
hectares, respectively. Agricultural land is the      pigs are marketed at P120.00 per kilo live
largest land used of both sites with 1,771.46         weight in the focal site. On the other hand,
hectares for Echague and 1,211 hectares for           the control site had observed with P1,200 to
Alicia.                                               P2,500 per head of goat during market days
                                                      and P1,200 per head during regular days.
         Clay loam soil type is observed in both      Cattle is priced at P14,000 to 45,000 per head,
sites but in Echague has mixture with sandy.          Carabao with a price of P18,000 to P55,000.00
The land is considered flat ranging from 3% to         per head and pigs are sold at P110 per kilo live
5% land slope. Echague farmers had practicing         weight. It has noted for both sites that goat,
corn-corn cropping pattern while Alicia has           cattle and carabao prices did not established
been practicing a rice-rice cropping pattern for      price trends. However, pigs selling price
the whole-year round. The major crop-animal           established an increasing trend for both sites.
production system of focal site is corn-goat-         Focal site harvested corn with an average of
mango-banana-chicken whereas rice goat-               7 tons per hectare during the main cropping
swine-poultry-fishpond in all areas for the            season while, 7.5 tons per hectare during the
control site.                                         second cropping. The control sites harvested
                                                      rice with an average of 95 cavans per hectare
Socio-economic Characteristics                        during main cropping season while, 110 cavans
                                                      per hectare during the second cropping. Almost
         Echague has a highest population for         the same proportion of agricultural land to the
all barangay sites (4915) than Alicia barangay        total land area for both sites (Echague and
sites (2462). The population density of the           Alicia) with 96.73% and 97.46%, respectively.
control site has 1.68 greater than to the focal       Non-farm activities that are prevalent in both
site with 1.44. More number of households             sites are sari-sari store, vulcanizing, tricycle
(885) is observed in the Echague than in              operator, furniture, construction workers and
Alicia (559). Echague farm households have            helpers.
greater average farm size (2.93 hectares) as
compared to Alicia farmers (4.58 hectares).           Institutional Characteristics
Both sites have the same tenurial status with
CLT owners, EP owners and leaseholder’s                       Both sites are within the service area
farmers. Farmers in Echague are older of 46.6         of Cagayan Valley in Agriculture Research,
year old than Alicia farmers with 40.03 year old.     Resources and Development (CVARRD) and
They obtained college education as the highest        Isabela State University (ISU) in which they
educational attainment for both sites with 90%        can access the research and development
for control sites and 66% for focal site. Income      programs. They have also in common sources
from raising chicken has contributed much to          of credit/funds for the development of their
the total family income with 12.33% in Echague        household enterprises that is from the informal
and 15.3% in Alicia and followed by goat with         sources like friends, relatives and input
10% in Echague and 12.4% in Alicia. Both sites        merchants. Lending institutions are likewise

                                                    Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
tapped for credit like banks and cooperatives         has less (5 heads).
for both sites.
                                                               Production performance of goat in
          Both sites have complete educational        two sites, control has older (10.4 month old)
facilities particularly day care, elementary and      age that comments its first parturition while,
high school. For health care facilities, Alicia has   the focal site obtained with younger age (10.2
while in focal site in Echague had none. They         month old). Both sites have the same average
are members in Small Ruminant Association             kidding rate of 2 heads per kidding. Alicia had
(SRA). Some farmers in Echague are members            higher average weaning weight of 6.13 kg
in ISU Credit Cooperative whereby the source          while, Echague obtained with 5.2 kg per head.
of their funding. Alicia farmers are members          They have almost the same weaning age of 3.5
of Agrarian Beneficiaries Association (ARBA).          month old and 3.6 month old for Echague and
Both sites are with passable and cement farm-         Alicia, respectively. The highest average age
to-market roads in almost all areas while some        marketed is noticed to the focal site with 12.52
feather roads are earth but passable anytime.         month old while, control site has 12.2 month
Most farmers in both sites used cellular phones       old. Both sites have the same type of housing
in contacting product buyers and farm product         and breeding system used with shed house
suppliers. In Alicia, farmers some times sell         and natural breeding, respectively. Goat raisers
their bulk products to the auction market. The        don’t practice vaccination in both sites. Both
focal and control sites have abattoirs equipped       wet and dry seasons in two sites practiced the
in slaughtering all kinds of animals. Echague         same feeding system which is the combination
has feed processing plant that buys farm              of tethering and grazing. They have the same
products like cereals in the locality while, Alicia   type of basal feed like grasses and legumes for
has dressing plant that caters to the broiler         both sites. Some farmers in control site gave
contract growers in the area.                         food concentrates and rice bran to their goat
                                                      animals. The source of feeds are from own and
Household Characterization                            communal pastures in wet and dry seasons
                                                      for both sites. Feeding is done twice a day
         Results show that more male and              which means that the tethered animals are
female household members in both sites                transferred in two places during the day. They
belong to age ranging from 16 to 60 year old          have adequate good grasses and legumes
with 31 and 27 family members, respectively           as feeds to the animals in both sites. Control
for Echague while, 25 and 29 family members,          site has heavier slaughter average weight of
respectively for Alicia. Control site has older       15.2 kg per head than in focal site with 12.3
farmer cooperators with 31.6 year old as              kg per head. Neighbors and traders are most
compared to the focal site with 28.30 year            prominent buyers of goats at P120.00 per kilo
old. Both sites have obtained highest college         live weight for both sites.
educational attainment with 40.63% for Echague
and 41.65% for Alicia. They have obtained the                  Control sites have an average land
same trainings in livestock production like swine,    holdings of 2.6 hectares while, 1.3 hectares
poultry and small ruminant raising except for         for the focal sites. Land ownership is owned,
the focal site which they availed large ruminant      rented and leasehold for both sites. Some land
training. The focal site has greater in household     owners have mortgaged their farm to acquired
size (5 heads) as compared to the control site        loans in the banks while, for leasehold they pay
(4 heads). Chicken (15 heads) has the highest         a fixed rental after harvest. Farmers in both
number of heads raised by the farmers in focal        sites grow crops like corn, rice and vegetables.
site while, ducks (21 heads) for control site. For    They used manure as fertilizer to the crops.
small ruminant production, focal site has more        On the other hand, they used crop residues as
in numbers (6 heads) kept while, control site         feeds to the animals but others they burn it right

J.N. Nayga, et. al
in the field in both sites.                             project sites, all farmers (100%) adopted these
                                                       top 3 technology options. Other technology
         Farmers engaged in goat raising               options preferred by farmers include strategic
encountered common problems in both sites              deworming, pasture development and feeding
such as scouring, poor forage and housing.             of improved forage, upgrading and concentrate/
The cited causes of these problems are                 vitamin supplementation with 90%, 85%, 80%
parasitism and bacterial infections, no enough         and 70% adoption rate by farmers-partners in
funds for capital, inferior quality of forage          focal sites.
and not properly designed goat housing. As
there suggestions, they recommended for the
following solutions: 1) enrich their knowledge in
goat management through training or “lakbay
aral” activities, 2) provide good sources of fresh
and nutritious forage, 3) better goat houses,
and 4) government will provide financial and
technical assistance.

         On the other hand, farmers in both
sites encountered problems in crop production
like higher prices of farm inputs, occurrence of
calamities, outbreak of pests and diseases and
lack of capital. The causes of these problems
are due to high markup price of farm inputs
by the middlemen, typhoons and draught for
calamities, incidence of pests and diseases,
                                                       Table 1. Technology Options Adopted by
insufficient access to credit particularly coming
                                                               Farmer-Partners in the RED Project
from the government, and not enough technical
                                                               Focal Sites
assistance from local or national government.
The suggested possible solutions of these              * UMMB, Vaccination and Urea-Treated Rice
problems are provide subsidies for farm inputs,        Straw are the less-adopted and/or not-adopted
changing cropping pattern (from mono crop to             technology options by Farmer-partners.
diversified farming system), apply right amount
of insecticide and other farm chemicals, and           Provision of Housing/Improvement                         of
government will provide more credit windows            Existing Housing
accessible to farmers anytime.
                                                                Farmers confirmed that establishment
Technology Options Adopted by Farmer-                  of housing provides easier and more convenient
Partners in the RED Project Sites                      raising of goats. With housing, goats are kept
                                                       under confinement or semi-confinement
        Table 1 shows the technology options           system with stall feeding and concentrate
adopted by farmer-partners after a series              supplementation as a complimentary technology
of capability-building processes conducted             option given the available feed resources in
in the project sites. After a year of project          the farm. Animals are also protected from
implementation, results indicated that the most        rain, adverse weather conditions, and natural
adopted technologies by farmer-partners are            predators, and minimize social problems such
the provision of housing and/or improvement            as destruction of crops. Mortalities are reduced
of housing, stall feeding and the use of multi-        because goats have limited access to the
purpose tree species as feed supplementation.          infective stage of the parasite usually found in
Out of the 20 farmer-partners in the 4 RED             grazing areas.

 54                                                  Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
Stall-feeding                                       However, some individual farmers also
                                                    establish their own forage area or garden. It is
         On stall feeding, animals are confined      noted that most of them planted napier grass,
or semi-confined and fed cut-and carry with          although there are abundant grasses and
available fodder resources during night time        multi-purpose tree species in the area as feed
and rainy season. Farmers believed that with        resources. As observed, there is no problem
stall feeding reduces parasite infestation,         on feed resources since the farmers adopt the
hence, lesser mortality rates due to internal       food-feed-system technology
parasitism and better performance of goats.
                                                    Goat Productivity Performance of Farmer-
Concentrate Supplementation & Salt Stake            Partners in Focal and Control Sites

        Feeding       supplementation      with     Population Inventory
concentrates optimizes use of locally available
feed materials such as rice and corn bran and               Table 2 shows the changes in the goat
improves nutrition requirements of goats, thus,     population inventory in the focal and control
goats grow faster and weigh heavier with better     sites. With the 20 initial farmer-partners of
performance and resistance to diseases.             the RED project in Isabela, the beginning
                                                    population inventory of the focal sites started
Upgrading through the Use of Quality                with 144 heads of goats.
Breeder Buck
                                                            After a year of implementation, the
         Upgrading is one of the technology         number of goats totaled 411 with an increase
options in breeding management to produce           of 267 head goats or 185% increase in the
goats with improved potentials for growth           population inventory, while an increase of 63%
rate, increase in body size, and thus increase      was observed in the control site from the initial
productivity and profitability of goat enterprise.   inventory of 92 to 150 heads of goats involving
Superior and quality breeder bucks either           20 goat farmers.
Anglo-Nubian or Boer were introduced to the
existing stocks of farmer-partners in all the                In Region II, a remarkable increase of
RED project focal sites.                            185% in the population inventory of the focal site
                                                    from 144 to 411 head of goats while the control
         This technology option is complemented     site also revealed 63% in goat population. The
with basket of options on housing, stallfeeding     increase in population was due to kiddings
with tree legumes, concentrate supplementation      and the purchase of additional breeder stocks
and strategic deworming to attain the desired       by some farmers both in the focal and control
effect on the over-all performance of goats.        sites.
The results of upgrading technology option are
manifested by the initial performance of kids       Doe-Level Inventory
born to superior quality breeder bucks infused
in the RED project sites.                                     In Region II, similarly an increase of
                                                    110% (114 does to 240 does) in the number of
Establishment of Forage Area & Pasture              does in the focal site due to additional breeders
Development                                         infused by some farmer-partners to augment
                                                    their stocks aside from their own produced
        In Region II, the farmer-partners           breeders on farm. The control site also indicated
adopted a communal area for pasture                 a slight increase of 63% (92 does to 150 does)
establishment and development as source of          in the doe-level population.
forage for cut and carry supplemental feeding.

J.N. Nayga, et. al
Table 2. Doe Level and Population Inventory of Farmer-Partners (Pilot and Control Sites)
               As of October 15, 2008

Performance of Experimental Goats in                  kg birth weight in the control site with 0.77 kg
terms of weight in different stages                   difference favor to the focal site. For average
                                                      weaning weight, focal site goat has obtained
        The initial data on birth weights,            with 12.95 kg while, 7.28 kg for control site goat.
weaning weights and slaughter weights of              It shows that focal site goat has higher weaning
experimental goats in the focal and control sites     weight of 5.67 kg as compared to control site
of the RED project is summarized in Tables 3.         goat. Pertaining to slaughter weight goat, the
                                                      focal site had obtained with 26.55 kg which is
        Birth weight of goats in the focal site       higher as compared to slaughter weight goat in
obtained with average of 2.35 kg while 1.58           control site with 12.98 kg.

Table 3. Birth weight, 3 months and 8 months of Experimental Goats in Pilot and
           Control Sites.

 56                                                 Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
         Generally, the effect of upgrading                   Results show that mortality rate was
through the infusion of superior breeder bucks        45% in the Control sites. The cause of mortality
to an existing stock significantly improved the        rate was mainly due to the effect of diarrhea
quality of offspring and resulted in bigger size      and pneumonia. Other causes of mortalities in-
and heavier kids in the focal sites.                  clude weakness at birth. Mortality rates (7%) in
                                                      the focal sites were lower compared to that of
          Apparently, these results are compli-       the control sites of the RED project.
mented with technology options adopted by
farmer-partners. These technologies are the                    Data on kidding interval is not yet in-
provision of housing or improvement of hous-          cluded due to insufficient information generated
ing facilities, stall feeding, strategic deworming,   as of this report. However, an initial data shows
concentrate supplementation, and the applica-         that breeder does get in-heat and are rebred
tion of other important management practices          earlier than before as observed by some farm-
on goat production systems.                           ers which can be traced due to the presence
                                                      or availability of breeder bucks at all times.
         Statistical analyses revealed signifi-        The over-all improvement in the management
cant differences between the focal and the con-       systems from traditional to innovative practic-
trol sites in relation to birth weights, weaning      es is clearly manifested in the performance of
weights and slaughter weights.                        goats.

 n= number of observations; *
 Significant: AN=Anglo-Nubian; B=Boer
Table 4. Performance of Experimental Goats in the Focal Site by Bloodline (N x B; Upgrades x
        B; Upgrades x AN x Boer)

 Organizational and Enterprise Development            that as backyard goat raisers, it is more effec-
                                                      tive and efficient to produce goats by individual
 Formation of Goat Raisers Association                raiser. The RED project focal sites have orga-
 One of the expected outputs of the RED proj-         nized by themselves as goat raisers/producers
 ect is to empower the project’s farmer-part-         association and named “Echague Goat Rais-
 ners in the operation and management of              ers Association”. The formation of the asso-
 goat-based enterprises. As revealed in the           ciation shows form a part of the project activi-
 results of the FGD, farmers agreed to orga-          ties to empower the project’s farmer-partners
 nize themselves for purposes of marketing            who will operate the production systems and
 of their products. However, they still believe       manage the enterprise. It was form in order to

J.N. Nayga, et. al
strengthen their participation and involvements      introduction of technology options to en-
in the project.                                      hance the productivity of goats, there were a
                                                     number of activities conducted on enterprise
         Enterprise Development and Identified        development. Organizing the farmers into an
Priority Goat-Based Enterprises                      association is an initial step towards promot-
The RED projects’ concept goes beyond pro-           ing opportunities in the thriving and promising
duction with evolving process toward develop-        goat-based industries.
ing goat-based enterprises as an innovative
approach in livestock enterprise development,                  In Isabela, Region II, entrepreneurial
thereby transforming traditional backyard goat       activities such as marketing of slaughter goats
raising into a viable and profitable agribusi-        and chevon processed products (one of the
ness venture.                                        breakthroughs/strengths of ISU technology
                                                     generated/developed) were the main focused
         Although the first year of the RED           of the enterprise project on the second year of
project implementation focused more on the           the RED project implementation.

 Table 5. Goat-Based Enterprises identified by Farmer-Partners/Goat Raisers
   * Enterprise Development either by individual farmer-partner or by the Goat Raisers
   /Producers Association as a group.

Spill-over activities in pilot site                  of our RED farmer partners with a total of. To
                                                     mention, they are the following groups and pre-
         Spill-over is one of the outputs of the     sented in Appendix H.
project as indicated in the proposal. There
were 80 spill-over goat raisers coming from                1.   Backyard Raisers in Echague, Isabela
several groups who signify their interests to              2.   World Vision Farmer Partners
join the group and get involved in goat raising            3.   DOLE Farmer Partners
when they observed the existing performance                4.   Heifer Farmer Partners

 58                                                Rural Enterprise Development Through Innovative ..............
     5. Expected 5 Municipalities in Isabela          product cum marketing cycle needed to estab-
                                                      lish a sustainable industry for goat and sheep.
       a. Echague Isabela
       b. Jones Isabela                                           REFERENCES CITED
       c. Cauayan Isabela
       d. Santiago City                                Alo, A.M.P. 2003. ILRI-IFAD TAG 443. Devel-
       e. Alicia Isabela                              opment and testing of an integrated approach
                                                      to the control of gastrointestinal parasites in
 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                       small ruminants. Participatory diagnosis in the
                                                      Philippines. (Progress Report). PCARRD, Los
         The project followed a framework             Banos, Laguna.
based on the premise that any development
endeavor, to be truly participatory, must first        Beltran, M.A.G., Pagatpatan, L. Tablarain,
and foremost takes into account the farmers’          R., Briones, R.C. and Data, T. 2006. Enhanc-
realities – their situation, aspirations, and ca-     ing goat productivity through the adaptation of
pabilities. The specific approaches used were          technologies of the Farmer Livestock School
firmed up by the project implementers and oth-         on Integrated Goat Management. Paper pre-
er partners.                                          sented during the PCARRD NSARRD, Novem-
                                                      ber 2006. Los Banos, Laguna. 40 p.
         Specific activities will focus on en-
abling strategies for the farmer-partners to gain     Brown, E.O., Alo, AM.P., Cruz, E.M. Ventu-
access to technologies and develop innova-            rina, V.M., Villar, E.C. Gabunada, Jr., F.G.
tions to befit these technology inputs into their      and Lambio, E.T. 2003. Financial analysis of
resources and capabilities and enhance their          the basket of technology options for goat worm
access to markets by producing animals that           control. Paper presented during the 2003 Phil-
possess characteristics preferred by consum-          ippine Society Of Animal Science National
ers.                                                  Convention, 23-24 October 2003. Heritage Ho-
                                                      tel, Metro Manila.
        Recognizing that the effective imple-
mentation of a certain modalities such partici-       PCARRD, 2003. Improving crop-livestock pro-
patory enterprises will work well at the local lev-   duction systems in rainfed areas of Southeast
els and it will result into the following scene:      Asia. A country report of the Philippines (Prog-
                                                      ress Report). PCARRD, Los Banos, Laguna.
       • Address food security;
       • Increase income to smallhold farmers;
       • Create more job opportunities in the
          rural areas;
       • A good means to improve the status
          quo of rural folks; and
       • Establish a sustainable industry for
          goat and sheep.

         With the initial pilot projects conduct-
ed, the team has proven that such participatory
enterprises work well at the local levels. The
integration of small ruminants farming systems
with meat products processing and packag-
ing and application of different technology op-
tions complements the necessary production to

J.N. Nayga, et. al                                                                               59

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