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The New Deal Affects Many Groups Ch 23 Sect 3 Pg 710 Women make their mark Several women were appointed to high gov. positions during the New Deal. Frances Perkins became the first female cabinet member. Roosevelt was seeking the support of women voters. Roosevelt also appointed 2 female diplomats & a federal judge. Women continued to face discrimination but they continued to move into the work place. African Americans take leadership roles Roosevelt appointed over 100 African Americans to key gov. positions. Mary Bethune helped to organize a “black cabinet” of influential blacks to advise the president. Eleanor Roosevelt played a key role in opening doors for African Americans in gov. President fails to support civil rights Roosevelt was never fully committed to full civil rights for African Americans. He was afraid of upsetting white Democrat supporters. Refused to pass antilynching laws. Many New Deal organizations discriminated against blacks. African Americans in general still supported the New Deal. Mexican Americans Mexican Americans also supported the New Deal. They received fewer benefits than African Americans. New Deal agencies also discriminated against Mexican Americans. Native Americans Received strong gov. support from New Deal. Roosevelt appointed John Collier as commissioner of Indian affairs. Moved away from assimilation & toward Native American autonomy. Indian Reorganization Act (3 areas) Economic Cultural Political New Deal Coalition New Deal Coalition – an alignment of diverse groups dedicated to supporting the Democratic Party. Included southern whites, urban groups, blacks, & unions. Union members enjoyed better working conditions & increased bargaining power under the coalition. Labor Disputes Main bargaining tactic – sit down strikes Sit-down Strikes – rather than walking off the job, workers remained inside their plants, not working. Prevented production & strikebreakers Clash at the Republic Steel plant in Chicago on Memorial Day Police attacked striking steel workers outside the plant. 10 people were killed & 84 injured. Memorial Day Massacre FDR wins in 1936 Support for the Democratic Party soared. Roosevelt carried the 12 largest cities in the U.S. during the election. Support from Catholics, Jews, Italians, Irish, African Americans, women To reinforce support, he appointed officials from these groups to gov. positions. Answer these questions 1. What impact did Frances Perkins’ appointment to the cabinet have on the lives of American women? 2. How were women treated in the workplace? 3. Who was Mary McLeod Bethune? 4. How did Eleanor Roosevelt influence racial politics during the Roosevelt administration? 5. Why didn’t Roosevelt support full civil rights for African Americans? 6. Why did Mexican Americans support the New Deal? 7. How did New Deal politics affect Native Americans? 8. Identify key components of the New Deal coalition. 9. Why were urban voters likely to support FDR?
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