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					Distinguish the two alternative
pathways that sensory stimuli
may travel when triggering an
     emotional response.

Do Now: Storytime!

  Nonverbal Communication
Most of us are good at deciphering emotions
   through non-verbal communication.

  Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal
Women are much better at discerning nonverbal
           emotions than men.

  Detecting and Computing Emotion
 Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving
 emotions. Even trained professionals like police
 officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists
detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.

                                           Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco
        Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?                                                        5
              Hindu Dance
In classical Hindu dance, the body is trained to
    effectively convey 10 different emotions.

                                        Network Photographers/ Alamy
  Culture and Emotional Expression

When culturally diverse people were shown basic
    facial expressions, they did fairly well at
 recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto, 1989).

                                      Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and
                                      Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion
        Emotions are Adaptive
  Darwin speculated
  that our ancestors
 communicated with
 facial expressions in
    the absence of
language. Nonverbal
facial expressions led
   to our ancestor’s

                         Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
           Analyzing Emotion
Analysis of emotions are carried on different levels.

   The Effects of Facial Expression
If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing
brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.

                                                  The New York Times Pictures
                                                  Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/
 Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips
            touch causes the brow to furrow.             10
                      them are present in infancy, except for contempt,

                         Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of

                                                                          Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works                     Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit
Experienced Emotion

                                                                           Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc.     Marc Grimberg/ The Image Bank
                                     Shame, and guilt.

                                                                                    Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow                 Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank
                                                                                                                      Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
  Dimensions of Emotion
People generally divide emotions into
          two dimensions.

    Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and
  preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be
 adaptive – it makes us run away from danger, it
brings us closer as groups, and it protects us from
                 injury and harm.

          Learning Fear
We learn fear in two ways, either through
conditioning and/or through observation.

                               Watson (1878-1958)
           By Monika Suteski

                      amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear

                        Some fears are easier to learn than others. The

                                                                            Courtesy of National Geographic Magazine and Laboratory of Neuro Imaging
                                                                            (LONI) at UCLA. Art and brain modeling by Amanda Hammond, Jacopo
                                                                            Annese, and Authur Toga, LONI; spider art by Joon-Hyuck Kim
The Biology of Fear

                                   with certain situations.
 Do Now: 1) Review Homework
        2) Activity 13-3

  Anger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, 70-19
B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato 234-
                    149 B.C.).

             Causes of Anger
1. People generally become angry with friends
   and loved ones who commit wrongdoings,
   especially if they are willful, unjustified, and

2. People are also angered by foul odors, high
   temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and

AIM: How are different emotions

        Catharsis Hypothesis
Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves
      an emotional release or “catharsis.”

   Expressing anger breeds more
 anger, and through reinforcement it
          is habit-forming.
     How to deal with anger?
1) WAIT (don’t react, count to ten)
2) Vent in a HEALTHY manner= talking,
   exercise, playing an instrument
     Cultural & Gender Differences
1.   Boys and girls respond to anger differently

2.   Anger breeds prejudice.

3.   Individualist versus communal cultures express anger

                                         Wolfgang Kaehler

What are the advantages to being
Happy people: make
 decisions easily, are
more cooperative, are
more energized, and
    are healthier
Write down five people you know well. For
each person, write down whether they are
  happy/unhappy and selfish/unselfish

 Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon

When we feel happy we are more willing to help

         Subjective Well-Being
Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling
      of happiness or satisfaction with life.

    Emotional Ups and Downs
Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs
                tend to balance.

                                    Courtesy of Anna Putt
         Wealth and Well-being
Many people in the West believe that if they were
     wealthier, they would be happier….

  Does Money Buy Happiness?

…But this is not the

      Happiness & Satisfaction
Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction)
measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and
 Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.

     Values & Life Satisfaction
Students who value love more than money report
            higher life satisfaction.

  Happiness & Prior Experience
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: our tendency to
  form judgments (of sounds, lights, income)
   relative to a neutral level defined by prior

   Satisfaction has a relatively short half-life

 Happiness & Others’ Attainments

Happiness is not only relative to our past, but
   also to our comparisons with others.

 Relative Deprivation is the perception that we
are relatively worse off than those we compare
                ourselves with.

                 Do Now:
Write down the top 5 stressors in your life.

Compare with a partner
Stress is any circumstance (real or perceived) that
          threatens a person’s well-being.

                                            Lee Stone/ Corbis
When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it is
Stressors are stimuli that cause stress

3 types of stressors:
Major Life Changes
Daily Hassles
       Stressful Life Events
Catastrophic Events: Catastrophic events
 lead individuals to become depressed,
         sleepless, and anxious.
       Significant Life Changes
The death of a loved one, a divorce, a loss of job,
or a promotion may leave individuals vulnerable
                   to disease.
            Daily Hassles
Rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, and
becoming burnt-out are the most significant
  sources of stress and can damage health
Stress can be adaptive
or maladaptive…
            Stress and Stressors

                                                              Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
When short-lived or taken as a challenge, stressors may
have positive effects. However, if stress is threatening or
              prolonged, it can be harmful.
     Stress and Causes of Death
   Prolonged stress combined with unhealthy
behaviors may increase our risk for heart disease,
    cancer, stroke, and chronic lung disease.
          Behavioral Medicine
Psychologists and physicians have developed a
behavioral medicine that integrates behavioral
knowledge with medical knowledge.

Health psychology studies stress-related aspects
of disease.
    Social Readjustment Rating Scale
• Holmes Rahe- SRRS (Social Readjustment
  Rating Scale) to measure stress

• measures major life changes by life change
  units- positive events (marriage) count as
  much as negative events (getting fired)
score on SRRS correlates with stress
Life Event
          related diseases          Value

Death of Spouse                     100
Divorce                             73
Marital separation                  65
Jail term                           63
Death of close family member        63
Personal injury or illness          53
Marriage                            50
Fired at work                       47
Marital reconciliation              45
Retirement                          45
Change in health of family member   44
Pregnancy                           40
Sex difficulties                    39
The Stress Response System: FAST
  Canon proposed that
 the stress response is a
   response: epinephrine
     and norepinephrine
 from the inner adrenal
    increasing heart and
     respiration rates -
  mobilizing sugar and
  fat, and dulling pain.
The Stress Response System: SLOW

The hypothalamus and
the pituitary gland also
respond to stress (slow)
 by triggering the outer
    adrenal glands to
  secrete glucocorticoids
General Adaptation Syndrome
Selye injected rats with ovarian extract:
• increase in size of adrenal cortex
• decrease in size of thymus
• bleeding ulcers

Interpret these results.
                              General Adaptation Syndrome
 According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of
 stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes
                through three phases.
EPA/ Yuri Kochetkov/ Landov
        AP Psychology
        March 1, 2010
AIM: Why do we experience stress?
Do Now: What are the three stages
to General Adaptation Syndrome?
       Describe each one

• Phase One: Alarm reaction, activation of
  sympathetic nervous system
• Phase Two: Resistance
• Phase Three: Exhaustion
 Stress & Susceptibility to Disease
 A psychophysical illness is any stress-related
                physical illness
Hypochondriasis is a misinterpretation of normal
  physical sensations as symptoms of disease.
Stress and the Immune System
During stress, energy is mobilized away from
 the immune system making it vulnerable.

                                          Lennart Nilsson/ Boehringer Ingelhein International GmbH
Pessimism and Heart Disease
Pessimistic adult men are twice as likely to
develop heart disease over a 10-year period
         (Kubzansky et al., 2001).
           Stress and Illness
Stress and negative emotions may accelerate the
     progression from HIV to AIDs, and the
        development of the common cold
                  Stress and the Heart
  Stress that leads to elevated blood pressure may
   result in Coronary Heart Disease, a clogging of
      the vessels that nourish the heart muscle.

   Plaque in
coronary artery
Why did the husbands have a higher
  incidence of heart problems?
          Personality Types
Type A is a term used for competitive, hard-
driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and
            anger-prone people.
 Type B refers to easygoing, relaxed people

  Type A personalities are more likely to develop
             coronary heart disease.
         Type A versus Type B
•   tendency to try to accomplish too many things in too
    little time
•   free floating hostility leads to aggression (irritated by
    little things)
•   React to stress with high increases in pulse rate and
    blood pressure report feeling less comfortable around
•   prefer working alone vs. team
•   resent doing what they are told- more likely to do
•   work harder, faster, complain less, report less fatigue
•   less successful on tasks with patience and judgment
          To reduce hostility:

• reduce frequency of anger and rage
• treat others more kindly
• reduce cynical mistrust of others
         Perceived Control
Research with rats and humans indicates that
  the absence of control over stressors is a
       predictor of health problems.
 Chapter 15
Do Now: How would you define
personality? Write a 1-3 sentence
An individual’s characteristic pattern of
     thinking, feeling, and acting.

 Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
     Psychodynamic Perspective

In his clinical practice,
  Freud encountered
patients suffering from
  nervous disorders.
   Their complaints
could not be explained
  in terms of purely

                                            Culver Pictures
   physical causes.

                            Sigmund Freud
   Psychodynamic Perspective

 Freud’s Theory of
 unconscious mind,
psychosexual stages,
    and defense

                                       Culver Pictures
                       Sigmund Freud
      Exploring the Unconscious
 The unconscious mind- reservoir of of mostly
  unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and
memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever
came to their minds (free association) in order to
              tap the unconscious.

           Dream Analysis

Another method to analyze the unconscious
 mind is through interpreting manifest and
         latent contents of dreams.

         The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
  Once memories are
retrieved and released
 psychoanalysis) the
  patient feels better.
             Model of Mind
The mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden,
  and below the surface lies the unconscious
  mind. The preconscious stores temporary
         Personality Structure
 Personality develops as a result of our efforts to
resolve conflicts between our biological impulses
      (id) and social restraints (superego).
        Id, Ego and Superego
 The Id strives to satisfy basic sexual and
             aggressive drives
   operates on the pleasure principle

  The ego functions on the reality principle,
 mediates the demands of the id and superego.

The superego provides standards for judgment
  (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
                   The ideal
           Ego, Superego, Id
• Eat a slice of ice cream cake, put the rest
• Eat an entire ice cream cake
• Donate ice cream cake to a homeless
  person, and then regret it
Do Now: Describe some personality
traits of an individual who:
has a very strong Id
has a very strong ego
has a very strong superego
  AIM: How does personality develop
through the psychoanalytic perspective?
        Personality Development

Psychosexual Stage Theory: personality
develops during 5 consecutive stages that people
pass through early in life.

Each stage is named for a pleasurable body area,
known as an erogenous zone.
These stages are governed by Id
          Oedipus Complex
Conflict between a
boy’s sexual desire
for his mother and
fear of punishment
from his father

A girl’s desire for her
father is called the
Electra Complex
How is the Oedipus Conflict

 Children cope with the
  Oedipus Complex by

                                  From the K. Vandervelde private collection
repressing sexual desires
 and by identifying with
    the rival parent.

    Strengthens the
  At any point, conflict can lock, or
fixate, the person’s pleasure-seeking
         energies in that stage.
 Maladaptive adult behavior results
from conflicts unresolved during the
   oral, anal, and phallic stages.

• Oral fixation: smoke, talk, chew gum
• Anal retentive: too neat organized
  Anal expulsive: messy, disorganized
• Phallic: castration anxiety
        Defense Mechanisms
   The ego’s protective methods of reducing
  anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing
   thoughts, feelings, and memories from
2. Regression- leads to an infantile stage
         Defense Mechanisms
3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to
   unconsciously switch unacceptable
   impulses into their opposites.

4. Projection leads people to disguise their
   own threatening impulses by attributing
   them to others.
         Defense Mechanisms
5. Rationalization offers self-justifying

6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive
   impulses toward a more acceptable object
    Imagine you are a Freudian
psychiatrist. A patient enters your
     office who had a traumatic
childhood. His mother abandoned
him at a young age, and his father
was an alcoholic. Design a skit to
    illustrate one of the defense
 mechanisms used by the patient.

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