Distinguish the two alternative
pathways that sensory stimuli
may travel when triggering an
Do Now: Storytime!
Most of us are good at deciphering emotions
through non-verbal communication.
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal
Women are much better at discerning nonverbal
emotions than men.
Detecting and Computing Emotion
Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving
emotions. Even trained professionals like police
officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists
detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.
Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco
Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine? 5
In classical Hindu dance, the body is trained to
effectively convey 10 different emotions.
Network Photographers/ Alamy
Culture and Emotional Expression
When culturally diverse people were shown basic
facial expressions, they did fairly well at
recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto, 1989).
Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and
Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion
Emotions are Adaptive
that our ancestors
facial expressions in
the absence of
facial expressions led
to our ancestor’s
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Analysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
The Effects of Facial Expression
If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing
brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.
The New York Times Pictures
Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/
Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips
touch causes the brow to furrow. 10
them are present in infancy, except for contempt,
Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit
Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Marc Grimberg/ The Image Bank
Shame, and guilt.
Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank
Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
Dimensions of Emotion
People generally divide emotions into
Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and
preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be
adaptive – it makes us run away from danger, it
brings us closer as groups, and it protects us from
injury and harm.
We learn fear in two ways, either through
conditioning and/or through observation.
By Monika Suteski
amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear
Some fears are easier to learn than others. The
Courtesy of National Geographic Magazine and Laboratory of Neuro Imaging
(LONI) at UCLA. Art and brain modeling by Amanda Hammond, Jacopo
Annese, and Authur Toga, LONI; spider art by Joon-Hyuck Kim
The Biology of Fear
with certain situations.
Do Now: 1) Review Homework
2) Activity 13-3
Anger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, 70-19
B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato 234-
Causes of Anger
1. People generally become angry with friends
and loved ones who commit wrongdoings,
especially if they are willful, unjustified, and
2. People are also angered by foul odors, high
temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and
AIM: How are different emotions
Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves
an emotional release or “catharsis.”
Expressing anger breeds more
anger, and through reinforcement it
How to deal with anger?
1) WAIT (don’t react, count to ten)
2) Vent in a HEALTHY manner= talking,
exercise, playing an instrument
Cultural & Gender Differences
1. Boys and girls respond to anger differently
2. Anger breeds prejudice.
3. Individualist versus communal cultures express anger
What are the advantages to being
Happy people: make
decisions easily, are
more cooperative, are
more energized, and
Write down five people you know well. For
each person, write down whether they are
happy/unhappy and selfish/unselfish
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
When we feel happy we are more willing to help
Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling
of happiness or satisfaction with life.
Emotional Ups and Downs
Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs
tend to balance.
Courtesy of Anna Putt
Wealth and Well-being
Many people in the West believe that if they were
wealthier, they would be happier….
Does Money Buy Happiness?
…But this is not the
Happiness & Satisfaction
Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction)
measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and
Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
Values & Life Satisfaction
Students who value love more than money report
higher life satisfaction.
Happiness & Prior Experience
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: our tendency to
form judgments (of sounds, lights, income)
relative to a neutral level defined by prior
Satisfaction has a relatively short half-life
Happiness & Others’ Attainments
Happiness is not only relative to our past, but
also to our comparisons with others.
Relative Deprivation is the perception that we
are relatively worse off than those we compare
Write down the top 5 stressors in your life.
Compare with a partner
Stress is any circumstance (real or perceived) that
threatens a person’s well-being.
Lee Stone/ Corbis
When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it is
Stressors are stimuli that cause stress
3 types of stressors:
Major Life Changes
Stressful Life Events
Catastrophic Events: Catastrophic events
lead individuals to become depressed,
sleepless, and anxious.
Significant Life Changes
The death of a loved one, a divorce, a loss of job,
or a promotion may leave individuals vulnerable
Rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, and
becoming burnt-out are the most significant
sources of stress and can damage health
Stress can be adaptive
Stress and Stressors
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
When short-lived or taken as a challenge, stressors may
have positive effects. However, if stress is threatening or
prolonged, it can be harmful.
Stress and Causes of Death
Prolonged stress combined with unhealthy
behaviors may increase our risk for heart disease,
cancer, stroke, and chronic lung disease.
Psychologists and physicians have developed a
behavioral medicine that integrates behavioral
knowledge with medical knowledge.
Health psychology studies stress-related aspects
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
• Holmes Rahe- SRRS (Social Readjustment
Rating Scale) to measure stress
• measures major life changes by life change
units- positive events (marriage) count as
much as negative events (getting fired)
score on SRRS correlates with stress
related diseases Value
Death of Spouse 100
Marital separation 65
Jail term 63
Death of close family member 63
Personal injury or illness 53
Fired at work 47
Marital reconciliation 45
Change in health of family member 44
Sex difficulties 39
The Stress Response System: FAST
Canon proposed that
the stress response is a
from the inner adrenal
increasing heart and
respiration rates -
mobilizing sugar and
fat, and dulling pain.
The Stress Response System: SLOW
The hypothalamus and
the pituitary gland also
respond to stress (slow)
by triggering the outer
adrenal glands to
General Adaptation Syndrome
Selye injected rats with ovarian extract:
• increase in size of adrenal cortex
• decrease in size of thymus
• bleeding ulcers
Interpret these results.
General Adaptation Syndrome
According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of
stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes
through three phases.
EPA/ Yuri Kochetkov/ Landov
March 1, 2010
AIM: Why do we experience stress?
Do Now: What are the three stages
to General Adaptation Syndrome?
Describe each one
• Phase One: Alarm reaction, activation of
sympathetic nervous system
• Phase Two: Resistance
• Phase Three: Exhaustion
Stress & Susceptibility to Disease
A psychophysical illness is any stress-related
Hypochondriasis is a misinterpretation of normal
physical sensations as symptoms of disease.
Stress and the Immune System
During stress, energy is mobilized away from
the immune system making it vulnerable.
Lennart Nilsson/ Boehringer Ingelhein International GmbH
Pessimism and Heart Disease
Pessimistic adult men are twice as likely to
develop heart disease over a 10-year period
(Kubzansky et al., 2001).
Stress and Illness
Stress and negative emotions may accelerate the
progression from HIV to AIDs, and the
development of the common cold
Stress and the Heart
Stress that leads to elevated blood pressure may
result in Coronary Heart Disease, a clogging of
the vessels that nourish the heart muscle.
Why did the husbands have a higher
incidence of heart problems?
Type A is a term used for competitive, hard-
driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and
Type B refers to easygoing, relaxed people
Type A personalities are more likely to develop
coronary heart disease.
Type A versus Type B
• tendency to try to accomplish too many things in too
• free floating hostility leads to aggression (irritated by
• React to stress with high increases in pulse rate and
blood pressure report feeling less comfortable around
• prefer working alone vs. team
• resent doing what they are told- more likely to do
• work harder, faster, complain less, report less fatigue
• less successful on tasks with patience and judgment
To reduce hostility:
• reduce frequency of anger and rage
• treat others more kindly
• reduce cynical mistrust of others
Research with rats and humans indicates that
the absence of control over stressors is a
predictor of health problems.
Do Now: How would you define
personality? Write a 1-3 sentence
An individual’s characteristic pattern of
thinking, feeling, and acting.
Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
In his clinical practice,
patients suffering from
could not be explained
in terms of purely
Freud’s Theory of
Exploring the Unconscious
The unconscious mind- reservoir of of mostly
unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and
memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever
came to their minds (free association) in order to
tap the unconscious.
Another method to analyze the unconscious
mind is through interpreting manifest and
latent contents of dreams.
The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
Once memories are
retrieved and released
patient feels better.
Model of Mind
The mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden,
and below the surface lies the unconscious
mind. The preconscious stores temporary
Personality develops as a result of our efforts to
resolve conflicts between our biological impulses
(id) and social restraints (superego).
Id, Ego and Superego
The Id strives to satisfy basic sexual and
operates on the pleasure principle
The ego functions on the reality principle,
mediates the demands of the id and superego.
The superego provides standards for judgment
(the conscience) and for future aspirations.
Ego, Superego, Id
• Eat a slice of ice cream cake, put the rest
• Eat an entire ice cream cake
• Donate ice cream cake to a homeless
person, and then regret it
Do Now: Describe some personality
traits of an individual who:
has a very strong Id
has a very strong ego
has a very strong superego
AIM: How does personality develop
through the psychoanalytic perspective?
Psychosexual Stage Theory: personality
develops during 5 consecutive stages that people
pass through early in life.
Each stage is named for a pleasurable body area,
known as an erogenous zone.
These stages are governed by Id
Conflict between a
boy’s sexual desire
for his mother and
fear of punishment
from his father
A girl’s desire for her
father is called the
How is the Oedipus Conflict
Children cope with the
Oedipus Complex by
From the K. Vandervelde private collection
repressing sexual desires
and by identifying with
the rival parent.
At any point, conflict can lock, or
fixate, the person’s pleasure-seeking
energies in that stage.
Maladaptive adult behavior results
from conflicts unresolved during the
oral, anal, and phallic stages.
• Oral fixation: smoke, talk, chew gum
• Anal retentive: too neat organized
Anal expulsive: messy, disorganized
• Phallic: castration anxiety
The ego’s protective methods of reducing
anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing
thoughts, feelings, and memories from
2. Regression- leads to an infantile stage
3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to
unconsciously switch unacceptable
impulses into their opposites.
4. Projection leads people to disguise their
own threatening impulses by attributing
them to others.
5. Rationalization offers self-justifying
6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive
impulses toward a more acceptable object
Imagine you are a Freudian
psychiatrist. A patient enters your
office who had a traumatic
childhood. His mother abandoned
him at a young age, and his father
was an alcoholic. Design a skit to
illustrate one of the defense
mechanisms used by the patient.