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					CHAPTER I

                                     GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


A. Growth
        Growth is a process of accretion (number, mass, volume) of cells, and quantitative (measurable)
and can not return (irreversible).
        In the process of growth is influenced by the following factors:
1. Foreign factors, which include:
          a. Nutrition (makroelemen: C, H, O, N, P, S, Ca, K, Mg; mikroelemen:
             B, Br, Cu, Co, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni)
          b. Light (corresponding to fotoperiodisme).
          c. Temperature (optimum temperature), Gravity
          d. Humidity, water (imbibition à activate hydrolytic enzymes), oxygen
             (Respiration), pH
2. Internal factors, which include genes as genetic and hormonal control center
   as the product of gene expression.

       In the process of growing plants begin the process of growth through two processes, namely:
1. À primary growth occurs in the apical meristem / tip / shoot / primer.
       In this growth, there are 3 main areas that formed in the growth process include:

  Regional à cell division in the growing point region of roots and stems.
  Regional à cell elongation is directly behind the cleavage area.
  Regional à cell differentiation occurs in the process of establishing this area networks.

2. À secondary growth occurs on the secondary meristem / lateral.
       At this growth involves the role of the cambium comprising:

  Fasikuler cambium: structure forming secondary xylem and phloem (annual cycle).
  Interfasikuler cambium: structure the core radius
  Cork cambium (felogen): form structure periderm (bark) the outward form and into shape feloderm
felem.



In the process of growing plants, there are two theories growing point is:
a. Histogen theory of Hanstein growing point dividing the roots and stems into 3 parts:
1. Dermatogen à formed epidermis
2. Periblem à forming cortical
3. Plerom à forming stele
b. Theory tunica corpus of Schmidt who divides growth into 2 parts:
1. The tunica à active layer of cells on the outside
2. The corpus à inner layer of cells that actively divide in all directions.

   Growth in plants is also affected by some important hormones namely:

   Auxin (IAA = Indole Acetic Acid) à spur the bud cell elongation, accelerates differentiation, stem
bending spur, stimulate the formation of lateral roots and fibers, stimulates vascular cambium cell
division, stimulate apical dominance, stimulates flowering and fruit formation, stimulate partenokarpi.
   À Gibberellins stimulate cell elongation and division, accelerate growth, seed germination (dormancy
break) and shoots, growth rate and partenokarpi (inhibit seed formation).
   À Cytokinins stimulate cell division, organ formation, aging delay (delay abortion leaves, flowers and
fruits), spurring the growth of lateral buds (suppressing apical dominance) cotyledons dikotil stimulate
cell enlargement.
   À ethylene stimulates aging, defoliation, flowering, fruit ripening, inhibit stem elongation.
   Abscisic acid (ABA) à inhibit growth (dormancy), helping defoliation.
   Kalin à covers Rhizokalin (stimulates root formation), Kaulokalin (stimulates the formation of the
stem), Filokalin (stimulates the formation of leaves), and anthokalin (stimulate the formation of
flowers).
   Acid traumalin à accelerate wound healing.



B. Development
        The development is a process towards maturity with properties not measurable (qualitative) and
also irreversible.
        While growth and development in animals include several embryonic stages, namely:
a. Cleavage (cleavage) and Blastulasi à zygote formed will undergo cleavage after starting at the oviduct
and within 5-10 days will do nidasi itself to the wall of the uterus (endometrium). After the phase-
division by mitosis into about 64 cells and form a morula. The morula develops into a hollow sphere
called a blastula with small cell arrangement (mikromer) and large cell (makromer).
b. À gastrulation is the formation of embryonic layers that will determine the type of organism body
layer. In vertebrates will form three embryonic layers, namely ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
c. À Morphogenesis is the process of coating the morphogenetic movement of cells towards the
formation of networks.
d. Differentiation and Specialization à a process of change structure, shape and function of the cell. The
results of this process will form the third layer of embryonic tissue specific.
e. Induction of embryonic à the interplay between cell layers before forming organs.
f. Organogenesis à process of organ formation in the embryo.

   Schematic representation of the formation of the embryo to the fetal stage (pre-natal) as shown
below:
CHAPTER II


                                              METABOLISM


     Metabolism consists of the synthesis of complex compounds (anabolism) and breakdown of
complex compounds (catabolism).

A. Enzyme
       Enzymes are protein molecules that act as biokatalisator to the characteristics consists of:

  Apoenzim à part labile protein

b. Cluster prosthetics à 1. Coenzyme à organic compounds, ex: NADH, FADH, CoASH
                      2. À cofactor metal ions, ex: = Cu2, Zn2 +, Fe2 +
       The enzyme works by accelerating the reaction, lowering the activation energy, and does not
change the equilibrium of chemical reactions catalyzed. Enzymes work is influenced by the
concentration of substrate, the enzyme itself, temperature, and pH. The enzyme has a slit section active
/ active side which is a chemical bond between the enzyme to the substrate during the reaction occurs.

B. Respiration
      Respiration as a dismantling process to produce energy compounds are divided into two groups
based on the need for oxygen, which is aerobic respiration à oxygen as a hydrogen acceptor and
anaerobic respiration à last hydrogen acceptor compounds such as acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid.
       Aerobic respiration occurs into 4 main stages, namely "Ge De Si Rae".

  Glycolysis
  Oxidative decarboxylation of Pyruvate Acid (DOAP)
  Kreb's Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
  Electron Transfer Chain




An overview of some processes such as respiration on the following chart:

1. Glycolysis

hexokinase

Phase I-V (early):
   --------------------------------------- + ATP Glucose> Glucose 6-phosphate + ADP
fosfoglukoisomerase
 Glucose 6-phosphate ---------------------------------------> Fructose 6-phosphate
phosphofructokinase
Fructose 6-phosphate + ATP ------------------------> Fructose 1,6 - bisphosphate + ADP
aldolase
 Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ----------------------> gliseraldehid 3 - phosphate (PGAL) + DHAP
Triosafosfat isomerase
 DHAP (dihidroksiasetonfosfat) <---------------------------> PGAL
Gliseraldehid 3 phosphate dehydrogenase

Stage VI - X (end):

PGAL + Pi + NAD + ----------------------------------> 1.3-bifosfogliserat + NADH + H +
fosfogliseratkinase
 fosfogliseratmutase

  1.3-bifosfogliserat ------------------------------- + ADP> ATP + 3-Phosphoglyceric enolase

  3-Phosphoglyceric ------------------------------------> 2-Phosphoglyceric

  2-Phosphoglyceric -----------------------------------> fosfoenolpiruvat
piruvatkinase




Fosfoenolpiruvat + ADP + H + ---------------------------------> pyruvate + ATP

In the process of glycolysis can be summed up as follows:
Place: Cytoplasm
Ingredients: 1 molecule of glucose
The final product: 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 molecules of pyruvic acid

2. Oxidative decarboxylation Acid Pyruvate
       In this process a reaction between before product of glycolysis can enter the Kreb's cycle. A brief
description of this process as the following chart:

At the DOAP can be concluded that:
Place: mitochondrial matrix
Ingredients: 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
The final product: 2 molecules of acetyl CoA, 2 NADH, and CO2 are formed

3. Kreb's Cycle
       In the Kreb's cycle of products from the reaction between (DOAP) is acetyl CoA would be
compounds that mediate the conversion of oxaloacetate to citric acid so that the Kreb's cycle is also
called citric acid. Schematic representation of the Kreb's cycle as in the image below:
In the Kreb's cycle can be summed up as follows:
Place: mitochondrial matrix
Ingredients: 2 molecules of Acetyl CoA
The final product: 2 ATP, FADH 2, 6 NADH, and CO2 are formed

4. Electron Transfer Chain
       In this process the compounds NADH and FADH result 3 previous process will be converted to ATP
through the respiratory chain. Chemical reactions that occur in this process as follows:
       NADH + H + + + 3ADP 3Pi + ½ O2 --------> NAD + + 4 H2O + 3 ATP
       FADH + H + + + 2ADP 2pi + ½ O2 --------> FAD + + 4 H2O + 2 ATP
       So in this process can be concluded that:
Venue: the mitochondrial membrane
Material: 10 molecules of NADH and FADH 2 molecules
The final product: 34 ATP and H2O formed.
The end result of the whole process above is 38 ATP if through a complex electron malate-aspartate
shuttle is a shuttle, but if there is transfer of electrons through the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle will
form 36 ATP.
As for the anaerobic respiration pathway can occur via two pathways, namely alcoholic fermentation
and lactic acid fermentation. Both of these processes also went through a phase of glycolysis to form
molecules of pyruvic acid. Selanjutnnya case of alcoholic fermentation, pyruvic acid molecules are
converted into ethanol. Quick reaction of the process are:
Glucose -----> ------ priruvat acid> ethanol (C2H5OH) + CO2 + energy
The events above assisted by the enzyme that is owned by the yeast and alcohol formed by anaerobic
processes.
       In lactic acid fermentation pyruvic acid compounds will then be converted into lactic acid that
occurs in muscle cells. A brief description of the reaction is as follows:
  Glucose -----> pyruvic acid ------> lactic acid (C3H6O3) + CO2 + energy
But the results of lactic acid fermentation by lactic acid gluconeogenesis to form glucose concentration
increased again after / accumulate in the muscle.

C. Photosynthesis
        Photosynthesis is a process that involves anabolism sunlight and chlorophyll in chloroplasts as an
electron acceptor. The process of photosynthesis takes place through two main reactions:
1. light reaction (reaction Hill à presented by Robert Hill):
        Occur in the thylakoid membrane and the process of photolysis of water into O2 and H + ions.
In this reaction occurs photophosphorylation process involving complex photosystem I and II. The
results of the photosystem is H2O (from photosystem II) and ATP and NADPH (from photosystem I). ATP
and NADPH are formed if you have a non-cyclic phosphorylation, whereas in case of cyclic
phosphorylation and ATP are formed not only involves photosystem II. Schematic representation of the
light reaction is as follows:

       In the light of the above reactions of 5 different types of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a to the reaction
center pigment carotene assisted by a steering flow of electrons to the reaction center. The process of
photosystem the reaction depends on the light with a specific wavelength are like below:
electromagnetic spectrum

2. Dark reactions (Calvin cycle occurs / cycle C3)
       Occur in the chloroplast stroma were divided into 3 important processes are:

  fikasasi à CO2 carboxylation by RuBP and the formation of APG
  APG reduction to PGAL
  RuBP regeneration back to bind back to CO2.

The product of the dark reaction is glucose which will diplomerisasi be polysaccharides starch / starch /
starch.
       Overview of enzymatic reactions in calvin cycle is as follows:

       In certain plants are another cycle that will eventually produce polymers such as the results of the
cycle C3 but not CO2 fiksator RuBP but other compounds, namely PEP (Phospoenolpiruvat) as Hatch-
Slack/daur C4 cycle in plants, cactus, corn, sugarcane and recycled CAM (crassulaceaen acid metabolism)
in plants and succulent pineapple.


         C4 and CAM cycle cycle looks like the image below:

The NAD-ME version of C4 metabolism.
C4 cycle
CAM Cycle
D. Chemosynthesis
       Carbon assimilation is a process that occurs in bacteria kemoautotrof without the help of
chlorophyll. Bacteria will oxidize certain inorganic compounds into organic compounds in the process of
carbon assimilation.
       Bacteria are involved in this process such as:
a. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus (convert ammonia into nitric acid)
          2NH3 + 3O2 à 2HNO2 + 2 H2O + Energy
b. Nitrobacter (convert nitrite to nitric acid)
          2HNO2 + Energy + O2 à 2HNO3
c. Thiobacillus, Begiaota (change womanly sulfur sulfuric acid)
          2S + 3O2 à 2H2O + 2SO4 + 2H-Energy (284.4 cal)

				
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