Democratic Developments Unit 1 Lesson 4 vocabulary feudalism habeas corpus Magna Carta limited monarchy common law jury Petition of Right English Bill of Rights Growth of royal power Feudalism was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords. Lesser lord or vassals pledged their loyalty and service to the greater lord. Nobles and the church had more power than the monarchy. They collected taxes and had their armies William the Conqueror 1066 William the Conqueror came from Normandy and conquered England He organized England Completed a census in 1086 Henry II King Henry II broadened royal justice He expanded customs into law He sent out traveling judges to hear cases The decisions become the foundation for the English system of common law Common law is a legal system based on custom and court rulings Henry II A jury would assemble and were sworn to speak the truth. England established the common law system and the jury system Magna Carta 1215 King John angered nobles with excessive taxes and abuses of power. A group of rebellious barons forced him to accept the Magna Carta in 1215 1. The Magna Carta recognized legal rights of barons, towns people and the church 2. And established “due process of the law” 3. Made the monarch subject to law Development of Parliament Magna Carta created the Great Council This was a body for the rulers to seek advice from This assembly was the original Parliament Parliament (TODAY) is a two-house body. House of Lords: nobles and clergy House of Commons: Knights and middle class Absolute Monarch 1628 Charles I claimed absolute power He imprisoned enemies without trial Parliament insisted that Charles to accept the Petition of Right He signed it but dissolved Parliament 1642 Charles led troops against the House of Commons Civil War A civil war followed in 1642 – 1649 Forces were led by Oliver Cromwell He defeated the kings forces Charles was tried by a court set up by Parliament He was found guilty of “a tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy.” head removed. Oliver Cromwell Cromwell was the only commoner to be the ruler of England. Declared England a commonwealth Parliament exiled Catholics Restricted entertainment After he died in 1658 Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 English Bill of Rights 1689 William and Mary had to accept the English Bill of Rights before taking the crown in 1689 1. Ensured the power of Parliament 2. House of Commons got the power of the purse 3. Barred any Roman Catholic from sitting on the throne 4. Bill of Rights protected the right to trial by jury for citizens 5. Affirmed the right to habeas corpus. No one can be held in prison without being charged with a crime 6. Limited Monarchy- limits on the power of monarch 7. English monarchs had power, but had to obey the law and govern with Parliament.
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