Readiness by xiaopangnv

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									         Montgomery County
Job and Family Services Training Project
  BY




           Colleen Finegan
Early Childhood / Early Childhood Special Education




              www.ed.wright.edu
     Age as a Factor in Readiness
“David would be 5 in July. Full of enthusiasm,
he confidently underwent spring kindergarten
                 screening…




                      Montgomery County
             Job and Family Services Training Project
     Age as a Factor in Readiness
  …he school psychologist explained that
David completed the screening with average
and above-average skills,    but he had a
summer birthday               and he was
                 a male”.




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
     Age as a Factor in Readiness
    “The psychologist and the gym teacher
agreed that David would be more successful
in school if he were to postpone kindergarten
                  for 1 year.


      http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                         Montgomery County
                Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness

David's experience has been repeated over
  and over by many children across the
                 country”.

     http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                        Montgomery County
               Job and Family Services Training Project
      Age as a Factor in Readiness
    Educators often recommend that
children born during the summer months
 be given an “extra year” to mature “so
     that they will not suffer from the
    academic disadvantages of being
among the youngest children in a class”.


http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html


                            Montgomery County
                   Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

The practice of delaying children's entry
  into a kindergarten program 1 year
beyond the traditional chronological age
 of their classmates to help a child be
 "more ready” is a controversial issue.




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

     “Small-scale studies of limited
 geographic areas suggest that delayed
    kindergarten entrance involves
anywhere from 9% to 64% of the eligible
        kindergarten population
                    (Meisels, 1992).




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
       Age as a Factor in Readiness
 “However, data collected for the large-scale
    National Household Education Survey
   (National Center for Education Statistics
 [NCES], 1997) indicated that 9% of the first-
and second-graders had been held back from
               kindergarten”.

 http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html

                          Montgomery County
                 Job and Family Services Training Project
        Age as a Factor in Readiness
    “Surveyed parents reported that children
    who had delayed kindergarten entrance 1
    year were most likely to have been male
     (64%), white (73%), and born between
          July and December (70%)”.


http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html

                           Montgomery County
                  Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness
Parents of higher socio-economic status
  tend to hold out their summer-born
 children more often than do low socio-
        economic status parents

                      (Meisels, 1992).




                  Montgomery County
         Job and Family Services Training Project
        Age as a Factor in Readiness
       Therefore…“children who may be at
      academic risk from factors associated
     with poverty face the additional hurdle of
     being compared to advantaged children
         who are 12 to 15 months older”.


http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html

                           Montgomery County
                  Job and Family Services Training Project
        Age as a Factor in Readiness
     “We should expect that the economically
         disadvantaged children may be
    outperformed by their classmates who are
    both chronologically and developmentally
                 their seniors”.


http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html

                           Montgomery County
                  Job and Family Services Training Project
      Age as a Factor in Readiness
  “Compared to children born in the first
  quarter of the year, children born in the
  summer months were twice as likely to
  have delayed kindergarten entrance 1
    year after they were first eligible”.


http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html

                         Montgomery County
                Job and Family Services Training Project
      Age as a Factor in Readiness
        It is often viewed as a type of
            "Academic Redshirting"
after the practice used in college athletics of
using red shirts to differentiate the status of
athletes who sit out 1 year of competition in
          order to mature physically.



                      Montgomery County
             Job and Family Services Training Project
     Age as a Factor in Readiness
The terms "graying of the kindergarten" have
also been used to describe the practice and
    effects of holding children back from
     kindergarten based on age alone.

             (Bracey, 1989; Suro, 1992).




                     Montgomery County
            Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness

   Although this practice has been said to
 reduce the need for grade retentions and
 special education services, the research
literature has yielded contradictory results
    about the effects of delayed entry on
                  students.


                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness

  The first National Goal for Education
states that by the year 2000, all children
  in America will start school ready to
                  learn.

       (National Educational Goals Panel, 1992).




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
A survey of 7,000+ K. teachers reported that
 they thought more than 35% of the nation's
  students were not adequately prepared to
   begin school, and that the situation had
     worsened over the previous 5 years.

                          (Boyer, 1991).




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
      Age as a Factor in Readiness
 A 1993 survey of K. teachers indicated that
most believed that if a child appeared unready
for kindergarten, the child should wait a year
                before enrolling

       (National Center for Educational Statistics, 1993).




                         Montgomery County
                Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness

  WHAT IS THE BEST AGE FOR
CHILDREN TO BEGIN SCHOOLING?




                Montgomery County
       Job and Family Services Training Project
 Age as a Factor in Readiness
  Over the years, the cutoff date for
  school entry has become earlier.
Each state sets its own       minimum
 age for entry,            and cutoff
   dates vary by state by at least 6
                months
                   (NAEYC, 1992)



                 Montgomery County
        Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

The fact that children enter school in the
 US only in the fall of each year means
that there will always be an age span of
  1 year or more within a grade; some
  children will always be the youngest.
               (Dieez & Wilson, 1985).




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
  Few studies have been conducted to
  examine whether or not children with
summer birthdays do better academically
  when they are “given the extra year”
         before kindergarten.

    http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                       Montgomery County
              Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
Some research focused on “early entrants”
or those with learning problems. Some was
   based on subjective parent or teacher
     reports. Some has failed to looked
   specifically at “summer” born children.
     http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                       Montgomery County
              Job and Family Services Training Project
Age as a Factor in Readiness

SOME RESEARCH REPORTS
      ADVANTAGES




              Montgomery County
     Job and Family Services Training Project
     Age as a Factor in Readiness
Students kept out of school until they are
   older demonstrate higher levels of
 academic achievement and are socially
and emotionally better adjusted than their
          younger classmates.
   (Beattie, 1970; Gilmore, 1984; Montz, 1985; Olson, 1989;
Rabinowitz, 1989; Sweetland & DeSimone, 1987; Uphoff, 1985).




                         Montgomery County
                Job and Family Services Training Project
Age as a Factor in Readiness

 SOME RESEARCH REPORTS
  NO OR ONLY TEMPORARY
         DIFFERENCES




              Montgomery County
     Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness

No differences between students with
        late or early birth dates
(Dietz & Wilson, 1985; Gredler, 1980; Langer et al., 1984; May
                       & Welch, 1986)




                      Montgomery County
             Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness

The differences were only temporary and
      disappeared in later grades.
 (Davis, Trimble, & Vincent, 1980; Kinard & Reinhertz, 1986).




                      Montgomery County
             Job and Family Services Training Project
 Age as a Factor in Readiness
      SEVERAL FACTORS
SEEM TO BE RELATED TO THE USE
  OF DELAYED SCHOOL ENTRY.




                Montgomery County
       Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

There are more children entering K. with
            pre-K. experience.
There is a push for better performance on
           standardized tests .

           (Elkind, 1986 & Spodek, 1985).




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
Age as a Factor in Readiness

       This has created
      a downward press
 on the academic curriculum.
   (Connell, 1987; Freeman & Hatch, 1989).




               Montgomery County
      Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

  This has resulted in the movement of
curriculum content from one grade to an
earlier grade, resulting in more academic
         demands in kindergarten.
      (Boyd, 1989; Bredekamp & Shepard, 1989).




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
Age as a Factor in Readiness

 This contradicts the recommended
   guidelines for developmentally
appropriate practices in kindergarten

                  (Bredekamp, 1987).




                Montgomery County
       Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

  Due to increased demands, many
parents are delaying their child's school
entry until child is older and better able
        to handle the demands.




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness

  This practice may contribute to the
acceleration of academic demands, as
 many K. children are now older and
   assumed to be capable of more
           demanding work.



                  Montgomery County
         Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness

This in turn results in the perception of
the younger children being unready for
                school.




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness

By keeping some of the unready or
younger children out of K. for a year and
placing the older children who have been
held out in K. classes, the discrepancy
between the children's abilities may
become even greater.


                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
     Age as a Factor in Readiness
  The students who delay entry may be as
 much as 2 years older than their younger
chronologically eligible classmates, and they
may demonstrate higher levels of academic
abilities, thus widening the apparent skill gap
                in the classroom
                 (Shepard & Smith, 1989).




                      Montgomery County
             Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
 Recognizing the demands that increasingly
 academic kindergarten programs may place
     on children, many psychologists and
educators have expressed concern that young
children are not developmentally ready to deal
            with the K. curriculum.



                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
 Age as a Factor in Readiness
There are potential dangers to a child's
 motivation and ability to learn when
  burdened too early with academic
              pressures
                     (Elkind, 1981).




                 Montgomery County
        Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness

Children need to be ready to learn but they
 developed readiness according to their
        own biological time clocks.
                      (Gesell 1930)




                     Montgomery County
            Job and Family Services Training Project
 Age as a Factor in Readiness
Pushing children before they are ready
           results in failure

                     (Ames, 1986).




                 Montgomery County
        Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness
Placing children based on their behavior
age rather than chronological age could
 prevent or cure 50% of school failures
       (Ilg, Ames, Haines, and Gillespie, 1978) .




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
       Age as a Factor in Readiness
    It has been proposed that many school
  problems (emotional disturbance, learning
    disabilities, minimal brain damage, and
 underachievement) may result from children
being asked to perform at levels for which they
         are not developmentally ready
                  (Levenson, 1977).




                       Montgomery County
              Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
Many parents who are familiar with these
arguments are keeping their children out
  of school for an extra year if they can
                 afford it
        (Bredekamp & Shepard, 1989).




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
      Age as a Factor in Readiness
These parents may hope that if their children
  are a year older than the rest of the class,
 they will do better academically and reduce
the probability of school failure, which in turn
might result in retentions or special education
                    services
        (Diamond, 1983; Maddux, 1983; Moore, 1982).




                        Montgomery County
               Job and Family Services Training Project
Age as a Factor in Readiness

     Gender differences




              Montgomery County
     Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness

No exact statistics, but it appears that
   more boys than girls are being
      academically redshirted
 (Bredekamp & Shepard, 1989; Mergendoller, Bellismo, &
                   Horan, 1990).




                     Montgomery County
            Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
   This would support developmental
  literature, which suggests that boys
mature later than girls, and consequently
need more time before they are ready for
                  school

                    (Ames, 1967).



                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
More boys than girls are retained each
                year
                       (King, 1984).

   Boys outnumber girls in special
        education programs
     (Jackson, 1975; Plummer & Graziano, 1987).




                     Montgomery County
            Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
Some research indicates that this practice
   may be related to parent and teacher
 perceptions that it is more acceptable to
retain younger students, particularly boys.
               (Shepard & Smith, 1989)




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
    This would be congruent with the
developmental literature, which suggests
  that boys mature later than girls, and
consequently need more time before they
          are ready for school.
                     (Ames, 1967).




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
For parents wanting to avoid early school
failure for their child, delaying entry to K.
    for a year might represent a simple
  means of assisting him or her to avoid
 school failure later in their child's school
                   career.
       (Diamond, 1983; Langer et al., 1984)



                     Montgomery County
            Job and Family Services Training Project
Age as a Factor in Readiness

But does delayed entrance actually
helps children avoid school failure?




                Montgomery County
       Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
Students who delay entry into K. are
 less likely to be retained in a later
                 grade.
    (Baer, 1958; Ilika, 1969; Kalk, 1982)




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness
                   BUT WHY?

Is it really because they are better able
 to function in school academically and
                 socially?




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
                     OR…
  Are teachers are more reluctant to retain a
student who is already older than the others in
                   the grade.
   Teachers may be more likely to try other
  interventions or remedial strategies before
            retaining an older child.

                     Montgomery County
            Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

               In addition,
parents may also be reluctant to permit a
   school to retain a child who started
    school 1 year past chronological
                eligibility.



                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness
Repetition of a grade for an ‘older child”
 should occur only which retention will
 result in positive academic outcomes
   and when special remediation is
provided along with the grade repetition
                     .
                    (Holmes, 1989)



                  Montgomery County
         Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

Even if remediation is provided, students
may perceive retention as personal failure,
    experiencing negative social and
        emotional consequences.




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
     Age as a Factor in Readiness
  Much has been written about school
    readiness issues that focuses on
biological immaturity--an immaturity that
     will remedy itself with time, not
              intervention
(Ames, 1986; Gesell Institute of Human Development, 1982; Ilg et
                            al., 1978).




                         Montgomery County
                Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness

       The literature indicates that
students who are old for their grade are at
 a greater risk of dropping out of school.
           (Grissom & Shepard, 1989)




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
 Age as a Factor in Readiness
NAEYC recommends that educators
  examine the practices in the early
grades and move away from the high
 academic demands often found in
kindergarten and first grade classes.
       (Bredekamp & Shepard, 1989)




                 Montgomery County
        Job and Family Services Training Project
       Age as a Factor in Readiness
     David is 15 now. When he was 13, he
     towered above his classmates as he
           walked through the halls.

http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                            Montgomery County
                   Job and Family Services Training Project
       Age as a Factor in Readiness
The school desks just didn't fit his 6'3" body,
 and many of his teachers assumed that he
   must have been retained since he was
      older than the other students.

http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                            Montgomery County
                   Job and Family Services Training Project
       Age as a Factor in Readiness
   When asked what grade he is in, David
  always makes it a point to explain that he
         started kindergarten late.

http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                            Montgomery County
                   Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
  But David is well liked by students and
teachers. He moved into both puberty and
formal operational thought sooner than his
   classmates, earning their admiration.
    http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                     Montgomery County
            Job and Family Services Training Project
  Age as a Factor in Readiness
Academically, David does average and
above-average work with minimal effort.
   http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                    Montgomery County
           Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
Did David's parents make the right decision
in holding him out from kindergarten? They
don't know. They will probably never know,
   but David thinks he knows the answer.

     http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                      Montgomery County
             Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
There is more to the issue than academic
success. Physical, social, and emotional
  development are also important. The
   needs of the “whole child” must be
considered when making decisions about
      school entrance or retention.
    http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html




                        Montgomery County
               Job and Family Services Training Project
    Age as a Factor in Readiness
 This issue is further complicated by the
individuality of each and every child. We
are different biologically and emotionally
  with special characteristics, skills and
                   needs.


    http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html


                        Montgomery County
               Job and Family Services Training Project
   Age as a Factor in Readiness
     Decisions suggested or made by
  educators can can have long-lasting
   effects. To hold back one group of
children just changes the balance of who
will be the younger children in the class.




                   Montgomery County
          Job and Family Services Training Project
 Age as a Factor in Readiness
We may be further disadvantaging the
  children that do not need further
          disadvantaging.




                 Montgomery County
        Job and Family Services Training Project
       Age as a Factor in Readiness
No generalization based on age can be
made. To do so excludes children from the
advantage of schooling.
Each child’s individual needs must be
considered, as we “continue to build a
stronger knowledge base upon which to
make entrance age decisions”.
http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423079.html

                            Montgomery County
                   Job and Family Services Training Project

								
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