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Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business, Second Edition

VIEWS: 94 PAGES: 27

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Freelance Writing Business and More        Travel Business and More
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Cover Design: Beth Hansen-Winter
Production and Composition: Eliot House Productions

© 2013 by Entrepreneur Media Corporation
All rights reserved.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
      Start your own grant-writing business / by Entrepreneur Press and Richard
   Mintzer.—2nd ed.
         p. cm.
      ISBN-13: 978-1-59918-446-3 (alk. paper)
      ISBN-10: 1-59918-446-X (alk. paper)
         1. Proposal writing for grants. 2. Proposal writing for grants—Vocational guidance.
   3. Grants-in-aid. 4. New business enterprises—Management. I. Mintzer, Richard. II.
   Entrepreneur Press.
   HG177.S73 2012
   658.15'224—dc23                                         2012016205



Printed in the United States of America


17 16 15 14 13                                                           10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
                Contents
      Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

Chapter 1
   Choosing Grant Writing for a Career Path . . . . . . . . 1
      Strike While the Iron Is Hot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
      Income Potential for Grant Writers—Writers Making
        a Small Investment for a Big Financial Return . . . . . 3
      A Word about Grant Writing vs. Fundraising . . . . . . . 4
      Traits of a Grant Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          Resilience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          Goal-Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          Research Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          Internet Savvy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          Writing and Speaking Communication Skills . . . . . 6
          Sound Administrative Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
          Human Relations Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
          Passion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          Trustworthiness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          Persistence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          Ability to Lead and Follow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          Confident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
                                                   Multitasker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                                Grant Writer’s Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                   Approaching Funders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                   The Grant Proposal in a Nutshell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                   Researching Funders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                   Identify the Problem, Propose a Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

                                        Chapter 2
                                           Who Needs Grants? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                                                Grants for Nonprofits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                                                Grants for Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
                                                Grants for Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
                                                Emergency Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                                                Types of Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

                                        Chapter 3
                                           Types of Funders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
                                                Independent, Community, Operating,
                                                  and Family Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
                                                    Independent Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
                                                    Community Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
                                                    Operating Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
                                                    Family Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
                                                Corporations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
                                                Government Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
                                                    Local, State, and Pass-Through Funds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
                                                    Request for Proposals (RFPs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
                                                    Where Do You Find RFPs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

                                        Chapter 4
                                           Finding Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
                                                   Grants.gov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                                                   Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                                                   Federal Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                                                   FirstGov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                                                USA Government Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                                                Grant Directory Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                                                   Foundation Grants to Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                                                   Directory of Grants in the Humanities 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
                                                   The Foundation Reporter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

vi
           National Directory of Corporate Giving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34




                                                                                                                Contents
           Annual Register of Grant Support 2011:
             A Directory of Funding Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
           Grants Register 2013: The Complete
             Guide to Postgraduate Funding Worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
        The Foundation Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
        Newsletters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
           Foundation Center Newsletters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
           Foundation News and Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
           The Chronicle of Philanthropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
           Wiley Newsletters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
           The Grant Advisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
           Grantsalert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
        Subscription Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
           Guidestar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
        Annual Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
        990–PF Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
        Locating Grants by Field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
           Art Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
           Education Grants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
           International Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
           Emergency Grants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Chapter 5
   Understanding the Funders’ Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
        What Grant Writers Need to Gather from the Guidelines. . . . . . 48
        Sample Guidelines from a Private Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
        Sample Guidelines from a Federal Funder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Chapter 6
   The Grant Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
        The Four Stages of Crafting a Persuasive Grant Proposal . . . . . . 56
        Time Required to Create a Grant Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
        The Elements of a Grant Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
           Cover Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
           The Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
           Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
           Problem or Need Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
           Goals and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
           Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

                                                                                                                vii
                                                  Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                                  Evaluation and Dissemination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
                                                  Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
                                               Using Statistics to Support Your Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
                                                  Questions to Consider When
                                                    Finding Statistics for Your Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
                                                  Where to Find Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
                                               Submission Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
                                                  Applying for Grants Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
                                                  Email Etiquette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
                                                  Applying for Grants through the Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
                                                  Schedule Your Submissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
                                                  Don’t Become a Gadfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
                                                  Proposal List for Nonprofits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
                                                  Proposal List for Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

                                        Chapter 7
                                           Alternative Forms of Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
                                               Letter of Inquiry (LOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
                                                  The Elements of a Letter of Inquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
                                                  Sample Letter of Inquiry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
                                               Concept Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
                                                  The Elements of a Concept Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
                                                  Sample Concept Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

                                        Chapter 8
                                           Effective Grant-Writing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
                                               Avoid Jargon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
                                               Explain Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
                                               Write Short Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
                                               Write Cohesively . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
                                               Avoid Expressions of Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
                                               Avoid Using “the Former ”and “the Latter” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
                                               Get Rid of Emotional Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
                                               Avoid Claims of Being the “Best” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
                                               Avoid Tag Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
                                               Spell, Style, and Grammar Checkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
                                               Don’t Disappoint the Reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
                                               Don’t Blow Your Own Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
                                               Be Politically Correct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

viii
       Avoid Using Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109




                                                                                                              Contents
       Using Metaphors to Strengthen Your Argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
       Create a Visual Painting with Your Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
       Stick to One Tense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
       Say What You Mean, Get What You Want . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
       Document Your Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
       Give Your Grant Proposal the Human Touch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
       Sample Project Description Using
         Effective Grant-Writing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Chapter 9
   Congratulations! You’ve Been Awarded a Grant. . . . . . . . . . 115
       Using Funds Ethically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
       Keep Receipts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Chapter 10
   Starting a Grant-Writing Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
       Becoming an Entrepreneur Is an Art, Not a Talent. . . . . . . . . . . 120
           Are You an Entrepreneur?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
           It All Begins with an Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
           Ability to Change with the Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
       20 Traits of an Entrepreneur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
       Effective Salesmanship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
           The 3-D Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
       Startup Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
           Develop a Business Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
       Startup Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
           Your Own Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
           Bank Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
           Small Business Administration (SBA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
           Leasing Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
       Business Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
           Sole Proprietorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
           Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
           Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
       Registering Your Business Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
           Doing Business As (DBA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
       Employer Identification Number (EIN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
       Business Bank Accounts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
           Negotiating a Lease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

                                                                                                               ix
                                               Starting a Homebased Grant-Writing Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                                   Qualities of a Successful Home Businessperson. . . . . . . . . . . 131
                                                   Good Reasons to Start a Homebased
                                                     Grant-Writing Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
                                                   Staying Motivated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
                                                   Addressing Common Fears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
                                                   The Homebased Business and Positive Self-Esteem . . . . . . . 135
                                                   Office Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
                                                   Home-Office Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
                                                   Create a Systematic Filing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
                                               Marketing Tips for Less Than $100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
                                                   Newsletters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
                                                   Press Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
                                                   Philanthropic Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
                                                   Cultivate Referrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
                                                   The Yellow Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
                                                   Create a Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
                                                   Print Ads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
                                                   Business Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
                                                   Direct Mail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
                                                   Social Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

                                        Chapter 11
                                           Working as a Grant Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
                                               Career Opportunities in Grant Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
                                                  Getting Qualified as a Grant Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
                                                  Getting Started as a Freelancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
                                                  Where to Look for Grant-Writing Jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
                                                  Commission-Based Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
                                               Taking Your Grant-Writing Career to the Next Stop . . . . . . . . . 157
                                                  Offer Grant-Writing Workshops or Courses. . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
                                                  Freelance Fundraising Consultant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
                                                  Resource Centers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

                                        Chapter 12
                                           Working with Trends in the Industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
                                               Projects That Help Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
                                               Focus Your Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
                                               Selecting Topics of International Interest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
                                               Controversial Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

x
        Genocide and Warfare Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166




                                                                                                          Contents
        Modern Realism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
        Six Grant-Writing Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
            Myth 1: If You Craft an Excellent Proposal,
             It Will Be Funded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
            Myth 2: There Isn’t Any Money Available.
             The Grant-Writing Well Has Dried Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
            Myth 3: The Available Money Goes to Big, Prestigious
             Institutions, Not to Individuals or Small Nonprofits . . . . 170
            Myth 4: Successful Grant Seeking Requires Connections . . 170
            Myth 5: The Contact Information of
             Funders Is Usually Secret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
            Myth 6: Earning a Living as a Grant Writer
             Is Not Financially Profitable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Chapter 13
   Tips to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
        No-Nos for Grant Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
           Don’t Work for Organizations that May
             Be Misusing Public Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
           Don’t Handwrite Proposals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
           Don’t Overstate the Need or Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
           Don’t Assume the Funder Is an Expert on Your Subject . . . 175
           Don’t be Romantic in the Cover Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
           Don’t Pest the Funder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
           Don’t Put Down Other Applicants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
           Don’t Linger on One Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
           Don’t Be in Denial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
           Don’t Use a Cookie-Cutter Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
           Don’t Work on Commission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
           Don’t Promise a Winning Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
           Don’t Apply If You Don’t Qualify. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
           Don’t Submit a Rejected Grant
             Application without Major Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
        Technical Tips for Grant Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
           Your First Hello Is Important . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
           Adhere to Deadlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
           Break Up the Text with Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams . . . . 179
           Obtain a Rating Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
           Pay Attention to Technical Standards and Details . . . . . . . . . 180

                                                                                                           xi
                                                      Define Expected Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                                      Edit, Edit, Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
                                                      Hire a Proofreader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

                                        Appendix A
                                           Grant-Writing Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
                                                      Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
                                                      Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
                                                      Government Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
                                                      Useful Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

                                        Appendix B
                                           A Brief History of Philanthropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

                                           Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

                                           Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197




xii
                 Preface

           I  n the course of a 25 year writing career, I have

seen my expertise morph from a comedy writer in the late

1980s to a business writer by the turn of the century, penning

books and articles on how entrepreneurs can fund and launch

their own businesses. I have gone from thinking about punch

lines to writing about the bottom line while gaining great

respect for the wide range of scribes with whom I have crossed

paths.

            It seems that no matter what we write about,

writers as a group are held together by a common bond. We use
                                        our words to reach an audience and illicit a response. That response can be laughter,
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                        tears, or prompting someone to take action, from making a purchase to writing a
                                        check to hopefully make one little piece of the world just a little bit better.
                                            Yes, by carefully crafting words, you can sell products, ideas, and motivate readers
                                        to take action. And there is no better example than grant writing. It is here that we
                                        tailor our words to drive home a message. It is here that we make it clear what action
                                        we want the readers or recipients of the submission to take. We are seeking funding
                                        for ourselves, our neighbors, our companies, or for other people in other parts of the
                                        world who need us to reach out for them.
                                            Having written marketing material and worked with philanthropic organizations
                                        for many years, I have had both the pleasure and frustration of trying to generate
                                        funds. And while I have written in many fields, I have also learned the benefits that an
                                        experienced grant writer can bring to the table.
                                            Grantwriter Preethi Burkholder, for example transferred her knowledge, skill, and
                                        experiences in writing grant applications for her own education to help individuals
                                        and organizations obtain funds to further their own agendas. She honed her skills by
                                        volunteering her grant-writing abilities before venturing out and making a living at
                                        her craft.
                                            Today, she writes proposals on behalf of individuals and organizations; publishes
                                        books, articles, and newsletters on how to win grants; travels to different parts of the
                                        country and presents grant-writing workshops; and raises grant money for nonprofit
                                        organizations in Sri Lanka. She has used her expertise to launch a successful business.
                                            My cousin Sam Friedman has also mastered his grant writing skills as part of a
                                        wider fundraising focus in his own consulting firm (S. Friedman Associates) in which
                                        he provides services in fundraising, training, and nonprofit management in the
                                        Philadelphia area. In fact, Sam and I teamed up in 2003 to write the Everything
                                        Fundraising Book.
                                            These are just a couple examples of entrepreneurs who have used their grant-writ-
                                        ing skills to forge their careers. From full-time grant writers to those of us who incor-
                                        porate it into our writing and other business activities, there is definitely an art to
                                        grant writing, one that you will learn more about in the ensuing pages.
                                            There is also an art to starting a business. By putting your knowledge of grant writ-
                                        ing together with the necessary entrepreneurial skills, you can make grant writing a
                                        successful business endeavor.
                                                                                                                 —Rich Mintzer




xiv
To the devoted volunteers of the Adoptive Parents Committee
    in the New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut area.
          They help build families through support
                       and guidance.




                                                              xv
                               1

Choosing Grant
         Writing for a
         Career Path


            P   hilanthropy has never been greater. In 2010, the

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation gave away roughly $2.4 bil-

lion for charitable work in the United States and abroad. As

more people are giving away money for various causes, the job

of the grant writer is to secure funds for individuals, nonprofits,
                                                                               businesses, and governments. The grant writer
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                                        Stat Fact              is the vital connecting link between a funder
                                                          The Foundation       and grant seeker.
                                                          Center’s statis-
                                          tics indicate that the number-
                                          one corporate foundation by
                                          total giving in 2010 was the                 Strike While the
                                          health care company Sanofi-
                                          aventis Patient Assistance
                                          Foundation in New Jersey at
                                                                                          Iron Is Hot
                                          $392,778,999. Novartis Patient            Skilled grant writers are one of the most in-
                                          Assistance Foundation, also in        demand professionals today. They work as
                                          New Jersey was second at
                                                                                independent contractors, full- or part-time
                                          $239,531,453 in total giving.
                                                                                devel-opment officers, and freelancers.
                                                                                Prompted by the increasing demand to find
                                        new sources of funding, nonprofit agencies are always looking for help to identify
                                        these sources and take on grant-writing projects. Virtually every nonprofit needs a
                                        skilled grant writer, and there are hundreds of thousands of nonprofits currently in
                                        operation in the United States alone. Internationally, there are many more. This is a
                                        great time to start your own grant-writing business or to become a freelance grant
                                        writer.
                                            The majority of grants are given to organizations that have a tax-exempt or non-
                                        profit status. Also known as 501(c)(3) status, these organizations operate as charities
                                        and usually offer promise of helping their communities at the local, national, and
                                        sometimes international levels. While some of the larger organizations
                                        have a grant writer on staff, this isn’t the case
                                        for the majority of nonprofits currently in oper-                             Tip…
                                        ation. Indeed, the career of a grant writer is still   Smart Tip
                                        in an infant stage, and only a handful of individ-     Are you unhappy at your
                                        uals are skilled at the profession.                    current job? Change your
                                            If you are considering a career change,            job and change your life.
                                        grant writing may be for you. An unhappy job           Consider grant writing for a
                                                                                               career change. It is ripe with
                                        situation can influence every other aspect of
                                                                                               opportunities for individuals
                                        your life: your mental health, your relation-
                                                                                               with a willingness to learn.
                                        ships, and your social life. Being unhappy             Grant writing can not only
                                        with your job may also stunt your potential if         enrich your wallet but also
                                        you are crippled by a work environment                 improve your personal life, giv-
                                        where you are made to feel inadequate.                 ing you independence, confi-
                                        Instead, you may consider becoming a skilled           dence, and, in some cases, the
                                        grant writer and starting your own grant-              ability to be your own boss.
                                        writing business.

2
     Income Potential for Grant Writers—




                                                                                            1 / Choosing Grant Writing for a Career Path
      Writers Making a Small Investment
          for a Big Financial Return
    A grant writer can earn an annual income ranging from $50,000 to $300,000. The
income potential depends on a variety of factors, including the level of expertise, area
of operation, clients, commissions (if any), and type of funders sought. There is no
way to estimate what a grant writer can earn. It depends on whether the grant writer
is employed full-time or freelance; whether he or she is a specialist or generalist
writer; the number of projects accepted each year; the writer’s geographic location;
and myriad other considerations. Freelance grant writers can charge an hourly rate
that is supported by the marketplace and nearly always earn more than full-time,
employed grant writers.
    Here are the payment methods commonly accepted by grant writers:

   • By hourly rate. The rates charged by grant writers vary, depending on their
     main clientele, level of experience, and success in securing grant approvals.
     The average hourly rate for a competent grant writer is between $40 and $80.
     More experienced and capable grant writers can charge rates of $100 per hour
     or more, while there are less established grant writers who charge between $25
     and $50 per hour. The hourly rate and the resultant total fee will be signifi-
     cantly affected by the amount of experience and track record of each grant
     writer.
   • By project. Some grant writers prefer to charge on a project basis, after a thorough
     assessment of the full range and scope of the job. Depending on the length and
     complexity of the grant document, project fees
     can range anywhere from $1,000 to
     $10,000. It is up to the grant writer to
     decide whether to choose different rates
                                                                     Stat Fact
                                                                      Grant-writing
     based on the source of grant, e.g., a lower
                                                                      fees vary enor-
     rate for grant applications to be submitted
                                                      mously, from $20 an hour for
     to a foundation or corporation, and a
                                                      less experienced writers to
     higher rate if the applicant is seeking state    $150 per hour for experienced
     or federal grants.                               ones. Some charge on a con-
   • Per diem. Grant consulting firms offer           tract basis. Typical rates range
     their services per day. In such cases, they      from $1,000 to $10,000 per
     charge a standard daily rate that may vary       project.
     between $500 and $2,000.

                                                                                                                 3
                                           • By commission. Some grant writers are paid based on a certain percentage of the
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                             grant that is awarded. In this arrangement, compensation is tied to the grant
                                             writer’s success in securing the grant and may be between 1 and 5 percent of the
                                             total grant awarded.



                                                           A Word about
                                                    Grant Writing vs. Fundraising
                                            Grant writing and fundraising are two different things, although a grant writer can
                                        also be a fundraiser and vice versa. A fundraiser is a person on staff who is assigned to
                                        general fundraising duties, one of which may be grant writing. Fundraising duties also
                                        can include nurturing long-term donors; developing candidates and plans for
                                        bequests; planning and executing fundraising events or speaker series; managing a
                                        database of donors; developing year-end and midyear letter campaigns; and other sim-
                                        ilar responsibilities.
                                            Becoming a fundraiser or fundraising consultant enhances your ability to get a job
                                        as a grant writer, as these roles cover a larger spectrum of raising funds. The job of a
                                        fundraiser generally is created only if an organization is planning a complex project
                                        and needs to raise a large amount of money.
                                            Most professional fundraisers work for a nonprofit organization, either on staff or
                                        on a consultant basis. They do the bread-and-butter work of raising money from pri-
                                        vate, corporate, and government sources. Usually, fundraisers who are on the staff of
                                        a nonprofit are called “development officers.” An independent fundraiser goes by the
                                        professional term “fundraising counsel.”
                                            While many executive directors of nonprofits can and have written grants, they
                                        often become too busy with the other requirements
                                        of their jobs and grant writing becomes a skill
                                        sought from an outside source, such as a profes-
                                        sional grant writer. Professional grant writers,
                                                                                                              Stat Fact
                                        as a general rule, work for organizations where                        The Foundation
                                                                                                               Center survey
                                        there is the biggest potential for income,
                                                                                               indicates that the number-one
                                        although some will work for individuals on a
                                                                                               leading U.S. foundation by
                                        for-hire basis.                                        asset size is The Bill and
                                            Professional fundraisers usually maintain a        Melinda Gates Foundation,
                                        staff of researchers and assistants and are accus-     with assets totaling
                                        tomed to conducting funding campaigns from             $37,430,150,458 as of December
                                        start to finish. Most professional fundraisers work    31, 2010.
                                        with different types of projects and funders,

4
although there are a few who specialize, for                                     Tip…




                                                                                             1 / Choosing Grant Writing for a Career Path
example, in government grants.                           Smart Tip
                                                         In addition to the quali-
                                                         ties that can make a grant
Traits of a Grant Writer                                 idea attractive to funders, there
                                                         is one crucial factor that can
                                                         make or break a funding idea.
     o
    T become a professional grant writer, you            That factor is you: who you are,
need to develop skills in writing, storytelling, con-    what experience or knowledge
sulting, research, program planning, evaluation,         you possess, how you present
internet marketing, interviewing, public relations,      yourself, and, perhaps most sig-
and budgeting. A good grant writer must have             nificantly, how much you care
many traits. This section lists some of them.            about your idea.


                                      Resilience
    Grant writers need to be adaptable and flexible, shifting direction based on the
applicant, the needs of the community, and the funder. Grant writers also must be able
to recover quickly from the inevitable disappointments of the job.

                                    Goal-Setting
    One of the best ways to stay motivated is to set goals. You can set different kinds
of goals, such as, “I am going to meet three clients today” or “I will double my annual
income within the next two years.” Goals give you something to aim for. Always aim
high.

                                  Research Skills
    A savvy grant writer must be able to research for funding sources in an efficient man-
ner. Some directories of funders (see Chapter 4) are thousands of pages long. Browsing
through every single page is out of the question and an utter waste of time. A good grant
                                    writer must be able to review through the index and
                                        find sources that fit a particular need. Research
                           Tip…         skills also are needed to hunt for statistics for
  Smart Tip                             quantifying information.
  Remember, success is
  failure turned inside out.
  It is when you are hardest hit
                                                        Internet Savvy
  by grant rejections that you              Internet research skills are a must for grant
  must not quit. Resilience is a        writers. As a grant writer, you surf the web
  smart trait to cultivate in life.     frequently looking for special opportunities for
                                        your clients or employer. Part of the work of

                                                                                                                  5
                                        the grant writer is identifying and selecting                                Tip…
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                        appropriate potential donors online. More and         Smart Tip
                                        more funders are going paperless.                     Setting deadlines for
                                                                                              your goals is critical. Aim
                                                                                              to achieve tomorrow’s goals
                                              Writing and Speaking                            today. Deadlines and time
                                              Communication Skills                            commitments keep you mov-
                                                                                              ing forward. Keep one eye on
                                           Good writing skills are needed to write a good     the long-term opportunity
                                        grant proposal, write high-quality publications       while taking care of today.
                                        that build your reputation, and write excellent fol-  Teach yourself to focus on the
                                        low-up reports once funding has been awarded.         important things and to allow
                                           Good speaking skills are necessary to bring        the less critical things to take
                                        your work to the attention of people, make a          a back seat.
                                        convincing presentation during a site visit,
                                        deliver grant-writing workshops, and successfully coordinate the different elements
                                        needed to complete foundation grant applications.

                                                            Sound Administrative Skills
                                            Sound administrative skills are needed to handle the application process. From
                                        calling a funder to talk about a possible corporation grant to billing a client for com-
                                        pleting a 50-page grant proposal, administrative skills are needed to ensure that the
                                        job gets done properly.


                                                                Human Relations Skills
                                           The grant decisions are ultimately made by humans about humans. The person
                                                                            reading the application is a human being, not a
                                                                            robot. Your ability to interact with human
                                                     Beware!                beings comes into effect during several phases
                                                      Remember, you are     of the grant application process. Calling fun-
                                                      the company you       ders, on-site visits, and delivering presentations
                                          keep. Improving your career as    to funders are a few examples where good
                                          a freelance grant writer may
                                                                            human relations come into play. With some
                                          require you to establish
                                                                            applications, there may not be a need to inter-
                                          healthy associations. Associate
                                          with people who affirm your       act with a human being at a tangible level, while
                                          goodness and share your           with others, such interactions may be necessary.
                                          ambitions—not those who               Relationships are crucial to success. An effec-
                                          may cause you to lose focus       tive grant writer needs to be confident enough to
                                          and fall by the wayside.          feel comfortable initiating interactions with
                                                                            strangers.

6
                  Passion                                                      Tip…




                                                                                              1 / Choosing Grant Writing for a Career Path
                                                       Smart Tip
   Believing strongly in your organization’s           Situational factors are
mission can be a contributing factor to your           all-important to business
success as a grant writer. Pick a nonprofit with       success. But their importance
a mission that speaks to both your heart and           is dwarfed in comparison to
mind. Not only will your work be more fulfill-         the burning desire that you
ing, but enthusiasm will spread to those around        must have to make your busi-
you. For example, if you feel strongly about           ness venture succeed. You can
addiction recovery, then work with nonprofit           always make changes to your
counseling centers and detox facilities. Your          business once you start, but
                                                       you can’t buy burning desire.
enthusiasm for sober living will translate into
                                                       If it is not there from the
the proposal you are crafting.
                                                       start, you are at a severe dis-
                                                       advantage.
           Trustworthiness
   People want to know they can depend on you before they commit to a lasting rela-
tionship, especially one where resources or money is exchanged. Grant writers who
use manipulative techniques to secure gifts and grants are not seen as having integrity.
Credibility is something you earn over time. It takes time, effort, and situational need
to build trust between a grant writer and a client/funder.

                                     Persistence
   It takes thick skin to accept rejection as a matter of course and continue advocating
for a cause. Grant writers need to be dogged in their efforts and feel challenged, not
defeated, by obstacles. If you are timid, in order to be a successful grant writer, you
must transform yourself to move forward amid obstacles. This ability affects your
                                         grant-writing career and other areas of your life.

             Beware!
               Working with                Ability to Lead and Follow
               clients who may
                                            A good grant writer must nurture the ability
  misuse grant funds may cost
                                        to lead and follow at the same time. When work-
  you your job. If you feel suspi-
  cious about a particular indi-        ing with a nonprofit that needs funds raised, you
  vidual or organization                set the direction which the grant-seeking
  misusing funds, notify the            process is going to take. You guide the process,
  Federal Bureau of Investigation       orchestrate the players, and motivate the team
  (FBI), the Internal Revenue           to move forward. In this role, there is no room
  Service (IRS), or the county          for ego. A good grant writer must be able to
  government.                           bridge relationships with many individuals and
                                        organizations.

                                                                                                                   7
                                           Simultaneously, a good grant writer must be                                 Tip…
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                        able to follow guidelines set forth by a funder,       Smart Tip
                                        obey the requirements made by the director of          Good grant writers must
                                        a nonprofit, and follow the current trends in          be able to take rejection
                                        grant seeking.                                         with their chins up. A grant
                                                                                               writer shows resiliency when a
                                                                                               funder gives a negative
                                                        Confident                              response to a project idea, and
                                                                                               the grant writer overcomes
                                            As a grant writer, confidence is key to con-       the objection or shifts focus to
                                        vincing a funder of your ability to successfully       another initiative without
                                        carry out the project. If you are knowledgeable        missing a beat.
                                        about your field, know your organization and
                                        its programs well, and prepare for interactions with prospective donors, your confi-
                                        dence grows significantly. A confident person is not embarrassed by what she does not
                                        know and freely admits it. She is aware of her own shortcomings but maintains a sense
                                        of purpose.
                                            Allow your organization to stand on its own feet without bringing someone else
                                        down.


                                                                           Multitasker
                                            In order to complete the multiple tasks and responsibilities of a grant writer, you
                                        need to juggle many things at once without coming unglued. One of the main meas-
                                        ures of successful grant writers is their ability to follow through with peers at the non-
                                        profit as well as with funders and other partners. You must have a continual focus on
                                        the overall goal, while attending to the details that allow the project to be successfully
                                        developed and implemented.
                                            Organizational skills are important for successful multitasking. You must be organ-
                                        ized so you can manage all the required tasks and responsibilities. A grant writer must
                                        be able to keep track of grant application deadlines and follow up on submitted appli-
                                        cations. It is also essential to keep track of trends in the field as well as be aware of
                                        changes in the priorities of funding institutions and new funding sources that come
                                                                                 onto the scene.

                                                    Beware!
                                                     Coating yourself in          Grant Writer’s Toolkit
                                                    denial or fake opti-
                                          mism should not be confused              Grant writing is a craft that can be cultivated
                                          with confidence.                      and mastered in time. Knowing how to use the
                                                                                tools of the trade is key to winning funding.


8
Although there isn’t a set procedure for becom-                            Tip…




                                                                                         1 / Choosing Grant Writing for a Career Path
ing a successful grant writer, some standard        Smart Tip
rules apply.                                        The grant proposal
                                                    demands a different
                                                    genre of writing. It is not an
       Approaching Funders                          academic paper, a report, a
   There are a number of methods of                 novel, or a newspaper article.
approaching funders:                                It is a document of persuasion.

   •   Grant proposal
   •   Personal visit
   •   Telephone call
   •   E-mail or fax
   The best method of approaching a funder depends on how much money is sought,
the grantmaking organization, and the project idea, among other factors. The most
common method of approaching funders is through a grant proposal.


                The Grant Proposal in a Nutshell
   The grant proposal is the umbilical cord connecting a grant writer with potential
funders. Through the grant proposal, applicants have the opportunity to persuade the
funder to give money.
   Learning how to write persuasive grant proposals is key to winning funding. A
                                   well-written, cohesive proposal can bring in money
                                       and, in some cases, donated goods and services.
                         Tip…          The figure on page 10 shows the main elements
  Smart Tip                            of a grant proposal and what information
  A beginning grant writer             should be included. Chapter 6 discusses grant
  is strongly advised to               proposals in detail.
  start with private foundation
  and not federal grant propos-
  als. Because the federal gov-              Researching Funders
  ernment offers large sums of             Knowing where to look for grant funders is
  money, proposals for these
                                       key. Researching funders who are likely to pro-
  grants are much more compet-
                                       vide financial support for your work requires
  itive than those grants issued
  by private foundations. In addi-     time, patience, and perseverance. Always
  tion, most foundation propos-        remember to look at the funder’s current guide-
  als are fairly easy and              lines. Grant profiles, contact information, and
  straightforward to write.            funding criteria change frequently. The inter-
                                       net is an excellent source to look for funders.


                                                                                                        9
Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business


                                                      Main Elements of a Grant Proposal
                                        Category                       Information to Include

                                        Proposal summary               Briefly state how the project will be
                                                                       implemented and the expected
                                                                       results; include your total budget,
                                                                       timeline, and the amount of your
                                                                       request.

                                        Statement of problem or need   Explain the problems you are going
                                                                       to address; outline current
                                                                       resources that address this problem
                                                                       and identify gaps in those resources;
                                                                       identify how your proposal fills
                                                                       these gaps.

                                        Project goals and objectives   Identify the specific goals you are
                                                                       trying to achieve and the measurable
                                                                       milestones you will reach to meet
                                                                       those goals

                                        Methodology                    Describe the actions you will take to
                                                                       achieve your goals, the steps that must
                                                                       be taken to achieve success, as well as
                                                                       when and where the actions will take
                                                                       place.

                                        Evaluation                     Explain how you will determine whether
                                                                       you achieved your goals, any measures
                                                                       in place to evaluate your progress, as
                                                                       well as any records and information
                                                                       that will be used in the evaluation.

                                        Budget                         Include the amount of money you are
                                                                       requesting, any calculations for specific
                                                                       items for which funds are being
                                                                       requested, and the time line during
                                                                       which funds will be used.




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You are likely to find the most current information available online, simply because




                                                                                             1 / Choosing Grant Writing for a Career Path
websites are easier to update than print publications. Chapter 4 fleshes out prospect
research in extensive detail.

           Identify the Problem, Propose a Solution
    Because funders want their money to make a positive difference in society, they
want to see applications that solve a problem or address a need—locally, nationally, or
internationally. But the funder also has legitimate business considerations to weigh.
Put yourself in the funder’s shoes and answer the question, “What’s in it for me?” All
funders want to know both how your project helps them meet their goals and how it
adds value to the well-being of the community. Use your grant proposal to show, in
plain terms, what positive differences your idea has on society and to provide a
glimpse of what the situation would look like if your project is not funded. By identi-
fying a pressing problem and proposing a solution, show how an investment in your
project has positive effects—for the funder and for society.
    Focus on results. Show how your idea can improve the conditions of people or, in
some cases, animals and the environment; make your idea convincing, important, and
immediate. Funders look for projects that produce a clear outcome and lasting bene-
fits. Using data to define needs and track progress toward outcomes is a good way to
show the funder you are serious about results.




Entrepreneur Press and Rich Mintzer, Start Your Own Grant-Writing Business, Second Edition
© 2013, by Entrepreneur Media Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of
Entrepreneur Media, Inc.

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