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					TORONTO, ON


Toronto is the largest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario, located on the
northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The city had a population of 2.5 million as of the 2001
Canadian census[1] and its census metropolitan area (CMA) was projected to be 5.4 million as of
2006.[2] The Greater Toronto Area (GTA), a provincial administration area that differs from the
federal CMA, had a 2005 population of 5.8 million.[4] Toronto is the economic centre of the
greater Golden Horseshoe, a large urbanized region of 7.8 million people (2001),[5] spreading
outwards from the western shores of Lake Ontario. Residents of Toronto are called
Torontonians.
As Canada's economic hub and a major global city, Toronto has highly developed finance,
business services, telecommunications, transportation, media, software production and medical
research industries.[6][7] The city is home to the CN Tower and a majority of the country's
corporate head offices and transnational corporate offices.[6] Toronto's population is
cosmopolitan, which reflects its role as a major destination for immigrants to Canada.[8] Because
of its low crime rates,[9] clean environment and generally high standard of living, Toronto is
consistently rated one of the world's most livable cities by the Economist Intelligence Unit[10]
and the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.[11] In 2006, Toronto was rated as the most expensive
city in Canada to live in.[12]

Metropolitan Toronto
In 1954, the City of Toronto was federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan
Toronto.[18] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development, and it was believed
that a coordinated land use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the
region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal
boundaries, including highways, water and public transit. In 1967, the seven smallest
municipalities of the region were merged into their larger neighbours, resulting in a six-city
configuration that included the old City of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East
York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York. In 1998, the metropolitan government was
dissolved and the six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the
current City of Toronto.




                                                                            Page 1 of 18
Geography and climate




A simulated-colour image of Toronto taken by NASA

History
        Main article: History of Toronto
        Further information: Toronto's name
When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the
Huron tribes, who by then had displaced the Iroquois tribes that occupied the region for centuries
before c. 1500. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning
"place where trees stand in the water".[13] It refers to the northern end of what is now Lake
Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake
Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point led to widespread use of the name.




Map of Toronto, 1894
French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it
in 1759.[14] During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers
as United Empire Loyalists fled for the unsettled lands north of Lake Ontario. In 1787, the
British negotiated the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of New Credit, thereby securing
more than a quarter million acres of land in the Toronto area.[15]
In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the existing settlement,
naming it afterPrince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe chose the town to replace
Newark as the capital of Upper Canada, believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack
by the Americans.[16] Fort York was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour,




                                                                            Page 2 of 18
sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the
harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day Parliament Street and Front Street.
In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder
by American forces. The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American
soldiers destroyed much of Fort York and set fire on the parliament buildings during their five-
day occupation.




Toronto Harbour, 1919
York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native
name. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto, and led
the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the British colonial government. The
city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century, as a major destination for
immigrants to Canada. The first significant population influx occured with the Irish potato
famine between 1846 and 1849 that brought a large number of Irish diaspora into the city, some
of them transient and most of them Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the
largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants were
welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the Orange Order significant
influence over Toronto society.
Toronto was twice for brief periods the capital of the united Province of Canada first from 1849-
1852, following unrest in Montreal and later 1856-1858 after which Quebec became capital until
just a year prior to Confederation, since then it has been Ottawa. As it had been for Upper
Canada from 1793, Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official
creation in 1867 and has remained so since with the Ontario Legislature located at Queen's Park.
Because of its capital status, the city has also always been the location of Government House, the
residence of the vice-regal representative of the Crown.
The city began to rapidly industrialize in the middle of the 19th century. An extensive sewage
system was built, and streets became illuminated with gas lighting as a regular service. Long-
distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto
with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Great Northern Railway joined
in the building of the first Union Station in downtown. The advent of the railway dramatically
increased the numbers of immigrants arriving and commerce, as had the Lake Ontario steamers
and schooners entering the port. Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891,
when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company




                                                                            Page 3 of 18
later re-named the current Toronto Transit Commission, now with the third highest ridership of
any city public transportation system in North America.
The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto, but the city was
quickly rebuilt. The fire had cost more than $10 million in damage, and led to more stringent fire
safety laws and the expansion of the city's fire department.




Subway construction on Yonge Street, 1949
The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into early 20th
century, particularly Germans, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They
were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles and immigrants from other Eastern European
nations, as the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty type
slums, such as the "the Ward" which was between Bay Street, now the heart of the country
finances and the Discovery District, considered one of the world's most advanced medical
research zones. Despite its fast paced growth, by the 1920s, Toronto's population and economic
importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal. However, by
1934 the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country.
Following the Second World War, refugees from war-torn Europe arrived as did construction
labourers particularly from Italy and Portugal. Following elimination of racially based
immigration policies by the late 1960s, immigration began from all parts of the world. Toronto's
population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began, and
doubled to two million by 1971. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada's most
populous city and the chief economic hub. During this time, many national and multinational
corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and other western Canadian
cities.[17]

Metropolitan Toronto
In 1954, the City of Toronto was federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan
Toronto.[18] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development, and it was believed
that a coordinated land use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the
region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal
boundaries, including highways, water and public transit. In 1967, the seven smallest
municipalities of the region were merged into their larger neighbours, resulting in a six-city
configuration that included the old City of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East




                                                                            Page 4 of 18
York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York. In 1998, the metropolitan government was
dissolved and the six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the
current City of Toronto.
[edit] Geography and climate




A simulated-colour image of Toronto taken by NASA's Landsat 7 satellite.
        Main article: Geography and climate of Toronto
Toronto covers an area of 629.91 square kilometres (243.21 sq mi),[19] with a maximum north-
south distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi) and a maximum east-west distance of 43 kilometres
(27 mi). It has a 46 kilometre (29 mi) long waterfront shoreline. Its borders are bounded by Lake
Ontario to the south, Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north
and the Rouge River to the east.

Topography
The city is intersected by two rivers and numerous tributaries: the Humber River in the west end
and the Don River east of downtown at opposite ends of the Toronto Harbour. The many creeks
and rivers create large tracts of densely-forested ravines, and provide ideal sites for parks and
recreational trails. However, the ravines also interfere with the city's grid plan, and this results in
major thoroughfares such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, St. Clair Avenue
and Keele Street terminating on one side of ravines and continuing on the other side. Other
thoroughfares such as the Bloor Street Viaduct are required to span above the ravines. These
deep ravines prove useful for draining the city's vast storm sewer system during heavy rains but
some sections, particularly near the Don River are prone to sudden, heavy floods. Storage tanks
at waste treatment facilties will often receive too much river discharge causing them to overflow,
allowing untreated sewage to escape into Lake Ontario.
During the last ice age, the present site of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. Today, a
series of escarpments mark the lake's former boundary, known as the Iroquois Shoreline. The
escarpments are most prominent from Victoria Park Avenue to the mouth of Highland Creek,
where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. Other noticeable sections include the area near St. Clair
Avenue West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and north of Davenport Road from
Caledonia to Spadina Avenue. Although not remarkably hilly, Toronto does have elevation




                                                                                Page 5 of 18
differences ranging from 75 metres (246 ft) above-sea-level at the Lake Ontario shore to 270
metres (886 ft) ASL near the York University grounds in the city's north end.
Much of the current lakeshore land area is actually artificial landfill. In the mid-19th century the
lakefront was set back up to a kilometre (0.6 mi) further inland than it is today. Much of the
Toronto harbour (the quays) and adjacent Portlands are also fill. The Toronto Islands were
actually a landspit until a storm in 1858 severed its connection to the mainland.




Late spring scene in High Park, in Toronto's west end.

Climate
Toronto's climate is moderate for Canada due to its southerly location within the country. It has a
humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with hot, humid summers and
generally cold winters, although fairly mild by Canadian and many northern continental U.S.
standards. The city experiences four distinct seasons with considerable variance in day to day
temperature, particularly during the colder weather season. At different times of the year, the
proximity to Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes has localized and regional impacts on the
climate. See Lake effect snow.
Toronto winters are sometimes accompanied by short cold snaps where maximum temperatures
remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by windchill. Snowstorms sometimes
mixed with ice can disrupt work and travel schedules, accumulating snow can fall anytime from
November until mid-April. However, mild stretches also occur throughout winter melting
accumulated snow, with temperatures reaching into the 5 to 14 °C (40 to 57 °F) range and
infrequently higher. Summer in Toronto is characterized by long stretches of humid weather,
often making it feel tropical-like. Daytime temperatures occasionly surpass 35 °C (95 °F), but
moderately high humidity levels make even lower temperatures, from the low 20s °C (low 70s
°F) and upward feel much warmer. Spring and Autumn are transitional seasons with generally
mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods.[20]
Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest
season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. The average yearly precipitation is 793
millimetres (31.7 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 115 centimetres (46 in). Toronto
experiences an average of 2,038 sunshine hours or 44% of possible, most of it during the warmer
weather season.




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                            Weather averages for Toronto (Downtown Station)


                 Month           Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year



              Avg high °C        -1.1 -0.2 4.6 11.3 18.5 23.5 26.4 25.3 20.7 13.8 7.4 1.8 12.7



               Avg low °C        -7.3 -6.3 -2.0 3.8     9.9 14.8 17.9 17.3 13.2 7.3 2.2 -3.7     5.6



              Avg high °F        30.0 31.6 40.3 52.3 65.3 74.3 79.5 77.5 69.3 56.8 45.3 35.2 54.8



               Avg low °F        18.9 20.7 28.4 38.8 49.8 58.6 64.2 63.1 55.8 45.1 36.0 25.3 42.1



           Precipitation (mm) 61.2 50.5 66.1 69.6 73.3 71.5 67.5 79.6 83.4 64.7 75.7 71.0 834



            Precipitation (in)   2.4 2.0    2.6   2.7   2.9   2.8 2.7 3.1 3.3 2.5 3.0 2.8 32.8



                                  Source: Environment Canada[20] Dec 17, 2006



Cityscape




Row of buildings along a downtown section of Spadina Avenue.
        See also: List of neighbourhoods in Toronto and List of tallest buildings in Toronto
The City of Toronto encompasses a geographical area formerly administered by six separate
municipalities. These municipalities have each developed a distinct history and identity over the
years, and their names remain in common use among Torontonians. Throughout the city there




                                                                                          Page 7 of 18
exist hundreds of small neighbourhoods. Former Municipalities: East York | Etobicoke | North
York | Old Toronto | Scarborough | York.




View of skyscrapers in the Financial District from the CN Tower.
The Old City of Toronto covers the area generally known as Downtown. It is the historic core of
Toronto and remains the most densely-populated part of the city. The Financial District along
Bay Street contains the largest cluster of skyscrapers in Canada, including the First Canadian
Place, Toronto Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and BCE
Place. From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northward along Yonge Street. Old Toronto
is also home to many historically wealthy residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The
Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most strething away from
downtown to the north. These neighbourhoods generally feature upscale homes, luxury
condominiums and high-end retail. At the same time, the downtown core vicinity includes
neighbourhoods with a high proportion of recent immigrants and low-income families living in
social housing and rental highrises, such as St. James Town, Regent Park, Moss Park and
Parkdale. East and west of Downtown, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Leslieville,
Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas as well as
vibrant communities of artists with studio lofts, with an increasing proportion of middle and
upper class professionals that mix with the working poor or those on some form of government
assistance. Other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an ethnic identity, including two
Chinatowns, the popular Greektown area, the very trendy Little Italy, Portugal Village and Little
India along with others.




View of rows of houses, from a Spadina Avenue penthouse facing west.
The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. These
are mature and traditionally working class areas, primarily consisting of post-World War I small,
single-family homes and small apartment blocks. Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town,
Thorncliffe Park and Weston consist of mainly high-rise apartments which are home to many




                                                                            Page 8 of 18
new immigrant families. Recently, many neighbourhoods have became ethnically diverse and
have undergone gentrification, as a result of increasing population and a housing boom during
the late 1990s and 2000s. The first neighbourhoods affected were Leaside and North Toronto,
gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. Some of the area's housing is in
the process of being replaced or remodelled.




Downtown Toronto on a clear summer night.
The outer suburbs comprised of the former municipalities of Etobicoke, Scarborough and North
York largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. Sections were long
established and quickly growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the advent
of Metro Government, such as Mimico, Newtonbrook and West Hill. Suburban development
grew quickly after the second war to include such upscale neighbourhoods as the Bridle Path in
North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central
Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest
"planned communities" was Don Mills, parts of which were first built in the 1950s. Phased
development mixing single-detached housing with higher density apartment blocks became more
popular as a suburban model of development. To some this model has been copied in other GTA
municipalities surrounding Toronto, albeit with less population density. More recently, North
York Centre that runs along Yonge Street and the Scarborough City Centre have emerged as
secondary business districts outside the downtown core. Highrise development in these areas
have given North York and Scarborough distinguishable skylines of their own and a more
downtown feel with high-density transit corridors serving them.

Architecture
See also: Doors Open Toronto
Toronto has become an architectural hotspot featuring uniquely designed buildings from many of
the most celebrated architects in the world. The list includes such names as Frank Gehry, Daniel
Libeskind, Norman Foster, Will Alsop, I. M. Pei, Santiago Calatrava, and Mies van der Rohe as
well as award-winning local firms, such as Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg (KPMB) and
Diamond Schmitt Architects.

Notable Skyscrapers
See also: List of tallest buildings in Toronto




                                                                          Page 9 of 18
Defining the Toronto skyline, the CN Tower is Canada's most recognizable and celebrated icon.
At a height of 553.33m (1,815 ft., 5 inches), it is Canada’s National Tower, the world's tallest
building, an important telecommunications hub, and the centre of tourism in Toronto.
BCE Place is an office complex in downtown Toronto, which consists of two towers, the Bay
Wellington Tower and the TD Canada Trust Tower, linked by the six-storey Allen Lambert
Galleria. BCE Place is also the home of the Hockey Hall of Fame. The Allen Lambert Galleria,
sometimes described as the "crystal cathedral of commerce", was designed by Spanish architect
Santiago Calatrava. It is one of the most photographed spaces in Toronto's financial district, and
is heavily featured as a backdrop for TV and film productions.
Commerce Court is a cluster of four office buildings located in the financial district on King
Street and Bay Street. The first building, now known as Commerce Court North, was built in
1930 as the headquarters of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, a precursor bank to the current
main tenant. Designed by the firm Pearson and Darling, the 34-storey tower was the tallest
building in the British Empire/Commonwealth until 1962. At the time of its construction, the
building was one of the most opulent corporate headquarters in Canada. In 1972, three other
buildings were erected, thus creating the Commerce Court complex: Commerce Court West
designed by I. M. Pei (the tallest building in the complex, at 57 storeys, and the tallest building in
Canada from 1972-1976), Commerce Court East (14 storeys), and Commerce Court South (5
storeys).
Mies van der Rohe's Toronto Dominion Centre (66 Wellington St W), is a marvelous black
modernist complex of six imposing towers

Government




The Toronto City Hall viewed from Nathan Phillips Square.
        Main article: Municipal government of Toronto
        Further information: Politics of Toronto




                                                                             Page 10 of 18
Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor-council system. The structure of the
municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The Mayor of Toronto is elected
by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a
unicameral legislative body, comprised of 44 councillors representing geographical wards
throughout the city. The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without
term limits. (Prior to the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-
year terms.)
At the start of the 2007 term, the city council will have seven standing committees, each
consisted of a chair, a vice-chair and four other councillors. The Mayor names the committee
chairs and the remaining membership of the committees is appointed by City Council.[33] An
executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, in addition to the
mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are also appointed to oversee
the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board.
There are about 40 subcommittees, advisory committees and roundtables within the city council.
These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include
the Harbourfront Parks Steering Committee, Apartment Work Group on Waste Diversion, and
the Task Force to Bring Back the Don.[34] Additionally, the city has four community councils
that make recommendations on local matters to the city council, but possess no final authority.
Each city councillor serves as a member on a community council.
Toronto has an operating budget of C$7.1 billion. The city receives funding from the
Government of Ontario in addition to tax revenues, including $2.5 billion dollars for mandated
purposes, $2.0 billion for special-purpose bodies such as the Toronto Public Library and Toronto
Zoo, $1.7 billion of directly-controlled funds, and $900 million for capital financing and non-
programs.[35]
Economy




Bay Street, looking south from its intersection with Queen Street West.
        Main article: Economy of Toronto




                                                                          Page 11 of 18
Toronto is a major international centre for business and finance. Generally considered the
financial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on
Bay Street, the city's main financial street. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the world's seventh-
largest stock exchange by market capitalization. All of the Big Five banks of Canada are
headquartered in Toronto.
The city is an important centre for the media, publishing, telecommunications and information
technology industries; it is home to Thomson Corporation, CTVglobemedia, Rogers
Communications and Celestica. Other prominent Canadian corporations in Toronto include Four
Seasons Hotels, the Hudson's Bay Company and Manulife Financial.
Although much of the region's manufacturing activities take place outside the city limits,
Toronto continues to be an important wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector.
The city's strategic position along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor and its extensive road and
rail connections help support the nearby production of motor vehicles, iron, steel, food,
machinery, chemicals and paper. The completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 gave ships
access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean.
Education




The main building of Victoria College in the University of Toronto.
        Main article: Education in Toronto
Toronto is home to a diverse range of public and private educational institutions. The Toronto
District School Board operates 451 public schools and 102 Secondary or high schools. This
makes the TDSB the largest school board in Canada. Additionally, the Toronto Catholic District
School Board manages the city's publicly-funded Roman Catholic schools, while the Conseil
scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-
Sud manages public and Roman Catholic French-language schools. There are also numerous
private university-preparatory schools, such as Toronto French School, College of Toronto,
Havergal College, Bishop Strachan School, St. Michael's College School, De La Salle College,
Upper Canada College, St. Clement's School, Branksome Hall, University of Toronto Schools
and Crescent School.
The University of Toronto, established in 1827, is the oldest university in the province of Ontario
and a leading public research institution. The city is also home to Ryerson University, York
University and the Ontario College of Art & Design.




                                                                           Page 12 of 18
There are five diploma-granting community colleges in Toronto: Seneca College, Humber
College, Centennial College, Sheridan College and George Brown College. The Royal
Conservatory of Music, which includes The Glenn Gould School, is a major music school
located in downtown. The Canadian Film Centre is a film, television and new media training
institute founded by filmmaker Norman Jewison.
The Toronto Public Library is the largest public library system in Canada, consisting of 99
branches with more than 11 million items in its collection.
Culture




Roy Thomson Hall, home of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra.




The Hockey Hall of Fame, housed in a former bank erected in 1885, is located at the intersection of Front Street and
Yonge Street in Downtown Toronto.
       Main article: Culture in Toronto
Toronto is a major scene for theatre and other performing arts, with more than fifty ballet and
dance companies, six opera companies, and two symphony orchestras. The city is home to the
National Ballet of Canada, the Canadian Opera Company, and the Toronto Symphony Orchestra.
Notable performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy
Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the
Toronto Centre for the Arts, the Elgin Theatre, the Winter Garden Theatre and the Hummingbird
Centre (formerly the "O'Keefe Centre"). Ontario Place features the world's first permanent
IMAX movie theatre, the Cinesphere, as well as the Molson Amphitheatre, an open-air venue for
large-scale music concerts. Each summer, the Canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor
Shakespeare production in Toronto’s High Park called "Dream in High Park". Canada's Walk of
Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with of a series of stars on
designated blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street.
The Distillery District is a pedestrian village containing boutiques, art galleries, restaurants, artist
studios and small breweries, including the well-known Mill Street Brewery. A new theatre in the
district, the Young Centre for the Performing Arts, is the home of the Soulpepper Theatre
Company and the drama productions of nearby George Brown College.




                                                                                         Page 13 of 18
The production of domestic and foreign film and television is a major local industry. Toronto
often stands in on-screen for large American cities like New York and Chicago. Many movie
releases are screened in Toronto prior to wider release in North America. The Toronto
International Film Festival is one of the most important annual events for the international film
industry.
Toronto's Caribana festival takes place from mid-July to early August of every summer, and is
one of North America's largest street festivals.[36] For the most part, Caribana is based on the
Trinidad Carnival, and the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city's Caribbean
community celebrated Canada's Centennial year. 40 years later, it has grown to attract 1 million
people to Toronto's Lake Shore Boulevard annually. Tourism for the festival is in the hundred
thousands, and each year, the event brings in about $300 million.

Sites of interest




Interior of the Toronto Eaton Centre, viewing towards the south.




Dundas Square and the Eaton Centre at night.
        Main article: Attractions in Toronto
        See also: Category:Buildings and structures in Toronto
Toronto's most prominent landmark is the CN Tower, which currently stands as the tallest free-
standing land structure in the world at 553 metres (1,815 ft).[37]
The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is a major museum for world culture and natural history.
The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large collection of Canadian, European, African and
contemporary artwork. Gardiner Museum of Ceramic Art which is the only museum in Canada
entirely devoted to ceramics and the Museum's collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic
works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The Ontario Science Centre always has new hands-
on activities and science displays particularly appealing to children, and the Bata Shoe Museum




                                                                            Page 14 of 18
also features many unique exhibitions. The Don Valley Brick Works is a former industrial site,
which opened in 1889, and has recently been restored as a park and heritage site. The Canadian
National Exhibition is held annually at Exhibition Place, and it is the oldest annual fair in the
world. It is Canada's largest annual fair and the fifth largest in the world, with an average
attendance of 1.3 million.[38]
The Yorkville neighbourhood is one of Toronto's most elegant shopping and dining areas. On
many occasions, celebrities from all over North America can be spotted in the area, especially
during the Toronto International Film Festival. The Toronto Eaton Centre is one of North
America's top shopping destinations, and Toronto's most popular tourist attraction with over 1
million visitors per week.




Greektown brightens Christmas and winter at Alexander the Great park.




Aromas from around the world tempt crowds at Taste of the Danforth in Greektown.
Greektown on the Danforth, is another one of the major attractions of Toronto which boasts one
of the highest concentrations of restaurants per kilometre in the world. It is also home to the
annual "Taste of the Danforth" festival which attracts over 1 million people in 2 1/2 days.
Toronto is also home to Canada's most famous castle - Casa Loma, the former estate of Sir
Henry Pellatt, a prominent Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. Other notable
neighbourhoods and attractions include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market,
Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame.




                                                                                   Page 15 of 18
Media




The Canadian Broadcasting Centre.
       See also: List of media outlets in Toronto
Toronto is Canada's largest media market, and the 4th largest media centre in North America
(behind New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago), with four conventional dailies and two free
commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 5.5 million inhabitants. The Toronto
Star and the Toronto Sun are the prominent daily city newspapers, while the national dailies The
Globe and Mail and the National Post are also headquartered in the city. Toronto contains the
headquarters of the major English-language Canadian television networks, including the English-
language branch of the national public broadcaster CBC, the largest private broadcaster CTV,
and the flagship stations of Citytv and Global. Canada's premier sports television networks are
also based out of Toronto, including TSN, Rogers Sportsnet and The Score. The bulk of
Canada's periodical publishing industry is centred in Toronto including magazines such as
Maclean's, Chatelaine, Flare, Canadian Living, Canadian Business, Saturday Night Magazine
and Toronto Life.

Health and medicine




Atrium of the Hospital for Sick Children. Designed by Eberhard Zeidler.
        See also: List of hospitals in Toronto
Toronto is home to at least 20 hospitals, including the Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai
Hospital, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital,




                                                                          Page 16 of 18
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Princess Margaret Hospital, as well as the University of
Toronto Faculty of Medicine.
Toronto's Discovery District[39] is centre of research in biomedicine. It is located on a 2.5 square
kilometre research park that is fully integrated into Toronto’s downtown core. It is also home to
the Medical and Related Sciences Centre (MaRS),[40] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on
the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Another institute is the
McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM).[41]
       See also: XVI International AIDS Conference, 2006

Transportation
       Main article: Transportation in Toronto




       The main entrance of the Beaux-Arts style Union Station built in 1927.
Public transit network
       Main articles: Toronto Transit Commission and GO Transit
The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is the third largest public transit system in North
America after the New York City Transit Authority, and Mexico City Metro.[42] The Government
of Ontario operates an extensive rail and bus transit system called GO Transit that links the
neighbouring cities and suburbs with the City of Toronto. Thirty-eight trains on seven train lines
run 179 trips, and carry over 160,000 passengers a day. An additional 288 buses feed the main
rail lines. The TTC provides public transit within the City of Toronto. Its backbone is the city's
subway system, which includes the "U"-shaped north-south Yonge-University-Spadina line, the
east-west Bloor-Danforth line, the east-west Sheppard line through the northern part of the city,
and the Scarborough RT line running through the eastern part of the city (Scarborough). The
TTC also operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars.

Airports
Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ), straddles the city's
western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga, and is located mostly within that
suburb.[43] Limited commercial service is also offered from the Toronto City Centre Airport
(usually called "Toronto Island Airport"), located on the Toronto Islands. Buttonville Airport, in
Markham, provides general aviation facilities, and Downsview Airport, near the city's north end,
serves the Bombardier Aerospace aircraft factory.




                                                                                Page 17 of 18
Highway 401 in North York, collector lanes approaching Leslie Street.
Road network
        See also: Streets in Toronto and Municipal expressways in Toronto
There are a number of freeways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. Highway 401
bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is the busiest highway in
North America, making it one of the busiest highways in the world.[44] The 401-Highway
400/Black Creek Drive interchange is also one of the widest stretches of highway in North
America, spanning 22 lanes and used by more than half a million vehicles on an average day.
Other freeways in Toronto include Highway 404/Don Valley Parkway, Gardiner
Expressway/Queen Elizabeth Way, William R. Allen Road, Highway 427 and Highway 409. The
electronically tolled Highway 407-ETR never crosses within Toronto's city borders, but in some
places just to the north by a few hundred metres separated by a hydro corridor and railway track
embankments.




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