The Age of Absolutism Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800 l • A monarchy, (from the Monarchy Greek "monos arkhein" -- "one ruler") is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. • The position of monarch often involves inheritance in some form. Henry VIII of England Three Models of European Development Parliamentary Monarchy or Constitutional Monarchy in England a)Stuarts b)“Parliament” (House of Lords and Commons) Absolutism a)Tudors and Bourbons b)“Old Regimes” Estates General c)Cardinal Richelieu and Mazarin trained kings to be hard working and gain trust from their people. Enlightened Despots: a)Frederick II, Maria Theresa and Joseph II, and Catherine II b)Rejected Divine Right c)Used absolute power to make much needed reforms for country Reasons Europe Developed Into Absolute Monarchies • Feudalism had collapsed. • National monarchies replaced. • Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars. • Religious differences sparked civil wars. • Absolute monarchy emerged to protect the nation and preserve order. • “Gunpowder Revolution” began. Reasons Absolute Monarchies Developed • Centralizing authority was made easier because of the decline of feudalism, the rise of cities, and the expansion of national kingdoms. • Monarchs were supported by a new middle class because they promised good conditions for business. • For all of their ambitions, they used the colonies’ wealth. • Monarchs’ authority rose even more as the church’s authority decreased during the late Middle Ages and the Reformation. Reasons Absolute Monarchies Developed • Religious and territorial conflicts between states led to massive amounts of warfare. • This warfare caused governments to build armies and charge extremely high taxes. • In Europe, absolute monarchs could not completely break the power of the nobles, so they included the nobles into their new bureaucratic institutions. • As the nobles revolted, absolute rulers increased their own power to try to restore order. Connections between the Renaissance and Absolute Monarchs • Rise of cities! –Means that trade and formation of towns produced wealth for the King. (Power for the King) Connections between the Protestant Reformation and Absolute Monarchs • The Church lost power. • Religious wars caused chaos. • People wanted safe, stable gov’t Connections between the Age of Exploration and Absolute Monarchs • Added wealth and power • Mercantilism Rise of Absolutism Rise of cities Wealth of colonies Growth of national Breakdown of Church kingdoms authority Growth of middle class Decline of feudalism Economic and Revolts religious crises Absolute Monarch Reduced power of nobles and Created new government representative bodies bureaucracies Regulated worship, social Increased size of court gatherings, and economy Characteristics of the New Absolute Monarchies 1. They offered the institution of monarchy as a guarantee of law and order. 2. They proclaimed that hereditary monarchy was the legitimate form of public power all should accept this without resistance. 3. They enlisted the support of the middle class in the towns tired of the local power of feudal nobles. 4. They would have to get their monarchies sufficiently organized & their finances into reliable order. Characteristics of the New Absolute Monarchies 5. They would break down the mass of feudal, inherited, customary, or “common” law in which the rights of the feudal classes were entrenched. 6. The kings would MAKE law, enact it by his own authority, regardless of previous custom or historic liberties What pleases the prince has the force of law! What is an absolute monarch? • Rule by ONE PERSON—a monarch, usually a king or a queen—whose actions are restricted neither by written law nor by custom. • Absolute monarchy persisted in France until 1789 and in Russia until 1917. • Today only Swaziland and the Vatican are absolute monarchies Absolutism • The idea is based on that monarchs have divine rights and do not have to answer to any form of government and /or the people. • So they didn’t take advice from Parliament, the Estates General, or from the Nobles. • They regulated the taxation and national spending, government, and the religion. • Would limit personal freedoms of certain groups ex. Jews or Protestants. • They would also limit the power of the existing government bodies like the English Parliament, and the French Estates General. Absolute • unrestrained or unlimited by a constitution, counterbalancing group, etc., in the exercise of governmental power, esp. when arbitrary or despotic Sovereign • being above all others in character, importance, excellence, power, etc. Absolutist Theory – There must be one - and only one - sovereign in every state (although it can be a body consisting of more than one person). – The sovereign holds all legitimate power and should never be actively resisted. – If the sovereign commands a contravention of God's law, disobey, but accept the punishment (= "passive obedience"). One theme = CONTROL!!! 1. Control the government -Centralize & create bureaucracies -Reduce power of representative bodies 2. Control the nobility -Increase size of court; regulate social gatherings -Reduce nobles’ power in the government 3. Control economics -Great works -Economic policies centralized 4. Control power -Divine right & regulate religion Examples England stability under the Tudors France consolidation of power under the Bourbons Spain unification by marriage under the Habsburgs Holy Roman Empire different model: the cost of decentralization under the Habsburgs •A DICTATORSHIP is a government headed by a dictator. Similar to an Dictatorship absolute monarch •It is often equivalent to a police state, but the term "dictatorship" refers to the way the leader gains and holds power, not the watch kept on the citizens. •Some dictators have been popular enough not to have to employ many very oppressive measures. Examples: Julius Caesar & Adolph Hitler Characteristics of Absolute Monarchs It’s GREAT to be the King! • They made all the laws “I am the state” • They were NOT subject to the laws. The Rise of Absolute Monarchies (1400’s-1700’s) Divine Right • The belief that certain Kings were chosen by God • The Kings were only accountable to God and no one else • This idea was reinforced by Bishop Jacques Bossuet. Divine Right of Kings • Medieval belief that God gives power to the king; therefore, his actions are sanctioned by God Absolutism and Divine Right • Divine right theory was a branch of absolutism • Most divine right theorists thought that monarchy was the best form of government and that monarchs should never be resisted by the people. • Divine right theorists insisted that the ruler's authority was from God alone (not from the community). They quoted Scripture in their support: • Proverbs 8.15-16: By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth. Divine Right Theory • Proverbs 8.15-16 – “By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth.” • Romans 13.1-2 – “Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resists the power, resists the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive damnation.” They Ruled by “Divine Right” • They believed that they derived their right to rule directly from GOD. • Accountable only to GOD. • Not the people! Divine Right and Hierarchy Sixteenth century western Europe expressed unfaltering loyalty to a patriarchal Christian God and to a view of the world as his creation. Hierarchy regarded as part of God’s divinely appointed plan and guarantor of stability. Reflected in belief in a Great Chain of Being. God had arranged the universe in a certain order, and so the structure of society should reflect this in its own composition Great Chain of Being • God • Archangels • Angels • Kings • Nobles • Merchants & landowners • Peasants • Slaves • Big predatory animals • Plants • Rocks • Dirt Great Chain of Being: Rhetorica Christiana (1579) James 1: Patriarchy and Divine Right • … Kings are not onely GODS Lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon GODS throne, but even by GOD himselfe they are called Gods. …Kings are also compared to Fathers of families: for a King is trewly Parens patriæ, the politique father of his people. (James 1 speech to Parliament: 1610) • 1597–1598:The Trew Law of Free Monarchies • Basilikon Doron Homily on Obedience (1559) • In all things is to bee lauded and praised the goodly order of GOD, without the which no house, no Citie, no Commonwealth can continue and endure, or last. For where there is no right order, there reigneth all abuse, carnall liberty, enormitie, sinne, and Babylonicall confusion. Earlier political thinkers like Bodin paved the way. . . • Jean Bodin (1530-1596) • Promoted royal power as solution to end the French civil wars of religion • Six Books of the Commonwealth, 1576 – sovereignty lies with the monarch Absolutism and Divine Right Theory • More authoritarian views of government developed during 16th century when France was torn apart by the Religious Wars between Catholics and Protestants. • Some French writers began to argue that only a strong central government could prevent anarchy, and that resistance to the monarch was never legitimate. • The most important French absolutist theorist was Jean Bodin (1530-1596), who in 1576 published Six Books of the Commonwealth. • Bodin argued that the sovereign could not be limited by human laws - since whatever institution had the right to judge if the law were being infringed would itself be the real sovereign. Absolutism and Divine Right Justified • 1st theorist – Bishop Jacques Bossuet Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture • Government was divinely ordained – Matthew 22:21 “Render unto Caesar that which is Caesar’s” – 1 Peter 2:13-17 [Obey the secular ruler] – Romans 13:1-2 "Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.“ Absolutist Theorists: Bishop Bossuet (1627 – 1704) • “God is holiness itself, goodness itself, and power itself. In these things lies the majesty of God. In the image of these things lies the majesty of the prince.” • “The Prince is not a private person. . . All the state is in him. . . As all perfection and strength are united in God, all the power of individuals is united in the person of the Prince. What grandeur that a simple man should embody so much.” Jean Domat---Another Defender of Divine Right • “The sovereign power of government should be proportionate to its mandate, and in the station he occupies in the body of human society that makes up the state, he who is the head should hold the place of God. For since God is the only natural sovereign of men, their judge, their lawgiver, their king, no man can have lawful authority over others unless he holds it from the hand of God .... The power of sovereigns being thus derived from the authority of God, it acts as the arm and force of the justice that should be the soul of government; and that justice alone has the natural claim to rule the minds and hearts of men, for it is over these two faculties of men that justice should reign.” –Jean Domat, Jurist “What is done for the state is done for God, who is the basis and foundation of it......Where the interests of the state are concerned, God • What does this absolves actions which, if privately primary source committed, would be quote mean? a crime.” — Cardinal Richelieu • What impact would this have on a country? Divine Right and Patriarchialism • Patriarchialism defended divine right theory. • It rested on the widely-held belief that husbands had authority over their wives and fathers over their children. • This power was held both to be natural (since every society in the world accepted it) and divine (since God endorsed it in the Bible). • Some theorists argued that sovereigns as naturally held power over their states as fathers did over their families. • A monarch was no more accountable to his subjects than a father was to his children. Robert Filmer (1588-1653): Patriarcha (1631 pub. 1680) Royalism, Absolutism and Thomas Hobbes: (1588-1679) • Royalists supported the King and principle of hierarchy against what they believed to be the threat of anarchy. • Hobbes, a Royalist and defender of the King published two influential works of political thought De cive (1642, 1647) and Leviathan (1651) What does Hobbes believe is the natural state of humanity? What, for Hobbes, is the solution for a peaceful society? The Philosopher Behind the Age • Thomas Hobbes • 1660 – Wrote the Leviathan (Giant) • Discussed the perfect government • People first lived in anarchy • Needed a “social contract” • Required an absolute monarch to maintain order • People retained the right only to maintain their lives. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) “The obligation of subjects to the sovereign is understood to last as long, and no longer, than the power lasteth by which he can protect them.” • Sovereign free to rule- must act in interest of subjects • Monarchy best form of govt. – All powerful, centralize state • If ruler fails to ensure stability, society will dissolve into a state of nature/chaos until new ‘contract’ is made • Denies the people’s right to rebel in such instances • Most famous work is Leviathan (1651) – response to English Civil War • Wrote during the English Civil War Thomas Hobbes • Life is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” . • Man forms peaceful societies by entering into a social contract. • According to Hobbes, society is a group of individuals that give up just enough of their natural rights for the gov’t to be able to ensure internal peace and a common defense. • This sovereign, whether monarch, aristocracy or democracy (though Hobbes prefers monarchy), should be a Leviathan, an absolute authority. • Leviathan is a sea monsterr Royalism, Absolutism and Hobbes • The most basic axiom of Hobbes' system of political thought was that everyone naturally aims at self-preservation. • He argued that in "a state of nature" (i.e. where there was no government), life would be completely insecure. • Without any protection against aggression, life would be miserable and dangerous. • "No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" (Hobbes, Leviathan, 1.18). • Under such conditions, people would be willing to surrender their own powers to an absolute government that would protect them from everyone else. • Hobbes argued that the sovereign's power was absolute - (s)he made the law, and no other law could limit sovereign power. • The only right Hobbes left to subjects was the right to defend themselves against the sovereign's direct attack. Imagine that you are a mid-17th-century ruler aiming at absolutist rule: What steps do you need to take? • DO THIS ON YOUR LEFT SIDE OF YOUR NOTES. • THEN SHARE WITH YOUR PARTNER. • BE SURE TO EXPLAIN WHY. Definitions for Historical Categories • Political: • Economic: • Government • Budget • King or President • Taxes • Parliament • Industry • Laws • Agriculture • Military • Trade • Wars • Transportation • Political Rebellions • Unemployment • Colonies Definitions for Historical Categories • Social: • Cultural: • Religious Minorities • Religious Majority • Gender Roles • Arts: Paintings, • Social Classes: nobles, Sculptures, Architecture, clergy, middle class, Gardens, Music, and trades people, peasants, Dance and serfs • Press • Ethnic Minorities • Education • Healthcare • Fashion • Diet Political Aspects • This refers to all changes pertaining to the government structures, laws, the role of the monarch, foreign policies, wars, and rights • The monarch does not listen to parliament. • Maintains a standing army. • Limits the power of the existing legislative branch. • Chief ministers directly responsible to the monarch. • Monarch is the supreme lawgiver, chief judge, commander of military, and head of government. • Acquisition of foreign territory is a main goal. • Replaced local government officials with loyal nobles or royal governors. Absolutism and War • Absolutism change how wars were fought. • Prior to this, rulers raised temporary armies comprised of soldiers raised from feudal lords. • When the war was over the soldiers would return to their regular jobs. • Relying on the nobility for military support was risky: internal strife could result if the nobility decided to withhold support and challenge the monarchy. • Absolute monarchy avoided this problem by creating standing armies where a person’s sole job was to be a soldier in service to the monarch. • Absolute rulers were the living embodiment of the state. Nowhere is this best illustrated than through the reign of Louis XIV. Economic Aspects • This refers to all the changes dealing with monetary issues, farming, industries, transportation, taxes, budget matters, loans and debt, workforce training, etc… • Pursued a policy of mercantilism-expansion of trade and expenses due to wars encouraged this policy. • Accumulate as much gold and silver bullion as possible. • Maintain a balance of trade where you export more than you import. • Used subsidies, charted monopolies, taxes, tariffs, harbor tolls and direct prohibitions to encourage exports and reduce imports. • Monarchs standardized industrial production, regulated wages, set prices, and built roads, canals, and docks. • Colonial empires were essential to a strong absolute monarch. Accumulated Vast Sums of Wealth • How…? • By seizing new territories in the New World and the Far East • Expanding trade overseas and within Europe • Taxing the growing wealth of their people Social Aspects • This refers to all the changes pertaining to social classes like nobles, middle class, and serfs, gender roles, immigration and treatment of religious minority groups. • French kings selected middle class men to run the government business, while Spain, having driven out most of the Jewish and Muslim middle class during the Inquisition, appointed nobles. • The class structures of absolute monarchies were marked by clear distinctions, precisely defined by law. • Hereditary feudal aristocrats lost status unless they acquired an official appointment from the monarch. 4 Social Changes The commercial revolution not only transformed the medieval economy, it also reshaped medieval society. The use of money undermined serfdom. Most peasants became tenant farmers or hired farm laborers. In towns, a new middle class of merchants, traders, and artisans emerged. The Church forbade Christians from becoming moneylenders. Since Jews were barred from other professions, many took on this role. Social: Businessmen • They became savvy businessmen and learned to deal with Italian moneylenders and bankers. • The English, Belgians, Germans, and Dutch took their coal, timber, wood, iron, copper, and lead to the south and came back with luxury items such as wine and olive oil. Social: Tradesmen • With the advent of trade and commerce, feudal life declined. • As the tradesmen became wealthier, they resented having to give their profits to their lords. Social: The Merchant Class • The new merchant class included artisans, masons, armorers, bakers, shoemakers, ropemakers, dyers, and other skilled workers. Social: Urban Life • Few serfs were left in Europe by the end of the Middle Ages, and the growing burgher class became very powerful. • Hard work and enterprise led to economic prosperity and a new social order. • Urban life brought with it a new freedom for individuals. MEDIEVAL LIFE Cooperation and Mutual Obligations KING FEUDALISM: MANORIALISM: POLITICAL SYSTEM ECONOMIC SYSTEM Fief and Peasants Agriculture the basis for Decentralized, local government wealth Loyalty Military Aid Lands divided up into Dependent upon the relationship between LORDS (VASSALS TO KING) self-sufficient manors members of the nobility Peasants (serfs) worked Lord and his vassals the land and paid rent In administered justice exchange for protection and were the highest Barter the usual form of authority in their land exchange Food Protection Shelter Homage Military Service KNIGHTS (VASSALS TO LORDS) END OF FEUDALISM Food Protection Shelter Farm the Pay Land PEASANTS (SERFS) Rent Feudalism Becomes Social System and No Longer Political • The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $. • Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, $. • Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them. • Serfs got food and shelter. • Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities Social: End of Traditional Feudalism • The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $. • Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, $. • Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them. • Serfs got food and shelter. • Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Serfdom Agricultural Society • Much of population, serfs—workers considered part of land they worked • Like share-croppers or tenant farmers but not allowed to leave the land • Declined in Western Europe but continued in Russia Serfs • Controlled by lords, wealthy nobles who owned land • Technically not slaves; living conditions, lack of freedom, resembled slavery • Not allowed to leave property where born; did not own land they worked Societal Problem • Serfs had to make regular payments of goods, labor to lords • Some in government wanted to improve conditions, unable to make reforms • Russian serfdom way of life, a major problem in Russian society Serfdom in Western Europe Serfdom was not needed in Western Europe because: The west was affected by the Black Death and the labor shortages helped labor Eastern lords had more political power than the lords in the west Eastern kings had no power over the policies of the landlords Peasants were also weaker in the east which mean uprisings were usually unsuccessful Nationalism in Europe Section 4 • Unlike Western Europe, serfdom still existed in Russia and was very widespread – Serfs could be bought and sold like slaves – Serfs could even be killed without punishment for the killer!! – Without the free movement of people, the nation could not become more urbanized and then industrialized Serfdom in Eastern Europe The Black Death greatly hurt eastern Europe and created labor shortages for the nobles After 1300, lords in eastern Europe brought back serfdom to combat economic challenges Kings and princes issued laws restricting peasants’ rights of moving freely Lords confiscated peasant lands and imposed heavy labor obligations In certain regions of Europe, even non-serf peasants were affected They were required to work 3-4 days without pay per week for their local lord Social: The Peasants At the lowest level of society were the peasants, also called serfs or villeins. The lord offered his peasants protection in exchange for living and working on his land. Social: Hard Work & High Taxes Peasants worked hard to cultivate the land and produce the goods that the lord and his manor needed. They were heavily taxed and were required to relinquish much of what they harvested. Bound by law and custom… It is the custom in England, as with other countries, for the nobility to have great power over the common people, who are serfs. This means that they are bound by law and custom to plough the field of their masters, harvest the corn, gather it into barns, and thresh and winnow the grain; they must also mow and carry home the hay, cut and collect wood, and perform all manner of tasks of this kind. -- Jean Froissart, 1395 Social Aspects: State Nobles vs the Common People. • State nobles owed their privileges to their political service rather than birth. • State nobles often came from merchant families; indeed, the state often sold titles to wealthy commoners to provide income for the monarch. • State nobles served in public administration, in the army, the church, or as attendants at court, where they accented the royal magnificence. • State nobles usually received tax exemptions, pensions, titles, and honors. Their legal rights, dress, and way of life differed markedly from even wealthy non-nobles. • Commoners, including middle-class townspeople, paid most of the taxes required by frequent wars and extravagant royal courts. • Peasant landholders usually owed fees and labor dues to local aristocrats. • The poorest peasants in the Western Europe were hired laborers or vagabonds; in eastern Europe, they were serfs. • Slavery was rare in Western Europe, but provided a major labor force on overseas plantations. Social Aspects: Treatment of Women. • While tightening legal class distinctions, absolute monarchies also further downgraded the status of women. • The Reformation had offered some opportunities for self-expression among women, and before 1650 many women had assumed temporary positions of leadership. • The situation changed after Westphalia. • Although a number of queens and regents were able to rule as absolute monarchs, most aristocratic women could find recognition only as Catholic nuns, writers, artists, salon hostesses, court gossips, or royal mistresses, the latter gaining official status in this era. • The status of commoner women did not fall as much or as quickly, but the advent of early capitalism and the decline of domestic economies was already excluding them from many industries and enterprises in the latter seventeenth century. Cultural Aspects: Majority Religion • This refers to all the changes pertaining to the majority religion, education, architecture, clothing, healthcare, music, literature, and the arts. • Organized religion remained important under absolutism but lost its independence of government. Instead of dominating politics, as they had done earlier, churches – Protestant and Catholic alike – now tended to become government agencies. • Even in Catholic countries, such as France, the king exerted more political control over the church than did the pope. Although this had been true of earlier secular rulers, they had faced much more religious opposition. • After Westphalia, monarchs could deliberately use their clergies as government servants, to enlist and hold popular support. • Such controlled churches exerted tremendous influence in support of absolute monarchies, not only in the formal services but also in their social and educational functions. The reality of absolutism • Most kings were limited by: – Economics! (not enough gold to do what they wanted) • England’s Parliament controlled the wealth (as did private companies) • Capitalism vs. mercantilism • Wars were expensive – Legislative bodies • England, Germany • Versailles exception (why did Louis move his court there?) – Power of neighbors – Their own intelligence! • Philip III (Spain) • Decline in Ottoman Empire (palace intrigue, killings, etc…) Absolute Monarchy’s Good Points • Strong, Stable government is good for business and trade. –Louis XIV and mercantilism in France –Peter the Great westernizing Russia Strong Army to Protect and add territory • Peter the Great added new territory • Louis XIV invaded the Netherlands Quick decisions made and implemented Advantages and Disadvantages of Absolute Monarchies: Advantages: *At its best, it can be a relatively stable form of government. *People know that one person, the monarch, will continue to rule for the rest of his or her life. If the monarch is a capable leader and in good health, people are assured of the benefits of good government for many years. Disadvantages: *On the other hand, when an absolute monarch dies, there can be much trouble over the question of who will be next on the throne. At the time of the ruler’s death, the appointed heir might be only a child. *Ambitious persons then have the opportunity to challenge the young ruler. Rival contenders for the throne might tear apart the kingdom in a civil war. *Another disadvantage to absolute monarchy is that an absolute monarch cannot be questioned. *The freedoms of individual citizens are often limited. Rights that Americans often take for granted, like freedom of speech and freedom of the press, are not guaranteed in an absolute monarchy. *There are few checks on the authority of the monarch. What’s wrong with Absolutism? • Monarch’s can be greedy and do things just for themselves. –Louis XIV = Versailles, clothes, art etc. –Philip II = Escorial, art, religious conflict Costly Wars use up the country’s money • Philip II • Louis XIV • Peter the Great Nobody can stop their mistakes • Philip II • Louis XIV High Taxes always needed • Philip II • Louis XIV • Peter the Great Summary: • Absolute monarchies with centralized governments began to rise to power in Europe. • The dominant forces in Europe were England, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. • Religious divisions were evident Protestants (England + Prussia), Catholics (France + Austria), and Eastern Orthodox Christianity (Russia). • Competitions formed between certain nations. -England v. France- in the new world -Prussia v. Austria over the German States • Alliances were formed between these powers constantly to preserve a balance of power in Europe. These alliances would also shift depending on the goals of the leaders involved. Absolute Monarchies and Enlightened Despots in Europe 1550-1800 France: Absolute Monarchs-Louis XIII & Louis XIV Spain: Absolute Monarchs-Philip II England: Absolute Monarchs and Development of a Constitutional Monarchy-Tudors & Stuarts Austria: Enlightened Despots---Maria Theresa & Joseph II Prussia: Enlightened Despot- Frederick the Great Russia: Absolute Monarchs- Ivan the Terrible & Peter the Great Russia: Enlightened Despot-Catherine the Great Alternatives to Absolutism ►Sweden – Nobles use the absence of the king during warfare to reaffirm their power. ►United Provinces – Merchants and landowners in the Estates General held the House of Orange in check. ►Poland – King was elected by nobles, who continued to hold the power.
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