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					Transport and society in Scotland

        Dr Jon Shaw, University of Plymouth
            Social inclusion and exclusion
   Transport hugely significant in promoting social wellbeing
    and inclusion
       Increases in mobility…
       Thus increases in accessibility
       Private car most responsible

   So, we’re moving in the right direction?
       Well, not necessarily
       And there’s danger in focusing too much on economic
        development at the expense of ongoing revenue support…
       But we need to make sure we’re spending our revenue support
            Social inclusion and exclusion
   Put simply, there is unevenness in the distribution of
    transport-realted social inclusion
       “Findings show that being young, coming from a small household,
        possessing a driver’s license, having a steady job, living in an urban
        setting and being willing to travel a long distance increase the
        number of opportunities available” (Casas, 2007: 463).
           Social inclusion and exclusion
   Social exclusion can therefore arise because of
       a mobility gap, which can contribute to
       Poverty of access

   Typical socially excluded groups
       The poor, the young, the old, the disabled and women

   Typical consequences of transport disadvantage
       Exclusion from or disadvantage with regard to services,
        barriers to employment, fear / perceptions of fear
        Social inclusion and exclusion
   The poor
Social inclusion and exclusion
Social inclusion and exclusion
Social inclusion and exclusion
Social inclusion and exclusion
                           Social networks
   There is increasing dispersal of social networks

   More car ownership / use = spatial fragmentation of
    home / work / shops / services
       Local social networks – community ties – undermined
       New networks emerge across larger spatial scales
       These networks often depend on ‘automobility’…
           But existing local networks can be undermined by this automobility…
           Thus further disadvantaging those who depend on them
Social networks
                         Policy options
   So, few would argue against continued and significant
    revenue expenditure to support the transport
       In urban and rural areas

   But how to spend the money?
                         Policy options
   How about traditional public transport schemes?
       National Concessionary fare scheme (£322 million over the
        next two years)
       Bus Service Operators Grant (£57 million per annum),
       Services funded by local authorities (over £30 million per
       Bus route development fund (one-off Payments to local
        authorities – £22 million)
       Additional rural initiatives

       All of which is very good. But…
                    Policy options
   People in non car owning rural households make more
    journeys by car than they do by public transport
                     Policy options

                      Car or van Bus   Walking

Scottish average      20%        30%   40%

Accessible small   28%           25%   39%
Remote small towns 23%           10%   57%

Accessible rural      31%        30%   31%
Remote rural areas    34%        21%   37%
                         Policy options
   So let’s keep revenue spending high for the transport

   But do we need to reappraise what we’re spending our
    money on?
       Abolish concessionary fares?
       Cut rural bus subsidies?

       Accessibility planning?
       More cross-sector working?
       More use of Smart Cards?
                      Policy options
   The key point is that transport’s role needs to be
    understood in terms of the way in which it can help
    deliver clearly defined social outcomes

   It is not – especially given the funding squeeze – that we
    need to invest heavily in transport systems for the sake of
    maintaining transport systems

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