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					             SOUTH AFRICA – SAFE HAVEN FOR HUMAN TRAFFICKERS?
        EMPLOYING THE ARSENAL OF EXISTING LAW TO COMBAT HUMAN TRAFFICKING


                                                                                                              *
                                                                                                HB KRUGER

H Oosthuizen
                 *
                 *




1         Introduction


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                                                               1
                                                                     t iinpn epn e   en ie s eri ne t si dn
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,te in disint ps n ee e npteet dnrepi 1122ennep ee ie iin . ne t si ee ips n ee-neseinp


       ... the lack of comprehensive law that fully defines trafficking, empowers police and
       prosecutors ... is the greatest hindrance to anti-trafficking efforts in South Africa.2

REGIH I R    ,TE GUN AGTTTE IGAI GA NHRNIH RG TE EEGKCHER KRATGA H ,GT GR EI HI ,E H E H E R E H T
H EEHRT     AI   EGAI TEHRGA HAIH RR EGAI TR               "E AIR TGHI" R EGAI TEHGEHAEREKHUHAT REEGKG I
.NHENHTE TRER TR RRC ne n ie desii ,tpn n sp “ :een t in rin ie tsi ,ees eti ii t sn epese
                               3


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.”.rpetnnsin     t    e    s


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                                                       4
                                                             ne ee iin    es tsi ee e iin Prevention and

*
       Hester B Kruger. BA, LLB, LLM, LLD (UFS). Senior Lecturer, Department of Criminal and
       Medical Law, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Email:
       KrugerH@ufs.ac.za. This paper is partly derived from a thesis submitted in fulfillment of LLD
       studies.
**     Hennie Oosthuizen. BIuris, LLB, LLD, LLD (UFS). Professor and Head of the Department of
       Criminal and Medical Law, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Email:
       Oosthuh@ufs.ac.za.
1
       Article 1-20 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women
       and Children (Palermo Protocol).)1111(
2
       US Department of State 2011 www.state.gov 328.
       Kamidi Legal Response to Child Trafficking .
3
4
       S v Dos Santos (unreported case; 19 July 2011, Pretoria Regional Court) (accused convicted in
       terms of the Criminal Law [Sexual Offences and Related Matters] Amendment Act 32 of 2007
       and sentenced to life imprisonment) - SAPA 2011 www.news24.com 1; S v Sayed (unreported
       case no. 041/2713/2008; 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court). In 2010, the National
       Prosecuting Authority also reported to the Justice and Constitutional Development Portfolio
       Committee on convictions for human trafficking activities in the following cases: S v Sawatkan
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill f 1121Sfuf (f 1121f rhf 7Bf Trafficking Billiin rpetnnsi ee ,)
                                                                                           5
. s n stn e na ti ee nes rped t eet ie p ee ips n ee seneit ie ee


GR    T GR A R E IH H       U GA HR T E H      T GI A I T E H N E HR HA T           E T GK I    GA R T T E GR       KCIER

HR RE KEGUGA I        KTGRGTGR NERRHK TH            AI N AGRE KEGUHR GA REIHE T H GRTGAI IHEGAGTGRAR

GAI KRUURA I R          RHIHKTGRA RE H GRT ,G E R T E .RKHRRE U A TE EEGKCGAI NE KRUUGTTHI I EGAI TEH

R EHI THI      KTGRGTGHR G-TR TE EEGKCGAI RETHA                H      NNIGK    IH RET KEGUHR TE T U T AI RT T T

    EHCGAI NERRGRGRAR GA TTE ARGTGRA I TE EEGK ,H K R A I R .U NNHI R TCHILDREN'S                               ACT 5002 RE
(CHILDREN'S ACT         AI TEH     )CRIMINAL LAW (SEXUAL OFFENCES AND RELATED MATTERS) AMENDMENT
ACT( 5002 ER 25SEXUAL OFFENCES AMENDMENT ACT 5000 RGAKH TEH ,G A I I T E . EH IGRK RRHI )
TRAFFICKING BILLTEH          RH RE RTEHE       ,H AH E E T EHGTT              H HA KTHI GA TERGII GA              II NER        GI

AI RE TEGRHRHA        ETHE TEH N RRG ,CGAI NERRHK TGRARRAR GA E U A TE EEGKKEGUGA I I R NERRGRG

:TRAH GR THUNTHI TR R              ,A I I G A R T T E G R      KCIER            .GR EHEIHKTHI          NRA     , GII GATR I R
– RTE IH GA E U A HGAI A E R T T E H             A E G A I H E H I H !E E G K        R   T E R KRUH TR ,E        E E G K C H E R T"

".UGAGU I HGAI NERRHK THI GR R REGIH TEH EGRC REIHAHE TH E IH NEREGT


2         THE EXISTING SOUTH AFRICAN CRIMINAL LAW FRAMEWORK


T T HI GU HR     EH        RETHA     KR U U GI IHI     TE      T   R    E GR    R   KET        GR   R GI HIT      KCA R R IHG

:AI NERKHRRI EGAI TEH TE EEGKCG


       Human trafficking is in fact better understood as a collection of crimes bundled
       together rather than a single offence; a criminal process rather than a criminal
       event.6


udttStoaf hr     rof aPrf h t utf Podff ,S Phhthitoaf auattaPStro-suodtoaf Sfuf uoPhS uoSf rhf hreoSu f ,ifet
dehSfhr     tSSudfde toafSfuftSPSeSr frhhuohutf P fhufPodftfreadfhufeStattudfSrfs rtuheSufh t toPafhro
.S Phhthitoafs rhutt
                       7
                           in tsnnntt s rpetnnsi ee e ips n ee seneit e inp t e iintn na ti ee np                             nt
.se e nennt h           nrne ee iin snit e iin rspi ns sp nstn



2.1       Common law crimes

       (unreported case no. 41/2045/08, Durban) (accused convicted in terms of the Sexual Offences
       Act 23 of 1957); S v Wiphatawaithaya (unreported case no. 317/2/09, Durban) (accused
       convicted in terms of the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957); and S v Eloff (unreported case no.
       SH599/08, Welkom) (accused convicted in terms of the Criminal Law [Sexual Offences and
       Related Matters] Amendment Act 32 of 2007) – NPA 2010a www.pmg.org.za 3-6; NPA 2010b
       www.pmg.org.za 12; NPA 2010c www.pmg.org.za 3-61.
5
       NPA 2010A WWW.PMG.ORG.ZA 3-6; NPA 2010B WWW.PMG.ORG.ZA 12; NPA 2010C
       WWW.PMG.ORG.ZA 3-61.
       UNODC Toolkit ; Bales Global Slavery .
6
7
       Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 2.

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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1



. ifu uf ttf orf hr       rof aPrf s rttttrof duPatoaf tsuhththPaa f rtSff hroSu sr P f fe Pof S Phhthitoa ,di
                                                                                                                    8


    si n stn ie rpetnnsin ,tsni st iin tn nni ee              tnsttn       n eh , ee sh np                ntes npest ne
                      9
.ips n ee seneit


2.1.1 Abduction


     I GATHEKR ERH RE E TEH N ENRRH RE RH E TR           H H NIRGTHI EREGKR           UGARNHENHTE TRE RER TE E

GUH RE RE TEH KRUURA I R KE T AKHR               H KRARGKTHIT GA KHET GA KGEK UR                    EREKHI U EEG IH U

.
                10
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                                     11
. iiesi iin p neetneiessp se h            in einei ee e iin rnprnipsiep e is ee iin                 eep     sti n iisi in
                                                                                                                    12
.ep ndne te n e i n tn h tint ie             sppi ep ie isdn tnass einpnesptn h ii iin                    eep ,ep tin i t
ses eti iin nstie se e iin t enn ii t np              n rse tint s hpeee ne               iin   ,    repisei ie eein iisi
iin neetnei e iin           eep ie iin snit e iin rnprnipsiep t ee ,                eep se      eei ses eti iin          eep
           13
. n nenn


 E H T E H E R E A R T T E H RUKUTHWALAI         AG   A GRHI GA RRUHREGKE GR RTGII NE KT ,K IT E I K RTRU
    KTGRA GR TEH IHE TEH KEGUH RE            IU T     H NERRHK THI         A   ,E E G K     R   T E R AGTGHR GAKRUU

GAI ERE T THR E U A TE EEGKCR KE               K RTRU KRARTG        R GR REHTEHE RE ART ,R                 EHKT RE IH    TH



8
       Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 2; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-10; SALRC 2008
       www.justice.gov.za 14; SOCA Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za 2.
9
       IOM Counter-trafficking 90; Smith "South Africa's Strategy" 5; Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons"
       24-26.
10
       Statutory versions of the common law crime of abduction were introduced into our law also by s
       12 and 13 of the Sexual Offences Act         o caodsooa t f shror ososss s d a ro .2597 f 12
         orr iais t ,otc h         shrs caffr f           shra d           t io d stsr o sCommon Law
       Crimessdsa t c t s r iodr d               t io ohcsdsa t dhr ososss s f              o f ohc .971-967
         ls dhrii –otc oio c t s oshosotsaoiis caffr f                   as Criminal Law dhr ohcsdsa t .
          f shr 22otc )1(21 ffrtdro at oo Sexual Offences Act 2597 f 12were repealed in
       2007 by the Criminal Law [Sexual Offences and Related Matters] AmendmentAct32 of 2007
       – see the sto this act.
       Snyman Criminal Lawf ntaSrof ;312Common Law Crimes Be hfuaaf duhtoutf Sfuf h t uf Ptf Sfuf f .
11

      eoaPrheaf SPitoaf rhf Pf tor f reSf rhf Sfuf hroS raf rhf Pf hetSrdtPof rtSff Sfuf toSuoStrof rhf uoPhatoaf
       f Be hfuaaf –PSf tor f tr urouf Srf P f r f Srf fPtuf tudePaf toSu hre tuf rtSff Sf Criminal Lawf;761
       fteoSCommon Law Crimes .
12
       Hunt Common Law Crimes 548-549; Snyman Criminal Law 403. Proof of the intention to marry
       or to have intercourse with the minor suffices. Thus, proof that the marriage or intercourse took
       place is not required – Snyman Criminal Law 405. For a discussion of the difference between
       seduction and abduction and other aspects of this crime, see Snyman Criminal Law 403-407;
       Burchell Criminal Law 762-767; Milton Common Law Crimes 553-572; Hunt Common Law
       Crimes 537-554.
13
       Snyman Criminal Law 404; Burchell Criminal Law 764-765; Milton Common Law Crimes
       554-555. If the minor did not consent to the taking, the perpetrator may also be convicted of
       kidnapping – Snyman Criminal Law 404; Hunt Common Law Crimes 546-547.

                                                        3 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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    ETE T TEH TE IGTGRA R A H N R G A T R E R G H R G R R                         .RH    I H NIRGT TGRAUKUTHWALA INDEED A
                                                                       14
FORCED MARRIAGE OF YOUNG GIRLS TO ADULT MEN.                                 e einprpni ee iin ,rehndnp UKUTHWALA MOTSU
.EISVR A RNTTWXWIT LNW A IMUUWX ST AMTISXO ,T X N A I                                          S I T W R T A S M T I O ENTINI TIW

    NIT SMT TIATOS ,TSX NIOTAI W ,NW V O W I I-V S T I O E A U U W I W A I R UukuthwalaGR ART                                  U EEG IH

H NHI TEH E UGIT RE TERTHI GA REIHE TR KRURKHI EH TE T GR HUNI                                      T    NEHIGUGA ET NE ,GA GTRHIE

. IHE
                                                                                                                                          15
           K RTRU ET U EEG ERE TEH KRAKI RGRA R E GATR AHIRTG TGRARE T EH                                              EGIH TR HATH
                              16
reises se dn                np     ntnp n iin nstie           st s    nset e ne         nen ee          spp sen eneei si eet i hsi
                                     17
. " en      s        sni ee" e s AIR EWOT AT TIW "U                         TSX W" IUW NO OWWUNIEV               TAEW-TS-I W U X NR W T
                                                                                                                        18
.OUAXXNAEW IWESTNATNSI O TATIWX OWIRNIE TIW'MXW UXNRWEXSSUXWONRWI W ST TIW TMT


     E G E T R E H T E H E T G R G U N R E T A T T R K I GUKUTHWALA .H RE                         I KTGRAKRARTGT THR TEH KEGU

E E GK    A K        RTR U       ET I R        R    T E R GHIR HA U            GA T GA T E        T A-I R T E R R       U    HA H     AIU

     UR   REEHKRIAGRHR              TERRH      EREUKUTHWALA IH               KRARHATR     TR       TEHREHEH          TEH     E T EH       EG

UKUTHWALA. IH AHIRTG TGRAU TH UH AR RE U EEG NERKHRR
                                                                                                           19
                                                                                          R       IHIGTG        I NO A X E M U W I T NO   T
 ST TIW W XWVWLAIT OXSLNONSIAVOS OMOOSXTWR U TIConstitution                                   of the Republic of South Africa ,
    0991( 0991CONSTITUTIONEIN I ,) H K IT E I IGEH RE TR N ETGKGN TH GA TE R EHI                                           EIR TEH EGIET

.R KERGKH'RAH ii t p eii
                      20
                                          si eei n eei nanpn tn             es    seenp eneet tinei h ii , ne iin eiinp ise
                                                         21
. sei rped t ee e iin d                     e d eiit          XW TIWNI         NX MUOTAI WO EIW           ,I W X W T S X W T ukuthwala
HI R KE TEH KR ETR E RH RGHR ,I IGEI GATR U EEG IHTR EREKH                                    A    ARGIIGA TE IGTGRA GR                 RHI

.
                                                   22
      I KTGRA KRAI KT              R KEGUGA I       pnrepit pnnn dn isdn e nsin iisi iesee e p t isdn ,dnnnei i
 nne s      snin se np iin nisps n e ii t ips i ee se isdn ts tn snei i nne epnn                                             eie    sppi ee
                23
.s s i     ne hinpn se spp n                  eept spn pn edn           pe       iin neeipe e ,dsni se s stn e ii t ips i ee
neetnei         si n tsnnntt s i rpetnnsin ee s np                      es nispen )'iin rspneit(iin p rspneit h iiesi iin p
                     24
.e s      sni ee           i nse n spesn iisi iin             tstn e iin ,rspiinp UKUTHWALANXVO TXARNTNSI TS TSX W E
OMXOSOWO TXATTN ENIE TSX TIW OS                         SIOTNTMTW IMUAITWR UAXXNAEWO UA AVAIR ESUWI NITS MIEAI

.SIST OWRMAV WROVSNTATN

14
        US Department of State 2011 www.state.gov 327.
15
        Mwambene and Sloth-Nielsen 2011 African Human Rights Law Journal 1, 3, 6.
        Koyana and Bekker 2007 De Jure f ratttu f ;et al Indigenous Lawf Be hfuaaf ;5Criminal Law f;
16

        f1115nPtrof-nhoertdObiter .
        Koyana and Bekker 2007 De Jure f ratttu f ;et alIndigenous Lawf Be hfuaaf ;5Criminal Law f;
17

        f1115nPtrof-nhoertdObiter .
18
        Olivier et al Indigenous Law 9; Mwambene and Sloth-Nielsen 2011 African Human Rights Law
        Journal 3. For a further discussion of the three forms of ukuthwala, see Olivier et al Indigenous
        Law 9-10.
19
        Mwambene and Sloth-Nielsen 2011 African Human Rights Law Journal 22; see also Koyana and
        Bekker 2007 De Jure 141-142; Burchell Criminal Law 767.
20
        Section 31(1) Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996.
21
        Section 31(2) Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996; see also McQuoid-Mason 2009
        Obiter 717.
22
        Burchell Criminal Law 764; Koyana and Bekker 2007 De Jure 142; McQuoid-Mason 2009 Obiter
        716-717.
23
        McQuoid-Mason 2009 Obiter 716; US Department of State 2009 www.state.gov 260; US
        Department of State 2010 www.state.gov 297.
24
        Burchell Criminal Law 764.

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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1



2.1.2 Kidnapping


. EEGKCGAINHERRAR ERE E U A TE "EHKE GT" I TRRAH RE TEH UH AR                                         N N GA I GR C
                                                                                                                      25
                                                                                          RH G I A

     esrr ee neet tit e ,ennep ee ie dei se


           unlawfully and intentionally depriving a person of his or her freedom of movement
           and/or if such person is a child, the custodians of their control over the child.26


Sfuf su suS PSr f S Phhthf Pf su trof f fe Pof S Phhthitoaf he Sfu f ufet utf SfPSf ,eoatiuf itdoPsstoaf ,trrutu
.rtSff Pof udsartSPSttuf se srtu ee e iin p eii ie iinpnst
                                        27
                                                                          esrr ee enstnt       s e i ee iin d e si
is se ips n ee            epn e ine iise eei en s nt iin d e si ee e tndnps eiinp , pnn e               e       edn nei
                                                                                                                       28
dissp se ,ennep ee i . n se tnnsp ii e iin rnptee ,tsni st iin p eii ie iin                  ee ii ,is se p eiit
t ,st         n en     e iin        s np e    peiene ,p eii i re eit esi iisi iin np    n e ips n ee e rnpteet
iin np        n e     ,rep ii t pnstee .t ee nsei i        pes np iise iin ne          ee sh np      n e        esrr ee
se          epn ne rpninet dn , ii ips n ee nstnt s n ssin i                 esrr ee t iee esppeh ie              ns h
. n e i eet e ips n ee np              nt     sti iinpn epn n ntis tin


I REEHAKH GR TEH E U A TE EEGKCGA T H H R G I H A K H T R N E R R H A K                  RHR R EHEH             IHC     G
,KTHIE R ART THT               HHA HA        IGRI TGRAE U A TE EEGKCGAI IH RE REHEH           NNIGK        IH   ,I KCGAI
R R E GR K E GU H N E R T HK T R T T           . H R KKHRRE I UH RE CGIA NNGAI U TNERRHK TGRA RA                      KEG

.ERI RRHE UGARERHII R N EHAT I KRATIRU RE URRHUHAT R RA UHIT NHERRA I EEHH ,GATHEHRTR
                                                                                                                       29


    stie set         si n nrp dn e neeipe . intn einpntit spn e ine d e sin              e is se ips n ee nstnt
'iin p ni pne h iiesi iin nstie set ednp iin p                  eep ni pne     i ips n npt hie is n se             ips n
t neetnei ent eei nes tn iin 'iin ni                 ,t einpnti iisi t d e sin 'd enn i t iin nstie se .neetnei
                               30
. t nee sni'rnprnipsiep EIWXW R S T E NR I A O O NI E A V O S S I L N T W W X O W T X AT S X O U A               UW    O
V    USLNIE TIW T U         WNTIWX OI ON AVO TXWWRSU ST USLWUWI'N EWR OWXOSITIW                      LNSVATW A TXATT

U VS EWR U EWWONIE TIW LN TN TS AISTIWX OVA W SX ,TNSIMONIE TSX W SX RW WO ,TXATTN EWR OWXOSI
      31
.MO



25
           SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 14; Kruger 2010 Combating Human Trafficking 422.
26
           Snyman Criminal Law 479. Other writers state that kidnapping consists in unlawfully and
           intentionally depriving a person of liberty of movement and/or his or her custodians of control –
           Burchell Criminal Law 758; Milton Common Law Crimes 539-541; Hunt Common Law Crimes
           470.
           Article 3(a) Palermo Protocol orr oio la ert ;Trafficking in Persons nts ot ;69Criminal
27

           Law r sur ;382-375Combating Human Trafficking .92-
28
           Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5.
29
           Snyman Criminal Law 481. For a further discussion of the elements of this crime, see Milton
           Common Law Crimes 544-548; Hunt Common Law Crimes 470-475.
30
           Burchell Criminal Law 760; Hunt Common Law Crimes 473.
31
           SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 14; see also Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5;

                                                           5 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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2.1.3     MURDER AND ATTEMPTED MURDER


.HE H KE EIHI RGTE U EI EEGKCHI NHERRA U THR TEH IH TE RE
                                                                                                                        32
                                                                            TENHENHTE TRE RER K                    R         e
                                                                                              33
,ret i dn-hi n eeh ee iisi iini spn r w ,nstnt hinpn ips n npt ep iin p n neit XAOW A TXATTN EWR
,OSOONUVW M I A        S I L N T NS I NO O   .ATTWUOTWR UMXRWX UA UW               SILN TWR ST TIW                 ,OWXOSI
NWI     LNXMOIW IMUAI NUUMISRWTN U NO NITW TWR ENTI TIWX SX IST TIW LN TNNXXWOOW TNLW ST EIWT
                                    34
.XAOWR AO A XWOMVT ST UWNIE )INL( IW LN TNU WOWITWR TIAT TEIWXW WLNRWI W NO OX ,M X T I W X U S X W T
                                                            35
)ANRO( SUWMIW RWTN NWI       O IRXRNWR ST A CMNXWR NUU T XWOMVT ST UWNIE SITXA TWR AO A RNXW
                                                                              36
.WX AI UW OW MXWRA SILN TNSI ST UMXR ,ATSXXAOWR U TIW OWXOWTX



2.1.4 Culpable homicide


TRER E RH TEH GATHAT HK       RH TEH NHENHTE      R HR R GK T GU R I GH A R T A R R U H T E               EEGK C GA I K G

.AHIIGIHAT KRAI KT 'ERHI T TEH NHENHTE TREHGE IH TER EH K                        RI TEHU           T     HK    RH TTR CGI

 ARTEHE E U A K        RGAI TEH IH TE RE I I T      A I A H I IGI H A T IT         KE K    RHR RE             AI       RE    R
. IN
                                                                            37
         IH ERUGKGIHTHI RA       KE EIH RE K HGAI K A            H NERRHK        EIWXW TIW             ,S X W R A U O V W T
AO A ,X SI A TXM ENI A VSOWR      SITANIW S UW TXAIOOSXTWRSX W TIWNX LN TNUO TTXATTN ENIE AEWITO T

UW OXSOW MTWR TSX TIW OWXOWTXATSXO UA           ,ST SR EWI RNW SENIE TS A VA E XWOMVT ST EIN I TIW
.W ISUN NRWTIW XNUW ST MVOAUV



2.1.5 Common assault


EHE KRAI KT REHEH EGR RE KRARGKTHI RE             RR   IT        NHENHTE TRE K A          H    ,E G H E I T R T T H I
.R RIGIT GATHIEGTT'EUHAT RE ARTEHEEHR ITR GA TEH GUN G
                                                                     38
                                                                            i t pnts i nse n nsstn                     e ihe
es n i i srr i ee epnn ep i etr p ee iin n n iisi epnn t                  enei i ie n srr n                 , ti eni hsit


       Snyman Criminal Law 481; Burchell Criminal Law 760; Hunt Common Law Crimes 471-473.
32
       Kruger Combating Human Trafficking 423. Murder is defined as "the unlawful and intentional
       causing of the death of another human being" – Snyman Criminal Law 447. For a further
       discussion of this crime, see Burchell Criminal Law 667-671; Milton Common Law Crimes
       309-359; Hunt Common Law Crimes 323-368.
33
       The abbreviation "HIV" is commonly used to refer to the human immunodeficiency virus.
34
       In S v Nyalungu 2005 JOL 13254 T, an HIV-positive accused was, in addition to being convicted
       on a charge of rape, convicted of attempted murder for raping the complainant while knowing full
       well that he was HIV-positive; see also SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 16.
35
       Infectious diseases such as AIDS are common among persons trafficked for sexual exploitation –
       UNODC Toolkit 154; US Department of State 2008 www.state.gov 32, 34; US Department of
       State 2007 www.state.gov 28; Melvin Human Trafficking 28; Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007
       Trans-cultural Psychiatry 346; Harrold 2006 Charleston Law Review 101; Zimmerman et al 2006
       .lshtm.ac.uk 15.
36
       SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 16.
37
       Burchell defines this crime as the unlawful, negligent killing of another human being – Burchell
       Criminal Law 674; see also Snyman Criminal Law 451; Milton Common Law Crimes 363-401;
       Hunt Common Law Crimes 373.
38
       Snyman Criminal Law 460.

                                                  6 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1
                   39
.ie iin d ni        ie        ps n npt iir ns i ts gnni iin p d ni           t ie dsp est ep t e riit ns s stn e ep np
                                                                                       40
. neeipe iin             se      epnn iin     ie ts        i ie iin p         n se t        I W O W O W X O W T X AT S X O U A T

TIWNX SEI R NITWITNSIAVV MOWW TIW                      MIVAETMVV AITWR TSX AOOAMVT EIWXTIWXWTSXW UW OXSOW M

TSX WRAUOVW U             ,ST TIW LN TNU W TV TS TIW OWXOSIT TS AOOV TSX W RNXUSR SX AI NIOTXMUWI
                                            41
.LN TNU INIE SX EN ENIE TIWOMI                   ps n npt spn s te eehe ie epnn ips n n d ni                   t ie neets n
                                                                                                  42
.s neie se          pset ie       s n iin    ne r sei se           nrne nei ee iin ips n np NT I X W T W X W I W T S E
                                 43               44
I    U AI   O , AOW VAE M I T I AIR                    T TSX W AVOS RNXW T AOOVN ATNSI S SITNXU TIAT TINO NI

.W ST AOOAMVT SIOTNTMTWO TIW XNU


 IRR REHEH          RR    IT GR KRUUGTTHI ,GRA RE EREKHRE GAIGEHKT NNIGK T N                      E T EE R U TE H I GE HKT

GR   KHKCHI NHERRA TE T ERE HIGHE GA TEH TE EEG R KRAI KT GARNGEHR                                        'TEH NHENHTE TRE
. NIGHI TR EGU RE EHEGUUHIG THIT TR
                                                                   45
                                                           H   N        X U S T A O O A M VT I W R A U O V W S T T I NO T S A

MVR TIW          RAXW TS ATTN EWR OWXOSIO OISOISST TX WTXATSX TIXWATWIO TSS                              MXO EIWI TIW OWXO
            46
.WO AOW


2.1.6       Assault with intent to cause grievous bodily harm


f,PttPeaSfrtSfftoSuoSfSrfhPetufa tutretfhrdta ffP                   fttfPfhr     frhfPttPeaSffePathtudfh fPfhu SPtoftoSuoStro
.tehtSPoSttufh t uf,heSftSfttftStaafPftusP PSu s need ni ee ep sttss i h ii ,te n iin np
                                                         47
                                                                                                                  n e sttss i
einei ie nsstn ep ndest e               i isp     pn s pnt iisi iin tisin            sti rpedn iisi iin rnprnipsiep sniss i
                                                                                48
.is iin einei ie nsstn ep ndest e                  i isp       ie iin d ni        dei se re eit esi ,dstn ee nstn sh
es n i ,trnn n sniept hi ni                 si e nsin tsni einei


      the nature of the weapon or instrument used, the way in which it was used, the

39
      Milton Common Law Crimes 406-408, 420-428; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 15. Common
      assault is defined as "any unlawful and intentional act or omission (a) which results in another
      person's bodily integrity being directly or indirectly impaired, or (b) which inspires a belief in
      another person that such impairment of her bodily integrity is immediately to take place". Snyman
      Criminal Law 455; Hunt Common Law Crimes 429.
40
      SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 15; see also Zimmerman et al 2006 .lshtm.ac.uk 2, 10, 13-14,
      22; Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 345; Kreston 2007 Child Abuse
      Research in South Africa 39; IOM Breaking the Cycle 14.
41
      Burchell Criminal Law 684; Snyman Criminal Law 456.
42
      US Department of State 2007 www.state.gov 28; Haynes 2004 Hum Rts Q 226; Gajic-Veljanoski
      and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 341.
43
      SNYMAN CRIMINAL LAW 457. IN CONTRAST, LANSDOWN, BY WAY OF A SINGLE REFERENCE TO R V
      HANSON ,905 C & K 5 0489SUBMITS THAT TO ADMINISTER POISON WITH THE INTENT TO HARM A
      PERSON DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ASSAULT – LANSDOWN, HOAL AND LANSDOWN SPECIFIC OFFENCES
      1572.
44
      Hunt Common Law Crimes 437.
45
      Burchell Criminal Law 680, 686; Snyman Criminal Law 458; Milton Common Law Crimes
      422-428; Hunt Common Law Crimes 438-445.
46
      Burchell Criminal Law 687.
47
      Hunt Common Law Crimes 450; Snyman Criminal Law 461.
48
      Snyman Criminal Law 461-462; Burchell Criminal Law 688-691; Hunt Common Law Crimes
      451-453.

                                                               7 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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      degree of violence, the part of the body aimed at, the persistence of the attack, and
      the nature of the injuries inflicted, if any.49


rSf ttf t sr SPoSf Srf orSuf SfPSf tSf ttf orSf ufet udf SfPSf Sfuf su suS PSr cause grievous bodily harm.
                                                                                                                50
                                                                                                                     i
ndne hinpn ee i s t eii egspi ep ee egspi si s t ,ts nnt              iin einei ie nsstn tsni isp           t rpedne
                                                                                   51
. ep etisenn hinpn iin ips n np tieeit si iin d ni              si   ttnt ,nsstn        in sni iisi tnp est se
                                                                       52
neei esest sttss it spn stss i e nin ee ips n n rnpteet gsti nt rpetnnsi ee ep sttss i h ii
.iin einei ie nsstn ep ndest e      i isp    e   sei is se ips n ee nstnt


2.1.7 Extortion


The crime of extortion is committed where a person

      unlawfully and intentionally obtains some advantage, which may be of either a
      patrimonial or a non-patrimonial nature, from another by subjecting the latter to
      pressure, which induces her to hand over the advantage.53


i Phhthiu tfrhSuofetuftehffeoaPrheafs utte uftofSfufhr          frhfSf uPStfr ftoSt tdPStrofSrfhr suafeortaatoaf
.S PhhthiudftthSt tfSrfteh tSfSrfSfut fdu Podt rnprnipsiept
                                                 54
                                                                       si iipnsine d ni     t h ii ,rep nas r n
tsni st iin rped t ee ,riit ns isp      ep pnrp ts ses eti iin p s          nt e ep np ie e is e se s dseisen
                                                 55
.e tnpd nnt eei nes i sn ie iin rnprnipsiep hinpn ips n n d ni                 t spn epnn     eie np    n ep ,e te
nar e isi dn tnass sni d i nt te n spn iipnsinen iisi rieiet ep d ne pnnep eet e tsni nee sni h
                                                                       56
. n   tn etn ie iin p s     nt ep ie sh ne epnn nei ssiiep i nt             in s dseisen iisi ips n npt e is e
                                                                                                       57
. i nanpi ee ii t se sh s rpnttspn t ie nar e i iin d ni                    spiinp ie iin p    nen i        e iintn

49
      Snyman Criminal Law 462; see also SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 15; Burchell Criminal Law
      689-690; Hunt Common Law Crimes 452-453. For a discussion of the case law on factors
      indicating the intent to do grievous bodily harm, see Snyman Criminal Law 462, especially fn
      40-42.
50
      Burchell Criminal Law 690; Hunt Common Law Crimes 451.
51
      SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 14, 16.
52
      Zimmerman et al 2006 .lshtm.ac.uk 2, 10, 13-14, 22; Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007
      Trans-cultural Psychiatry 345; Kreston 2007 Child Abuse Research in South Africa 39; IOM
      Breaking the Cycle 14.
53
      Snyman Criminal Law 426; see also Burchell Criminal Law 826-832; Milton Common Law Crimes
      681-697; Hunt Common Law Crimes 652.
54
      Defeis 2003/2004 ILSA J Int'l & Comp L 488; Foundation against Trafficking in Women et al
      Human Rights Standards 6; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17; IOM Training of Trainers 30;
      Dougherty and Burke 2008 America 12; Brennan 2005 International Migration 42;
      Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 344; Morawska "Trafficking" 94;
      Shelley "Human Trafficking" 131; Weissbrodt and Anti-slavery International Abolishing Slavery
      31-32; Dottridge and Weissbrodt 1999 German Yearbook of International Law 270.
55
      SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17.
56
      SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17. Burchell views such threats to disclose embarrassing
      information as a form of pressure to obtain an advantage which is not legally due to the
      perpetrator – Burchell Criminal Law 829.
57
      The advantage that is being extorted need not be only of a patrimonial nature; other advantages
      such as sexual gratification also qualify – Burchell Criminal Law 831; Hunt Common Law Crimes
      653; see also s 1 of the General Law Amendment Act 139 of 1992.

                                                      8 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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.rpetnnsi ee ep iin np        n e naiepi ee t srret in ,n pns tisennt


A NI KH R TRGIH TEHH H TRETGRA E R T CHR                   NER IHU REHEH TETEH NERRHK TGRA E KH ,R R H R H E E

R    T E R RUUGTTHI R TRGIH R RGTE CGIA NNGAI K ,A R                      KE K     R H R G .E E G K     R      T E R EIHER RE R

. A I R KEGUHRTRER ERE TEHRH KRUURR NERRHK TH NHENHTE GT GR ART NRRRG IH T ,E E G K
                                                                                                                             58


TSXNAV LNRWO TSX WRTXATWXXNNSI EIN I OXSTXATTN ENIE VWENOVAT-S U O X W I W I O NL W                                  SMITWX
                                                                   59
.OXSUVWU NXWR TS ARRXWOO TINOUMXNORN TNSI NO XWCM



2.1.8 Crimen iniuria


,Phhr dtoafSrfBe hfuaa crimen iniuriaSfufdtaotS ff]rh[t sPt toaf"eoaPrheafPodftoSuoStroPaffhrotttStftofSfu
."r fs ttPh frhfPorSfu fsu tro ,t
                                   60                                                                           61
                                         ee ii         si n       rs pn    e nesei ntt hsit'e rnptee              hi ni   s nt
e need ni ee   si e eh hinpn s ips n np .ii t np                   n srr ns n e          sei      eei    eti ips n ee nstnt
tsni st tr ii ee e iin ,st dn seessen ep nee snit                       ee ii i st ee ds esp se s 'd e sint s d ni
               62
. t snn'd ni        t tnass     ee ii   si         n     rs pn      i nar n i nee sni tsni st sehsein 'e d ni
                                         63                                                             64
iin iesni ee e rp dsin rspit , tt ee .ep epnn rspi n rsi ee e eiinp tnass snit                               ei iin ne ee ee e
iini e ,rpn snei i .t p ne ep ednp'iin ips n ee rpenntt ips n npt e ine rpnine ie n iin d ni
iin rspretn n ee ie rnptss n iin d ni                  ,ii t i ne       se nsi ee d s nn rieen ep einpeni nisipee t
                                        65
.ps ss i ie ts        i ie tnass snite neeti isint "epee                  ee" in stn e ii t           e npe ep       e tnass
                                                                                                                              66
 rpetnnsin     ep inenn tsni rnprnipsiept                si      n ; nisd esp iisi        rs pt       ee iicrimen iniuria.
tsni st ,s ips n np           si s te   n need nin            e ii t np     n ep d e si eet e rp dsni ,rspiinp epn
                        67                    68                              69
,deinsp ti n rnnr ee ,nsdnt perr ee            n nnipee n tspdn senn             se pns ee rp dsin ne                se nsi eet
. s t-nn rieen        nttsent ep n ,tsni st niinpt

58
     SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17.
59
     See the discussion on extraterritorial jurisdiction in Kruger Combating Human Trafficking
     336-338.
60
     Burchell Criminal Law 746; see also Snyman Criminal Law 469; Milton Common Law Crimes
     492; Hunt Common Law Crimes 486.
61
     Burchell Criminal Law 749-753.
62
     Hunt Common Law Crimes 503-504.
63
  Hunt Common Law Crimes 501. Sexual abuse of the victim by the trafficker can also be punished as
     rape, compelled rape, sexual assault, and so forth, in terms of the Criminal Law (Sexual
     Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
64
  Snyman Criminal Law 472-473.
65
  US Department of State 2008 www.state.gov 13; US Department of State 2007 www.state.gov 23;
     Weissbrodt and Anti-slavery International Abolishing Slavery 34-35; Dottridge and Weissbrodt
     1999 German Yearbook of International Law 266; Hodgkin and Newell Implementation
     Handbook 527; Raymond 2002 Women's International Forum 492; GAATW Human Rights in
     Practice 13. The sexual "grooming" of potential victims involves those acts of a perpetrator, such
     as providing luxurious gifts and outings,that are aimed at facilitating the commission of an illegal
     sexual act with another person – Burchell Criminal Law 750.
66
  Burchell Criminal Law 750.
67
  Milton Common Law Crimes 513-514; Burchell Criminal Law 753; R v Holliday 1927 CPD 395.
68
  Milton Common Law Crimes 514.
69
  Examples of such surveillance are e-mail or telephone tapping and unauthorised accessing (also
     known as "hacking" – Buys and Cronjé Cyberlaw 320, 327) of electronic data – Burchell Criminal

                                                              9 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1



2.1.9 Criminal defamation


 GE EH E R E E R U E GU GA   I IHE U          T G R A I KCRIMEN INIURIATEH      AI RE I " RHRGA TE T GT KEGUGA IG

RHEGR RIT TR GAE EH        ARTEHE REGKE THAIR RE U TTHE KRAKHEAGAI GK TGRA AI GATHATGRA I N                                 I

."EGR EHN T TGRA
                    70




f t'ifttf h t toPattPStrof rhf tehff sehathPStrof s rSuhStf Pf su trofamah r ff )arrdf oP uf r f useSPStro(
Sfetfdt tottftoafSfufutSuu ff,duhP PSr fhrodehSfrfthffSuodtfSrfudsrtufPftthSt fSrffPS udfr f tdtheau
. tof rfthff Sfuf tthSt f ttf fuadf h f rSfu t e iin
                                                    71
                                                                 n s siepi nee sni t "rs nsi ee" in pn s pn
einprpnin    ie    nse iisi iin       n s siepi nee sni e iin rnprnipsiep                       sti ne n ie iin eei nn e
                                               72
.te neen eiinp iise iin ne r s esei ips n npt                      si n nispen h ii ii t np            n hine , inpn epn
' ep nas r n i e ep        ee d ni        t ,iini rped n e ep si ee e ep np ie egspn iin pnrsisi ee e d ni                  t
spn    pse nesp npt ep spn ,spn ii ndnt , s                   nt ep n r einpt iisi iini rnp ep             tnass tnpd nnt
isdn    nne nenpnn       ep )iin d ni         t(hi n eei          tn et ee iisi iini       ,rspi n rseit e repeeepsrii
                                     73
. nnn dn    eie iintn t issi eet


2.1.10 Fraud and related crimes


.PfS sthPaf uh etS uoSf uSfrdfetudfSrfae ufsu trotftoSrfSfufS PhhthitoafS PsfttfduhusStro dsi ee
                                                                                                              74


re eit esi iisi iin dsti     sgep ii e d ni      t spn n ee ips n n iipesei s tn rpe                  tnt ep eiinp ep t e
                                                                                           75
.srr ee ep s      sni ee nnnri ee se eei i epnn s                  niie t tsni st      e         in inpsispn e nsint iisi
 si    eti e ine en s n iin rpe       tn , nnnri dn            niie t stn ie pnnps i reinei s ips n ee d ni         t dspi
                                                         76
.e snpsi dn ge ep n snsi ees errepise i nt




      Law 753.
70
  Snyman Criminal Law 475; Milton Common Law Crimes 520; Hunt Common Law Crimes 518.
71
  Snyman Criminal Law 476. For a further discussion of this crime, see Milton Common Law Crimes
      524-535; Hunt Common Law Crimes 518-530.
72
   Milton Common Law Crimes 533; Snyman Criminal Law 476; Burchell Criminal Law 744; Hunt
      Common Law Crimes 527.
73
  Molo Songololo Trafficking in Children vi.
74
  UN.GIFT "Profiling the Traffickers" 12; IOM Breaking the Cycle 20; IOM Training of Trainers 22;
      Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 342; Shelley "Human Trafficking"
      128.
75
  Raymond 2002 Women's International Forum 497.
  f rrnf;21f"A rhtatoafSfufi Phhthiu t"rTif G.NUBreaking the Cyclef rrnf;11Training of Trainers f;19f,
76

      f 1117 uajPortitf Podf tSurP Sf -GPjthTrans-cultural Psychiatryte Pof"tfuaau f f ;232-231
      "i Phhthitoa f1111yP rodff;Women's International Forumf1113ttoafff;357CILSA uttth rdSfnf;
      ftaPtu froSu oPStroPa-PodfPoStAbolishing Slaveryfytjiuof;22-21r af.eordh.rrrf1115NUrOlff;11
      Trafficking in Persons fTreodPStrofPaPtotSfi Phhthitoaftofnr uof;62et alHuman Rights Standards
     artf.tSPSu.rrrf 1117rhftSPSuf f NtfOusP S uoSf;8artf .tSPSu.rrrf 1115NtfOusP S uoSfrhftSPSuf f;
      .1ouSf.Psae.ruh.Sharuh PtSu f1117ifufTeSe ufG resff;21

                                                              10 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

HAIHER ERE K TH TE EEGKCGAI REEU T                   H    RHI TR NERRH CARRA KEGUH RE EE                    I- E H R H I I T

REGKE KRARTGT THR          ,G R E H N E H R H A T T G R A U .ERRAR IH TR TE EEGKCHI NHUGREHNEHRHAT TGRAR U
    R ,RE ,E IRHERRI UHRAH              T UH AR RE     HAT GIR IHKHGRGAI RR         ,     IRAI KT HIHUHAT RE EETEH K

    E KT " HATR TR ARTEHE TE TEH RAH NHERRA EHNEHRGR TEH RGT                       TGRA REH ,A T U      A H N I GA R GT R

."IRHR ART H GRT GRTR REGKE GA TE TERE
                                                                                   77
                                                             RHT RE E KTR H             e ips n np hie se sh s i se
hi ni iine nsstnt iin siinp sniss , einei ees i                     s nt s     tpnrpntneisi ee ie s ips n n rnptee
                                                                                    78
. si n need nin           e   pss       ,rpngs nn ep ndne reinei s rpngs nn IAUWV                 ,O W NW O S T T X A M R O
TSXEWR X OXWOWITNIE OM I AENIE ST A RS MUWIT SEIN I WITANV TIW TSX ,TSXEWX                                      AIR MTTWXNIE
                                                                                                                              79
. ENIE AOWOATNSI NI TXATTNUA AVOS TNIR AOOVN ,XW RS MUWIT TS AISTIWRS MUWIT AO A EWIMNI
ep rpntnei tsni ,np ipsdn               ens neithine ips n ee seneit epen rsttrepit ep eii ,rep nas r n
s rpetnnsi ee ee s nispen e epenpi ep , epen                 ens neit ie eednpe nei e n s t st ds                  ens neit
. si n eti isin ses eti iin e ne npt ,ep eii np                     nt ,siinp ee



2.1.11 Slavery


dP f-of S Phhthitoaf Ptf Pf rdu of PothutSPStrof rhf taPtu f r f rdu o AthP uaatf Podf rSfu tf uhu f Srf fe P
.taPtu
          80
               i t iist srrperp sin ie n sp i hiniinp ep eei t sdnpi t pnneee tn st se na ti ee ne                        ee
     n stn ie rpetnnsin nnpis e np            es sni d i nt pn sin ie sh np             n e desii e p nse sh hi ni nes
.is se ips n ee


    E H TCONSTITUTION OF THE             REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA, EE UHRREC NERRGIHR                             AREU TGRH

RHERGT IH RE        ,TR RI RHET RAH U T H R              EHKTHI-RT RTGN I TGAI TE T AKRAKHEAGAI RI RHET

.HI I
                     81
         R EEREK NUW ST NTOWVT             XWATW TIW     X I XNEIT RSWO IST NIWIOIXNINIE TINO IMUA ,S E W L W X I

.T X N A I V AE A S M T I O OVALWX NI


A    T GR A    I K R I A GR HI      R     A GA T HE R T E        T R I R H E T GR E H E H IGT H E       T   EH KRAK           ET

. I K RTRU ET I RKEGUH GA GATHEA TGRA
                                                            82
                                                                 WO AO AI CMAVNTN I W        TA    T   T I AT    O V AL W X   T


77
  Snyman Criminal Law 532.
78
  For a discussion of the definitional elements of fraud, see Snyman Criminal Law 531-540; Burchell
      Criminal Law 833-844.
79
   For a discussion of the definitional elements of forgery and uttering, see Snyman Criminal Law
      540-543; Burchell Criminal Law 845-848.
80
  Picarelli "Historical Approaches" 26; US Department of State 2007 www.state.gov 8; US Department
      of State 2008 www.state.gov 1; Dottridge and Weissbrodt 1999 German Yearbook of
      International Law 260; Nowak Civil and Political Rights 195; Weissbrodt and Anti-slavery
      International Abolishing Slavery 19.
81
  Section 13 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996.
82
  Viljoen Human Rights Law 26-27; Weissbrodt and Anti-slavery International Abolishing Slavery 3;
      Dottridge and Weissbrodt 1999 German Yearbook of International Law 243-244; SALRC 2008
      www.justice.gov.za 17; Bassiouni International Crimes 419-420; Bassiouni 1990/1991 NYUJ Int'l
      L & Pol 447; Kruger Combating Human Trafficking 168-170. For a comprehensive analysis of
      enslavement as an international crime, see Bassiouni 1990/1991 NYUJ Int'l L & Pol 445-491.
      Dugard provides a further discussion of customary international law as the common law of the

                                                           11 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

V UW AMOW NITWXIATNSIA ,VALWX XNEIT TS OXSOW MTW O ENLWO AVV OTATWO TIW NITWXIATNSIAV                                                XNUW

TNSIAV UMT AVOS TIW NITWXIA ,AV SXRWX ST A OTATWIV                                TIW RSUWOTN              VWE XNUWO LNSVATW IST S
            83
. SXRWX          I SLWX NITWXIATNSIAVWRWX NOW UMXNORN TNS IATNSIAV                              SMXTO UA         ,I S T I W X E S X R O N
SI ST AI WIWU              ST NT NI TIW OXSOW MTNNITWXIATNSIAV                  SUUMI AO TIW AEWIT ST TIW" A TNIE                 , XNUWO
                      84
."AVV UAIENIR


f toudf Sfuf tSPSetf rhtaPtu f fPtf PSSPf ,rof PddtStroius cogensrfthff hrotttStf rhf su u sSr f or                                tf toff ,
.toSu oPStroPafaPrftof utsuhSfrhfrfthfforfdu raPStrofttfsu                        tSSud
                                                                                          85




GT ARR AHHIR           ,TRU ET I RGA GATHEA TGRA I K R NRRGTGRA RE RI RHET                                 R GA I K I E GEGHI T E H E

ATHEA TGRA I RGAI RI RHET                       R    A G RTRU ET I R EHKRIAGGATHEA TGRA I K TR                        H IHTHEUGAHI GE

         E I I .E E G K                             T E R GRA GAKEGUH EGAIR
                                                                                               86
     I                       A I   R        R                                    NNIGK T        re eit esi iisi iin desii e p nse
                                                     87
nespit e eh iin              ee ti srrpesni nstie spi sh eie iin ne                        ee sh e eneprepsi ee einpesi ees
  2556iin          ,te npr ee ee ii t re ei .e desii e p nsCONSTITUTION MOTSUAX "                                       SITNXUO TIAT

S I O T NT M T NS I S X        OTWIT ENTI TIWMIVWOO NT NO NI SION ,W O M U V N                  X VAE NI TIW NITWXIATNSIAV VAE NO
                                       88
."A X V NA U W I T O AI A T ST


PaPtotSf Sfttf hPhia reodf OeaP d
                                                       89
                                                            neen s nt iisi t sdnpi t se einpesi ees np                    n hi ni t
. eneprepsin          e iin sh e desii e p ns


EE GK     A       R    T E R KRUURA I R KEGUH GA A T E                     T R I R HE T GR            HR N GT H T E H K R A K I    R GR I

I IH RI RHET REHA TH T RRCR IR ART GAK E E G K                              A K E GU GA         I I    R     R    T E R K EEHAT     ,I R
. GU HR EE GK A K R U U R A I R K E                                T E R IH IGAI RGTE
                                                                                           90
                                                               R                                A IS XWOSXTWR          AOW ST ,V O S A

IWNTIWX TIW           ,W L W X T I W V W O O I .XNUW           SMVR UW TXA WRSI TSX OM I A                   OM     WOOTMV OXSOW MTN

I NITS ST OVALWX             IAO TAVVW UNIWR TIAT TIW                  XNUWMXT ST VAE IAO RWTWXVWENOVATMXW ISX A                         S




     international community – Dugard International Law 29-33.
83
  Dugard International Law 156-157; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17.
84
  Dugard International Law 156.
85
  Dugard International Law 43-44; Bales and Robbins 2001 Human Rights Review 19; Viljoen Human
     Rights Law 27-28; Devenish Constitution 77; Brownlie Public International Law 488-489;
     Weissbrodt and Anti-slavery International Abolishing Slavery 3; Rijken Trafficking in Persons 74;
     Dottridge and Weissbrodt 1999 German Yearbook of International Law 243; Nowak Civil and
     Political Rights 197. For a discussion of the concept ius cogens in international law, see Dugard
     International Law 43-46.
86
  Dugard International Law 51-52; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17.
87
  The monist approach maintains that international law may be directly applied by domestic courts
     without an act of adoption by the courts or transformation of international law into local law by
     legislation – Dugard International Law 47.
88
   Section 232 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996; see also SALRC 2008
     www.justice.gov.za 17.
89
  Dugard International Law 160.
90
  Snyman Criminal Law 401-482, Burchell Criminal Law 661-908, Milton Common Law Crimes 1-817
     and Hunt Common Law Crimes 1-785 do not include the common law crime of slavery in their
     criminal law textbooks – see also SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17.

                                                                     12 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1
                 91
.RWOMWTMRW st pnneee tn               e einpesi ees        , i nse iinpn epn   n spesn    iisi iin np    n e t sdnpi
hiniinp ep eei iin ne            ee sh np       n ,rehndnp . t rspi e desii e p nse ne        ee sh ,nstie spi sh
erp sin nstnt ie rpetnnsin rnprnipsiept ede dn                 e is se n stn     e srrp ,se ties        ,e t sdnpi nse
.ips n ee sni d i nt t sennpis e se enn t ie n spiinp pntnspnin


tSf ttf hrohududf SfPSf Sfuf hr        rof aPrf h t utf dtthettudf Phrtuf P uf orSf hr s ufuotttuf f ,irf hrohaedu
hr     rofaPrfh t utff,trrutu f.uoreaffSrfduPafPdufePSua frtSffSfufhr saudtStutfrhffe PofS Phhthitoa
toPaf PhStf hr        tSSudf de toaf Sfuf hPof huf etudf tof hu SPtof ht he tSPohutf Srf s rtuheSuf tr uf rhf Sfuf h t
.fe PofS Phhthitoafs rhutt


2.2       STATUTORY OFFENCES


T REEHAKHR TR RE H GRTGAI RT T TRE TEH                   RH RE    A U HE ,KEGUHR N     ET EERU KRU U RA I R

E U A E KEGUHR RTEHE TE AGKCGAI                     KTGRGTGHR ERER GARRIRHI GA TE EENERRHK TH NHENHTE TR

.GIHEHIEEGKCGAI U T H KRARTE
                                           92




2.2.1 Riotous Assemblies Act 17 of 1956


.E EEGKCGAI RKHA EGRARRIRHI GA
                                                                                                                93
                                                 E U A TI        IHATR   EH RETHA GA U HE RE TE EEGKCGA          IW      T
W ENTI W EIS WNTIWX            SIOONXENRW TS NI VMRW TISO VR TIWXWTSXW UW                AOTOXSOW MTNSI IWT OISM

AIR STIWXO TS NI NTW SX             SUU N EWR OWXOSI SX EISXNUW AEANIOT A TXATTSTIWXO TS                    SUUNT A
                                                    94
.OT OM I A LN TNU SUUNT A XNUW AEANI                     IWT   Riotous Assemblies Act U T H RHI 0921 RE 02
THUNTGAI         TH REEHAIHER ERE       T R RHII         R TR NERRHK ,UNIGRE TEGR N ENRRHR KKHRRE IIT TR             KKR

.EGKCGAITR KRUUGT E U A TE E
                                         95




91
  SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 17. Although a statute cannot be abolished by disuse, our courts
     may rule that a part of common law or customary law has become abrogated by disuse. For
     example, in Green v Fitzgerald 1914 AD 88, the court found that the rule that adultery is a crime
     had been abolished by disuse – Kleyn and Viljoen Beginner's Guide 83, 89; see also Du Plessis
     Inleiding 244-245.
92
  Smith "South Africa's Strategy" 6; Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 9; Kassan "Trafficking in Children"
     18-10.
93
   See Shelley "Human Trafficking" 118, 120; Obokata Trafficking of Human Beings 46; Raymond
     2002 Women's International Forum 493; Foundation against Trafficking in Women et al Human
     Rights Standards 5; Singh 2004 CILSA 343; UN.GIFT "Profiling the Traffickers" 8.
94
  IOM Counter-trafficking 89; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 20.
95
  Section 18(2) Riotous Assemblies Act 17 of 1956: "Any person who – )s(conspires with any other
     person to aid or procure the commission of or to commit; or ) (incites, instigates, commands, or
     procures any other person to commit any offence, whether at common law or against a statute or
     statutory regulation, shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to the punishment to
     which a person convicted of actually committing that offence would be liable."

                                                            13 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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2.2.2      IDENTIFICATION ACT 68 OF 1997


f ifuIdentification Act ufet utf treSff Ph thPof htSteuotf Podf su trotf rfrf P uf aPrheaa f Podf f 2557rhf f 68
f26tof Sfuf yusehathf rhf treSff Ph thPf Srf rhSPtof Pof tduoStS f hP df PhSu f Sfuf Pauf rhf f su           PouoSa f uttduoS
. uP tf fPtf huuof PSSPtoud r sinpt e iin is se ips n ee ins
                                 96
                                                                                      isin ep s inp iin -iinpn pe n
iini     si n tsnnntt s i ,ep spn            npn i e rettntt ee e tsni nsp t ,p t e iin p d ni                     t nei ii ns
                                      97                                                                     98
rpetnnsin         e inp t e ii t sni . n        rp teen    ep sr ie dn inspt ,ee need ni ee ,se


I IRK UHATR TGTT K EIR              AI TE RHRAEGRK TH R IGI GIHATE EEGKCGAI                IHATR K ,A U           AT K   RHRG

.GA KRATERI RRHE TEHUR GA REIHE TR U GAT RE TE EEGKCHI NHERRA X O M I X S O W M T NS I T S O
                                                                                     99

                                                                                          100
. TWXUO ST TINO A T U TS UW OSOONUVW NI SIRM T RSWO IST OWW                                     I NO V S S O I S V W T S X   T
SOW MTW ATNSI RWONEIWR TS OX SUOXWIWIONLW VWENOV TO TIW IWWR TSX USXWTXATTN EWXO INEIVNEI

.TXATTN ENIE OXS WOO U AEWITO RMXNIE TIW IAV A TO SUUNTTWRTIW LAXNWT ST XNUN



2.2.3 Immigration Act 13 of 2002


TEH    ,E I H E R R R R G A T H E A T G R A I      RR     EH TE      E EGK C HI    KEA K         RHR R E HEH NHERRA G

  NERRGRGRAR RE TEHIMMIGRATION               ACT( 5005 RE 02IMMIGRATION ACT) OFTEN VIOLATED. THIS ACT
                                                                             101
REGULATES ENTRY INTO AND DEPARTURE FROM                    SOUTH AFRICA.           XSOW     M T NI E O AT NS I A V I I W T
                                                                                                102
 W O S T I L N T NS I O NI T I W       A O M T I S X NT   XWOSXTWR         S AS    v Sayed            AI   S V SAWATKANNI
                                                                            103
.XWVATWR A TNLNTNWO-X IMUAI TXATTN ENIETWXUO ST TINO A T TS


r f dusP Sf h r f treSff Ph thPf tof hroS PtuoStrof rhf Sfttf PhSf          P f f , u Ptof tof ,i Phhthiu tf rfrf uoSu
.Sfu uhr ufhufs rtuheSud
                                104
                                      rp tee nei ep ii t e nenn t ee i iipnn iin                sa    s    inp    e ,dip ee i
           105                                                                                                             106
. eeiit      .ep nrspi pe        s neseipi ,pn s e e , ps n npt e ine stt ti iin p d ni               t ie nes i neinp
, si iin         sa   s   inp   e      rp tee nei t s te tiepi , i t nee sni s te t np                     es tn     e iin sni


96
  Section 15 Identification Act 68 of 1997; see also ss 3, 7(1) and 8.
97
  Sections 18(1)(d)-(e) Identification Act 68 of 1997.
98
  Section 18(2)(a) Identification Act 68 of 1997.
99
  Haynes 2004 Hum Rts Q 226; US Department of State 2007 www.state.gov 20; IOM Training of
      Trainers 30; Melvin Human Trafficking 29; Kanics and Reiter 2001 Helsinki Monitor 112;
      Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 339; Morawska "Trafficking 100";
      Kruger Combating Human Trafficking 150-151.
100
   Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5.
101
   Section 49 Immigration Act 13 of 2002; IOM Counter-trafficking 87.
102
    In S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008, 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court),
      convictions were secured in terms of s 49(6) of the Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
103
   NPA 2010b www.pmg.org.za 12; NPA 2010c www.pmg.org.za 1.
   Section 49(1))o( Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
104
105
   Section 49(1)(a) Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
106
   UN.GIFT "Profiling the Traffickers" 11; Harrold 2006 Charleston Law Review 101; Melvin Human
      Trafficking 22; UNODC Toolkit xiv-xv; Lansink 2006 Agenda 47; Kamidi Legal Responses to
      Child Trafficking 10.

                                                          14 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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                            107
. n ee ee i een insp              ips n ee seneit hie eeh ee i n r ei se                 nes epn eenp ep s , e s             i ee
                                                                                                                       108
. e d e si ee e ii t sni           si ee need ni ee s te n     rp teen            ep sr ie een insp ee i epn eenp        rep
                                                              109
, iin e nenn e s ee se                   s nii ee epn eenpt         ' eeiit 28iin rnes ii t s                 sa   s         e
                 110                                                                                                             111
. nei    rp tee    . in inpsispn n rist tnt iisi tip eenei tneinennt spn enn n ie ninp ips n npt
i t iinpn epn ts            iin    iisi iin ne nei tseni eet ep iintn e nennt spn ets n nei ie                      ttss n
.e ne npt


AI TEH TE EEGKCGAI N ENRRH RE H HK TG I R E E G K G I R E R E T E H R E E                          NTGA I    AI    E G GA K

. G RE TE EEGKCHERRE TEH URI R RNHE AI KEGUH
                                                                                         112
                                                                    EH RETHA N ET              hi ni ,dsni    nes nee sni
iiesi s en s nt         p    ee ep iipnsine ee e n s t te st ie e is e s rsttrepi ep ie npett                      ep npt h
                                                                                 113
 nse s te n rpetnnsin se np iin ,rsttrepiIMMIGRATION ACT.


ifufPhSfhe Sfu fhroSPtotftutu Pafs rttttrotfh t toPatttoaftaauaPafhrodehSf uaPSudfSrfsPttsr StfPodfrSfu f
.rhf hrodehSf rfthff S Phhthiu tf P uf rhSuof aetaS f ,drhe uoSt
                                                                           114
                                                                                 i ist nne pnrepin iisi s p nsin ep
st n     ipsdn         ens neit spn stn          hine ips n npt iin tn dnt ep iin p d ni                    t nseeei npett
                                             in Immigration Acth t toPattutf Sfuf etuf rhf tehff hPh thPSudf r ff
                                       115
. einpesi ees     ep npt nes i
.hPatthtudfsPttsr Stfhr fSfufse srtufrhfh rtttoafPftreSffPh thPofhr du fr fPttttStoafPftthSt fSrfdrftr
                                                                                                                              116


t ipsdn ep   nei ii 'pe            n ee e rettntt ee e seeiinp rnpteee spiinp rped t ee rpei                   it s rnptee
                                                                     117
. s t n ep s p nsin rsttrepi , ens nei ep e s                 se       ii t rped t ee           si n stn hinpn ,yeis i
rnprnipsiept stn s tn ipsdn             ens neit ep hinpn iini ie                iin ipsdn ep     nei ii ens neit e iin p
                                               118
.d ni   t st s iee ep neeipe ee iin                  rp tee nei e sr ie esp inspt                si n ,rep iintn e nennt

107
   Section 49(2) Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
108
   SECTION 49(3) IMMIGRATION ACT 13 OF 2002.
109
   The aiding, abetting, assisting, enabling or in any manner helping of a foreigner by, for example,
      "entering into an agreement with him or her for the conduct of any business or the carrying on of
      any profession or occupation" in terms of s 42(1)(iii) of the act is criminalised. On 18 March 2010,
      two accused were convicted in the unreported case of S v Sayed (case no. 041/2713/2008) in
      the Durban Regional Court on two charges of aiding and abetting foreigners in terms of s 49(6) of
      the Immigration Act 13 of 2002. The convictions were for entering into a debt-bondage
      agreement in Durban with Thai women recruited in Thailand, to pay the accused R60 000
      generated from prostitution activities at the brothel, whereafter the women were allowed to retain
      some of the profit for themselves.
110
   Section 49(6) Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
111
    UN.GIFT "Human Trafficking" 10; US Department of State 2011 www.state.gov 328; US
      Department of State 2008 www.state.gov 27; Shelley "Human Trafficking" 132; Raymond 2002
      Women's International Forum 492.
112
   Singh 2004 CILSA 345; Shelley "Human Trafficking" 132.
113
    Section 49(10) Immigration Act 13 of 2002: "Anyone who through offers of financial or other
      consideration or threats, compels or induces an officer to contravene this Act or to breach such
      officer's duties shall be guilty of an offence." See also SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 20.
114
   Section 49(15) Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
115
   Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5.
116
   Section 49(15)(a) Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
117
   Section 49(15)(b) Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
118
   Haynes 2004 Hum Rts Q 226; US Department of State 2007 www.state.gov 20; IOM Training of
      Trainers 30; Melvin Human Trafficking 29; Kanics and Reiter 2001 Helsinki Monitor 112;
      Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 339; Morawska "Trafficking" 100;

                                                         15 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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             119
.     retn         tsni st , ns h ii pn sin      ttsnt ..."dissp se re eit esi iisi ii t sni ent eei ,rehndnp
e iin p ipsdn se            nei ii ,ep ntipsni ee , ee ep iin nee tnsi eeiin rpeinni ee e d ni                          t e ips n
                   120
." ens neit


rfthfff,nr ufhr s ufuotttufauattaPSttuf uPte utfP ufSfu uhr ufouududfSrfPdd uttfSfutufh t toPafPhSt
.S Phhthitoafh haufP ufrhSuofhr          tSSudfde toafSfu



2.2.4 Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997


TEH    , NIRGT TGRAEGK IIT ERE I              R E H EH TE EEGKCHI RNHKG A                      K       RHR     R EHEH     NHRNIHG

    NERRGRGRAR GA TEHBASIC          CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT ACT( 0992 RE 22BASIC CONDITIONS OF
EMPLOYMENT ACT.EGAI NNIGK TGRA U T )
                                                    121
                                                          T NO T S I W O M X O S O W S T T I NO A T



       GIVE EFFECT TO THE RIGHT TO FAIR LABOUR PRACTICES REFERRED TO IN SECTION 23(1)
       OF THE CONSTITUTION BY ESTABLISHING AND MAKING PROVISION FOR THE REGULATION
                                           122
       OF BASIC CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT.


f,Sfuf PhSf tuStf        tot e f u sar    uoSf tSPodP dtf uaP dtoaf Pf Poauf rhf aPhre f                       PSSu t f ,Phhr dtoaa
,tohaedtoaf Pdt e frr itoaffre t
                                           123                124               125                      126                    127
                                              ,ednpi      n     ,t n     nsdn         ns einpds t            .se seess nsdn
                                                                                                   128
.ssei e iintn rped t eet spn ne             ee i d e sin            e s esp ips n ee nstnt


I     R E     TRER ERE        E AIH RETR NERRHK TH NHENHTE TEGR                       KT U T       H     RHI ,R A R H C   HATITK

TEGR    ETGKIH RE T GR EHIHR AT TR ,G E R T E .I NERKHRR EGAI TEH TE EEGKCGAREEHAKHR KRUUGTTHI I

. EEREUR RE EREKHI I
                                                                                         129
                                R GKGTIT NEREG GTR IIGR TE T TEH KT H NI                   SIW UA TSX-IS ,S X W S L W X U

    WR RWUAIR SX NUOSOW TSX ,MOWT ST OSUWSIW WVOW                        ANT SX TSX TIW UWIWTNINO SX IWX SEI UWIWT
             130
. VAUSMX           'O SIV TIXWW     WAXOTSX TIWOW STTWI WO N TIW UARNUMU OWIAVT                                 ,W E X W T TA U V X




      Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5; UNODC 2009 www.unodc.org 21.
119
   Section 49(15) Immigration Act 13 of 2002.
120
   Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5.
121
   SOCA Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za 2.
122
   See s 2 and the long title Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997; IOM Counter-trafficking
      88.
123
   Section 9 Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.
124
   Section 10 Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.
125
   Section 22 Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.
126
   Section 14 Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.
127
   Section 20 Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.
128
   GAATW Human Rights in Practice 14, 16; Devenish Commentary 54; Nowak Civil and Political
      Rights 201.
129
    Section 48(1) Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997: "Subject to the Constitution, all
      forced labour is prohibited." See also SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 21.
130
    Section 48(2) Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997; see also SALRC 2008
      www.justice.gov.za 21.

                                                              16 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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                  131
,NUOXNOSIUWIT       .WR VAUSMXWO ST OXSVSIEWR TSX NI OWXNSMO AO EIN I NO NIARWCMATW


.THKT KEGIIEHAGKE RNHKGEGK IIT NERRGRAR GA TEGR                    KT RETEHEH          EH    IRR NERRG        ,H K R A I I T R
,TH ER 02 RE KEGII AIHE TEH IH TEH HUNIRTUHAT RE                                                     )0(82 H K T G R A R
                                                                                                                           132
                                                                     RE TEH    KT NEREG GTR

 INVR NI TIW A U S M X T S W U O V S       T I W V W OA X T U W I T S T R O SUTANIWR TXSU TIWWR WOT NT A OWXUNT N
                                                                              133
. spi ti n ep ns isps sni d i nt ,trepit ,e s dnpi t ee OWXTSXUAI W                 I NV R X W I   Ad rlo ed ager A
ATW S RS ESXE NIAOOXSOXNOVS WR TT TIW              UA IST UW WUNT NO OTNOMVATWR TIA                , WAXO 04 TS 02 AEWR
                                                                              134
. O EWVVUWNIE AT XNOE'T OVA WO TIW             INVRTSX TIWNX AEW SX TIA             TSX   ,I NO O X S I NU NT NS I       AI T
                                                                                                                   135
. WUNVNTAX OWXLN INVRXWI TSX TSX WR TN EWXO EIS TXATTN UW MOWR AEANIOT TXAT ,WRAUOVW


f ttforSfduhtoudftofSfuf"hr hudfaPhre "ifufhrohusSf Basic Conditions of Employment Act in any other
                                  136
South African legislation.              einpesi ees as esp 2521 in        n e i ee e           epnn      s esp e iin
                                                                                                                          137
. eennpe ee repnn          as esp t ti         einpesi ees i snnnrin     15 .npese tsi ee              eednei ee ye
                            138
, ennep ee ie nndne ti            hep     een h iiesi neetnei se       edsp s i "iin e ti e            epnn      s esp t
 i t iirn e s esp rpsni nn t ne               ee e is se ips n ee ."h iiesi s p se                    gsti ne rnetsi ee
,t e eei rnp ep         tnpd nnt h ee i si spn ne rn n             i sttss it hinpn ips n n rnptee ,tnnesp et
iipnsit se eiinp nenpn dn           nstspnt ie rnp ep       tnpd nnt h iiesi n ee s p i ne rnetsin                 ep tsni
            139
.tnpd nnt


 EH IHATR GA THEUR RE T RRHK TH TE EEGKCGAIGT GR NRRRG IH TR NE                                ,R K R A K I I H TBASIC
CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT ACT .TEGR                   KT I     R E NERRGRGRAR GA ERE KRATE RHAGAI TEH

A RHEGR R E U A AKHR         EH AHKHRR ET GTE T RTEGAIHAT RHATH TEH KRAKHEA EHU GAR ,R R H R H E E

RE RAIT THEU RE GUNEGRRAUHAT RGIHR ERE                  U    GU UREHEH R TEGR           KT NER     , ,TE EEGKCGAI K RHR
.RAR IGRK RRHI
                                                                               140
                        RRHE RHAGAI TEH NERRGRGTEEHH TH ER ERE KRAT



2.2.5   Child Care Act 74 of 1983


131
   Section 93(2) Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.
132
   For a further discussion of this section, see SOCA Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za 2; Dawes, Bray and
     Van der Merwe Child Well-being 249, 255-258.
133
   Section 50(2)(b) Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997; Dawes, Bray and Van der Merwe
     Child Well-being 249.
134
   Section 43(2) Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.
135
   For a discussion of these types of exploitation, see Kruger Combating Human Trafficking 72-75.
136
   SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 21.
137
   This convention defines forced labour as "all work or service which is exacted from any person
     under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself
     voluntarily." (A 2 International Labour Organization Convention No. 29 Concerning Forced
     Labour (1930).
138
   Devenish Commentary 54; Nowak Civil and Political Rights 201. Currie and De Waal Bill of Rights
     313 endorse this view by emphasising that the key definitional feature of forced labour is
     involuntariness.
139
   IOM Training of Trainers 24; UN.GIFT "Demand for Forced Labour" 2.
140
   The maximum penalties for the contravention of the provisions in this act are set out in s 93 Basic
     Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997.

                                                        17 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1



f PaSfreaff Sfuf s rttttrotf rhf SfuChild Care Act (f 2582rhf Child Care Act) repealed in totofh f Sfu
Children's ActfSfufPhSf P ftStaaf,1121Ps taff2roff1119rhff28used by the prosecution in trafficking cases
                                     141
occurring prior to this date.              iin ,e    ee si iin rpeinni ee se             hn spn e ni pne Child Care Act
ips n n ni pne spn ,et s ps n .t e s st dn nisd esp iehsp t ni pnenp                                      es tn dsp est ep
ipnsi nei e ni pne ii t sni                si n stn ie - e rpei i ee iin                , inpn epn .ts gnnin ie nar e isi ee
                                                                                               142
.ipnsin ips n n ni pne-rpetnnsin rnprnipsiept hie nar e in se                                      t enn iin sni , e s      i ee
                                                                        143
rpei in iin ne              npn s tnass nar e isi ee e ni pne                 i     si iinpn epn e srr nsi ee e nstnt
.hinpn ni pne hnpn ips n n                  ep tsni nar e isi ee


2.2.6         CHILDREN'S ACT 38 OF 2005


 I K        EH     A I E H HA T GT IHI T R R N HK GI       EI TE       T K E GII E H A         A IGA H R GT E T E H R T         AG

,G I E T R E           AE HKI E      T GR A R E I A GR H E R
                                                                                                                          144
                   U                                               I   0984 RRA GA TEH RRGRT AKH R I GI I                    ehr
CHILDREN'S ACT( 5002 ST 24 Children's ActVRXWI IR OXSTW TNSI ST INXWEMVATWO TIW                                         AXW A     )
                          145
. SUOXWIWIONLWV                 ir af ehr eo i o ed af ehrS CHILDREN'S ACT rffrAe ea Ar eo i NO TS ENLW
                                                                                  146
 0991 lhed af Ah ge ri od Aaieo ire i ehr CONSTITUTION.                             I NO T T W I     WO   X W AT W R NI T I W S T
      147
A T      T ST A SX RWVNUWXATW IWEVW             NOATNSI ST TIW AUMOWNI VMRW TIW              XNUNIAV AXW NI SOWXATNSI AIR

hn st            i eiinpt hie de seisp i nspn ep iin rnpteet h ii rspneis pntreet                             i nt st    INVR U
        148
.ni          : pes i ie     nse "s stn" in sni n ent


    any form of harm or ill-treatment deliberately inflicted on a child, and includes –
    (a)           assaulting a child or inflicting any other form of deliberate injury to a
    child;
(b)      sexually abusing a child or allowing a child to be sexually abused;
(c)              bullying by another child;
(d)              a labour practice that exploits a child; or
(e)              exposing or subjecting a child to behaviour that may harm the child psychologically




141
   Schedule 4 to the Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-10.
142
   Section 50(1) Child Care Act 74 of 1983.
143
    Section 50A(1) Child Care Act 74 of 1983: "'Commercial sexual exploitation' means the
     procurement of a child to perform a sexual act for a financial or other reward payable to the child,
     the parents or guardian of the child, the procurer or any other person."
144
   Section 25(2) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948); see also Bassiouni 1990/1991 NYUJ
     Int'l L & Pol 482; Brownlie and Goodwin-Gill Human Rights 23.
145
   Long title of, and preamble to, the act; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 2-313; Boezaart
     Child Law 3. For a discussion of the trafficking provisions contained in the Children's Act 38 of
     2005, see 3.1 below.
146
   Long title of, and preamble to, Children's Act 38 of 2005; see also Human "Theory of Children's
     Rights" 243-290; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 14-15.
147
   Section 305 Children's Act 38 of 2005; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 303-306.
148
   Section 305(3) Children's Act 38 of 2005; Minnie "Sexual Offences" 540-541.

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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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                                            149
                    or emotionally.


R     EH TR   AI E UGIT UHU HEAIHER                   T    IRR N EHATE T ART RAIT RTE          T E   R     HHA EHNRETHI G

. EEGKCGAIGARRIRHI GA KEGII TE
                                           150
                                              nsp ee iin ips n ee rpenntt ni pne spn e ine naretn ie iin
s esp ,tsni st riit ns se                 tnass s stn ,e ii t sni )2(219ipnsi nei rpei                         in   e tnni ee -
                                                                                                         151
.se n pns tisennt iisi spn rtinie ee ns i se n ei ees i isp                           s ,nar e isi ee          Th d drAe ai Aoi
e roe -ehr rfa r ir oaag re ea ar daid o eh ao rieog rdaaid i g e rd oie ea Ao rl er d oha gg
                                            152
.e off Aere Ah ge ri i ehr Ao r



2.2.7 Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998


A REIHE TR KRUUGT RE RHRHE I NHERRAR G IRHR TEH KRRNHE TGRAREI AGRHI KEGUH GARR ,A R E R E T G

TGRH HK        RH RE TEH HEEHK E G U H                GR    KE   IIHA I GA I R    KRU     T    REI     A GR HI       KT   .KEGUHR
,NHETGRHRE TEHGE KEGUGA I H                       I       IER NR     AI     HK    RHGRA   RE   TEHRH      KEGUGA REI AGR T

HIGRAR        AI AI H N ARGRA RRHE E ,I THRT THKEARIRIT HEEGKGHAT                          RH RE TEH ,EHRR EKHE IAHRR

.HRHA KRATGAHATR
                        153
                          tin     ist s erin se eeedsi dn srrpesni rep ii t pnstee iin np                           es gsti nn ti
s     n    si n   esi ee iin epese tsi ee se                 iin rpennn t e np        n psiinp iise rse ti ee ee i iin
                        154
. e d ss np        es         en np se a ts               sp tn ii t enh rsps e       e NDPP V MOHAMED:AO TSVVSEO


          IT IS COMMON CAUSE THAT CONVENTIONAL CRIMINAL PENALTIES ARE INADEQUATE AS
          MEASURES OF DETERRENCE WHEN ORGANISED CRIME LEADERS ARE ABLE TO RETAIN
          THE CONSIDERABLE GAINS DERIVED FROM ORGANISED CRIME, EVEN ON THOSE
          OCCASIONS WHEN THEY ARE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE... . [I]T IS NOW WIDELY ACCEPTED IN
          THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY THAT CRIMINALS SHOULD BE STRIPPED OF THE
          PROCEEDS OF THEIR CRIME, THE PURPOSE BEING TO REMOVE THE INCENTIVE FOR
                                     155
          CRIME, NOT TO PUNISH THEM.


f ifttfPss rPhfffPtfhuuofPdrsSudfh fSfuPrevention of Organised Crime Act (f 2558rhf f 212Prevention
                                 156                                                                                      157
of Organised Crime Act.)               ,E eh ehr era o e af Ar i il ehr dAar lr af a loi dre A er                            ehr
,od       oAererr il drAh ,oAe Aaer d eo ard ddrrd                               rgoere ea a loi dre A er oAe e e rd



149
   Section 1 Children's Act 38 of 2005; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 2; Minnie "Sexual
     Offences" 540-541.
150
    Obokata Trafficking of Human Beings 46; Raymond 2002 Women's International Forum 493;
     Kreston 2007 Child Abuse Research in South Africa 39; SALRC 2004 www.doj.gov.za 1.
151
   IOM Breaking the Cycle 14-15; US Department of State 2008 www.state.gov 5; GAATW Human
     Rights in Practice 122.
152
   Minnie "Sexual Offences" 540-541.
153
   Kruger Organised Crime 1, 3-4.
154
   Kruger Organised Crime 1.
155
   NDPP v Mohamed 2002 2 SACR 196 (CC) 203-204 para 15-16.
156
   For an in-depth discussion of this act, see Kruger Organised Crime 11-162; Burchell Criminal Law
     970-1019.
157
   Preamble Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998; Kruger Organised Crime 9.

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                                                                                                 158
. gorier il oie oddre fa fr er r-eaira , rgoere affriArd-loil                                          Th d oAe A e iog drd
h n i ie en s n "np           es esee"epese tn np       n sni d i nt se           n ent s


       any formal or informal ongoing organisation, association, or group of three or more
       persons, which has as one of its activities the commission of one or more criminal
       offences, which has an identifiable name or identifying sign or symbol, and whose
       members individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of
       criminal gang activity.159


, TURAIE
                  160                                          161                   162
                        ,dpsi se   wse     np snphn ,nshnt           se   n e sis          pnrepi iisi epese tn np            es
rp    sp i e ep np ie            s n isen    nes   ,epesrt spn enpnst ee i stten sin                    h ii is se ips n ee
           163
. rpe it         in enpnstn        ede dn nei e epese tn         np       es epesrt e is se ips n ee retnt s
                                                                                                                                  164
. ii se tis         ii si s te ie esi ees se       einpesi ees tnnsp ,ts tisei s iipnsi eei ee i ie d ni                      t
 TIW   , inpn epnPrevention of Organised Crime Act R NEG TH KGEK URT AKHRU T H RHI GA NNER
R GA KCHTHHEGAI KTGRGTGHKEGUGA I I AI               AI E   I     AIHEGAI          AI RGTE-HTRRI TR IH I RGTE URA                    T

. RHRE U A TE EEGKCGAI K
                                     165                                                                  166
                                           i roe il Aodr af-Ni ehr l arie S V SAYED,                            THE PROSECUTION
                                                                                           167                          168
SECURED A CONVICTION ON CHARGES OF MANAGING AN ENTERPRISE,                                        MONEY-LAUNDERING,           AND
                                                                                      169                              170
ACQUIRING, USING OR POSSESSING THE PROCEEDS OF ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES                            IN TERMS OF THIS ACT.           IW     T
IAN    E SU WI           E WXW   T IWXWXWVATWR      A TNLNTNWO        E- R   TS    TXATTN ENIE SILN TNSIO              OWXTANIW
                                                                                                                                  171
.T X N A A S M T I O I W V NI W R E S X E W X O AT A U X S T I A NV A I R T S E S X E A O O T XW XMNTWR NI
reo ire ehr aoddaa ed af ehr Tho oaeri od drAr ea ,oha eoiolre ehr i aehrg ,Thr oAArdre
ia lrir oe il ehr "Aaie oAe"Aoggre -rie g ehr oaeri Aaeag re o eh ehr er ed af ehr                                                da


158
   Kruger Organised Crime 8, 11-124; Burchell Criminal Law 973, 976-1011; IOM Counter-trafficking
      87; S v De Vries) ( 622de d 2 1115 619D-624H, 628H-629F.
159
   S 1 Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998.
160
    Raymond 2002 Women's International Forum 493. These criminal groups are widespread and
      expand over continents, for example an estimated 5 000 organised criminal groups constitute the
      Russian Mafia alone – Raymond 2002 Women's International Forum 493. As regards organised
      crime in the South African context, criminal gang activity is rife, especially in the Western Cape,
      where it is estimated that there are about 100 000 gang members on the Cape Flats – Kruger
      Organised Crime 54-55.
161
   Dawes, Bray and Van der Merwe Child Well-being 259.
162
   Obokata Trafficking of Human Beings 46-47.
163
   Melvin Human Trafficking 22; International Crime and Terrorism 2004 www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca 1.
164
   Singh 2004 CILSA 344-345; The Future Group 2007 tfgwebmaster.web.aplu.net 2; Dougherty and
      Burke 2008 America 13; Lee Human Trafficking 2.
165
    IOM Counter-trafficking 87; Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 21; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 52.
      Gastrow Organised Crime 41, in a study of organised crime in the Southern African Development
      Community countries, confirms the cross-border trafficking in women and children in South
      Africa.
166
   Judgment was delivered on 18 March 2010 in S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008) in
      the Durban Regional Court. Further convictions in terms of this act for trafficking-related activities
      concerning illegal kidney transplant operations were secured in S v Netcare Kwa-Zulu
      (Proprietary) Limited (unreported case no. 41/1804/2010 8 November 2010, Durban Regional
      Court); see also Allain 2011 Med L Rev 119-122.
167
   Section 2(1) Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998.
168
   Section 4 Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998.
169
   Section 6 Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998.
170
   S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008, 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court) 1-2.

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                                                                                             172
.f ae a ade ere ai fa ehr oAArdre roAh 000 10oearie af X

ifttf hPof huf drouf h f uhrtu toaf Sfuff .Sfuf PhSf       P f Patrf huf eStattudf Srf SPiuf Sfuf s rhtSf reSf rhf fe Pof S Phhthitoaf ,rof PddtStro
Ptf ruaaf Ptf h f Sfuf htttaf hr hutSe uf rhf h t toPaf PttuStf SfPSf fPtuf utSfu f huuof etudf Srf hr   tSf Poff ,s rhuudtf rhf eoaPrheaf PhStttStut
                                                           173
.rhhuohuf r f P uf Sfuf s rhuudtf rhf tehff Pof rhhuohu        ehr i aehrg a ir ge il oAAaeeaeoe il ehr ar daid ,Ta rxoeagr
                                                                                                                  174
e off Aere iea fa Are a ade ere ai d oi ide rerieog ea af ehr affriAr af erra il o i aehrg                            oie eoa ir fa fr ere i
                      175
.er ed af eh d oAe


2.2.8 Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 12 of 2004


. EHAKHRE U A TE EEGKCGAI RE H T T N G K I I T N E T R E R E E N T                                                               EK
                                                                                                                                     176
                                                                                                           K T GR GT GHR                   M   I   O
 TIW AI UW OMINOIWR MIRWX SXXMOT A TNLNTNWO                              Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities
ACTa ae erd fa ehr de rilehri il af erodr rd ea a rerie oie Aaeioe EIN I ,5008 ST 05
                  177
. Aa rae ai             pes       se      ,se se nt iin np               n e neppsri ee             i npnsi ee s enenps I W A T T
st hn st dsp est trnn n e nennt pn si ee ie                                    npnei ,neppsri ee nene rstt ee e nenn e -s
                            178
.neppsri sni d i nt




171
   S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008, 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court) 5.
172
   S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008, 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court) 5-6. In S
      v Mudaly (unreported pending case no. 41/890/2007, Durban Regional Court) the accused are
      also standing trial for offences in terms of the Prevention of Organised Crime Act – 2558e 212
      personal communications with the prosecutor in the case, Advocate V Lotan, National
      Prosecuting Authority.
173
   The act provides for various restraint orders (s 26), confiscation orders (s 18) and realisation orders
      (s 30-33), as well as for civil preservation (s 38-39) and forfeiture orders (s 50) for the recovery of
      property; see also Kruger Organised Crime 59-124; SALRC 2008 www.justice .gov.za 23; SOCA
      Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za 2. The Asset Forfeiture Unit within the National Prosecuting Authority
      deals with the seizure of "criminal assets that are proceeds of crime or have been involved in the
      commission of a crime either through a criminal or civil process" – NPA 2010a www.pmg.org.za
      33-35; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 52-53.
174
   Section 2 Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957.
175
   In National Director of Public Prosecutions v Geyser 2008 2 SACR 103 (SCA) para 16-17, 31, 36,
      the court found that immovable property bought, revamped and used only for the purpose of the
      offence of keeping a brothel in contravention of s 2 of the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957
      constituted an instrumentality of the offence of keeping a brothel. For this reason, the specific
      building may be forfeited under the Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998, and such
      forfeiture is not disproportionate, but serves the remedial purpose of the act to curb crime that is
      undertaken as a business – Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 22. The Supreme Court of Appeal
      provided further clarity by stating that "in giving meaning to 'instrumentality of an offence' the
      focus is not on the state of mind of the owner, but on the role the property plays in the
      commission of the crime" – National Director of Public Prosecutions v R O Cook Properties (Pty)
      Ltd; National Director of Public Prosecutions v 37 Gillespie Street Durban (Pty) Ltd; National
      Director of Public Prosecutions v Seevnarayan 2004 2 SACR 208 (SCA) 226 para 21; see also
      Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 23.
176
   Haynes 2004 Hum Rts Q 226, 229; Brennan 2005 International Migration 42; Foundation against
      Trafficking in Women et al Human Rights Standards 4; Singh 2004 CILSA 344; UNODC Toolkit
      xxi; GAATW Human Rights in Practice 13; UN.GIFT "Human Trafficking" 14; Shelley "Human
      Trafficking" 122.
177
   Long title Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 12 of 2004.
178
   Section 3-21 Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 12 of 2004; Snyman Criminal Law
      411-426; Burchell Criminal Law 891-895.

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GRGAI RE       GR TEH REEHEGAI RE I E H A K H R E K R E E           N T GR A   I R E E H I GR T R E T E H I HA HE T

 R RHII     R TEH ,I I TTRE TR RGRI TH         IHI     ,GRERAHRTITR KT GIIHI IIT RE I HAHEGT TR ARTEHE T
.ENRRHHAHEGT ERE R KE
                                                                                        179
                                   N HUHAT TR EHKHGRH         EHKHGRGAI RE RE     IEH     niinp e nennt e iin sni
                                                                                                           180
.rpetnnsiept se          h ienttnt ,gs n s e nnpt , en s n iin neppsri ee e rs n e nnpt                           eppsri ee
neppsri ee -stn         ie sn isin is se ips n ee nse e nn                 n rse tin          i    nset e iintn sei
.e nennt


SfufPhSfs rttdutfhr ftS toauoSftuoSuohutfh f f, uoStroudfrhhuohut-hf rtSfrhfSfufPhrturofhrotthStrofr
-tStseaPStoafSfPSftehffPfhrotthSudfsu trofttfatPhau



(a)        in the case of a sentence to be imposed by a High Court, to a fine or to
imprisonment up to a period for imprisonment for life;
(b) in the case of a sentence to be imposed by a regional court, to a fine or to
                              imprisonment for a period not exceeding 18 years; or
(c) in the case of a sentence to be imposed by a magistrate's court, to a fine or to
                              imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years.181


2.2.9      DRUGS AND DRUG TRAFFICKING ACT 140 OF 1992


IR      GA R R I R HI    GA    E    U   AET   TE   T   K E GU GA   I   I   A I GA       AI        RTEHER         E H N R KK U

.CGAIR KE R IE I TE EEGK ,GUHRUGT RTEHE RHEGR R KETE EEGKCGAI IRR KRU
                                                                                                    182
                                                                                                          e sn isin iin
ips n npt e ine s         e tinp pset ie iin p d ni    t ie    s n ,t eeii psee ee e iin p ips n ee ernpsi ee
                                                        183
.iin     ne r sei se       sn isin neeipe ednp iin
 fifuDrugs and Drug Trafficking Act h t toPattutfSfufsrttutttrofrhfPtfruaafPtfSfufS Phhthitoaftoff2551rhf
 hu SPtofd eat
               184
                   in .pn sin e nennt-se nse iist n stn ie rse ti ips n npt ede dn e tsni pse
inspt nse n retn 19rse ti nei ep pse ips n ee e nennt t tndnpn se                   rp tee nei e sr ie
 ,rpe sn ee ts tisennt tsni st nsees t-se nt ps n nrne nenn seenpest se ep ips n ee e
                        185
 .inpe e se     epri en


2.2.10 Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983



179
   Section 3 Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 12 of 2004.; Snyman Criminal Law
     411-423; Burchell Criminal Law 892-893.
180
   Section 4-21 Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 12 of 2004; Snyman Criminal Law
     423-426; Burchell Criminal Law 893-895.
181
   Section 26(1) Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 12 of 2004.provides for these
     sentences on conviction in terms of s 3-16, 18 or 21; Burchell Criminal Law 895.
182
   McClain 2007 Vanderbilt J Transn'l L 581; UNODC Toolkit xix; Kreston 2007 Child Abuse Research
     in South Africa 38; Morawska "Trafficking" 101; Shelley "Human Trafficking" 123.
183
   Haynes 2004 Hum Rts Q 226; Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 341;
     US Department of State 2007 www.state.gov 28.
184
   Sections 4 and 5 Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act 140 of 1992.

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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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ttf Pf drhe uoSudf hr            f rhf fe Pof f ifuf S Phhthitoaf rhf su trotf hr f Sfuf u rtPaf rhf Sfut f hrd f sP St
.S Phhthitoa
                  186
                        1118iin ,erspi pe       st ee ii t ep      e ips n ee ep nes epese se i ttsn ipsetr seit
it neseipi ips n ee e desii e p ns tseent-tis i e iin einpesi ees npese tsi ee ep s epsi ee ee e
ie     n stn            e ,ieeesnt se        ene is t , en s ee nint ,iin na tinenn e ips n ee ep                e i rspit
                                       187
.ips i ees e p nse rei eet


 RE TEH          4I      A T GI K E   N T H E R E T E H G A T H E G U N H E G R ENATIONAL   HEALTH ACTKRUHR 5002 RE 10
            ,GATR RNHE TGRAHUMAN TISSUE ACT0942 RE 12
                                                                           188
     TEH                                                                         pnes sint epese ipsetr seit se       tnit
                                                                                                                            189
.NIE OWXOSIOSU TIW USRNWO ST VNLUVSSR AIR EAUWTWO TX ,WTIW XWUSLAV ST TNOOM pn s pn neit ep
sn s t i ee "iin sni rpei it rsi nei ep iin ,erspi pe                      rsi nei ie ssiiep tn rnpteet ep eti isi eet
                                                                                                                      190
. ep        n ns ep         neis rspretnt "ep tsrr i e sei i ttsn ep es nin ep ep ie seeiinp rnptee                         I

     si n stn ie rpetnnsin rnpteet ep nee sni pn sin ie iin ips n ee e TINO A T ,AOOVN AUVW AOWO
                                                          191
.rnpteet ep iin pn eds e iin p e i rspit                    t iin pn eds e i ttsn pe             d ee ii n ii t sni rpei i
iin rse ti nei ep , e nt e sei eiinp                     seenp ep ep sei eiinp rspretn iise t rpntnp n            e iin sni
ep ,ep           rp tee nei ep s rnp e eei nannn ee een insp 111 1tsni se e nenn t s en e sr ie d
           192
. eii            intn tseni eet spn es n ssin ie ninp ips n npt hie rpsni tn se rpe i pe                       ii t iirn e
                  193
.ips n ee


2.2.11 National Health Act 61 of 2003


f etiuf SfuHuman Tissue Act(f 2582rhf f 69Human Tissue Actf Sfuf ,)National Health Actf1112rhf f 62
(National Health Act. Patrf h t toPattutf hr                u huf tof fe Pof Sttteuf )
                                                                                         194
                                                                                               ,erspi pe   eiinp rped t eet
 ee         rpe snit ep es nint t tip ni i , ee                   ,rsi nei ep iin sn s t i ee ep tsrr i e i ttsn
                  195
.pnes sin                ee ep    ee     ,es nint ,ie tn ep ips n e i ttsn" nenn in sni ti rs sint iisi i t se e
                                                                                                                        196
.se rped nt ep                rp tee nei e sr ie dn inspt ep iin ne                 tt ee e tsni se e nenn "rpe snit

185
   Section 17 Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act 140 of 1992..
186
   IOM 2008 iom.org.za 60-63; Dottridge and Weissbrodt 1999 German Yearbook of International Law
      282; UN.GIFT "Human Trafficking" 4; Ncube "Possible Contribution" 4; Hodgkin and Newell
      Implementation Handbook 527; Snyman "Victims" 284; Fellows 2008 www.scribd.com 46.
187
   IOM 2008 iom.org.za 60-63; see also SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za 30; Snyman "Victims" 284-285;
      Fellows 2008 www.scribd.com 7, 29-31, 46.
188
   The Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983 has been repealed by s 93(1) of the National Health Act 61 of
      2003. Although most sections of the National Health Act 61 of 2003 have been in force since
      2005, chapter 8 of this act, which contains provisions relevant to the present study, is not yet in
      operation – Proc R19 in GG 27503 of 18 April 2005; Proc R20 in GG 33187 of 14 May 2010.
189
    Section 18-23 Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983; Slabbert 2009 Obiter 510-511; Fellows 2008
      www.scribd.com 42.
190
   S 28(1) Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983.
191
   UN.GIFT "Human Trafficking" 2; Hodgkin and Newell Implementation Handbook 523.
192
   S 34 Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983; Fellows 2008 www.scribd.com 42.
193
    Parliamentary Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development 2010 www.pmg.org.za 8;
      Fellows 2008 www.scribd.com 42.
194
   Section 60 National Health Act 61 of 2003; Slabbert 2009 Obiter 511.
195
   Section 60(1) National Health Act 61 of 2003.
196
   Section 60(4) National Health Act 61 of 2003; see also Slabbert 2009 Obiter 511.

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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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nee sni pn sin         ie ips n ee ep iin pn eds e             e i rspit        si   n , e srr ns n n pns tisennt
.hine iin pn ndsei tnni eet e iin sni ne n eie ernpsi ee ,rpetnnsin se np ii t sni


RE E U A TGRR H RE RRHRRGRAT KEGUGA IGRH TEH NRTE T TEH                         KT IRHR AR KRAKHEA GR TEH E KT

,E U A EH I RA ERE H                UNIH RE   GR ER AI GA NRRRHRRG        RHR R E HEH       N H E R R A K .E U A      IRRI

RA ERR TR E H I R G R A R T K I H               ET   . EH NER IHU TGK ,U A RIT N ETRIHAGT IR RE RTEHE E
T RE E U A       IRRI         T G TGRR H      AI GA NRRRHRRGRA REREHEH          NHERRA GR ER IH I RGTE GART AKHR

CGIIHI TEH TGRR H RE           IRRI E R A NRRRHRRGRA RE R KET TEH NHERRA ER AI GK AART                     H NERRHA TE

H GA R KE TGRA TR RHII RE TE IAIR RE E R TEH GATHATGRR H RE                      IRRI     HIR NHERRA TR RERU R KE

.TGRR H RE IRRI
                        197




f PorSfu fhrohu ofttfSfPSfSfu National Health ActPaSfreafff.drutforSfs rttdufhr ftS toauoSfseottf uoS
SfufsuoPaS fhr fS Pdtoaftoffe PofSttteufr fharrdfttftoh uPtudfh r fPf Pdt e fSu                     frhft s ttro uoSf
f rouf uP f tof Su       tf rhf Sfuf rhHuman Tissue ActtSf ttf drehSheaf SfPSf Sfuff ,Srf httuf uP tf eodu f Sfttf PhS
.suoPaS fttfrhftehffPfoPSe ufSfPSftSfrtaaftehhuttheaa fduSu frhhuodu t
2.2.12 Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996


 E H TFILMS AND       PUBLICATIONS ACT ,NERI KTGRA ,RAEHI I THR TEH KEH TG , R UHAIHI ,0991 RE 12
,GEGK TGRAUR T UH AR RE KI RRN                  IGK TGRAR     AI EGI G     TGRA RE RNHKGEGKNRRRHRRGRA           AI IGRTE

.KRAR UHE IRGKH AI TEH NERRGRGRA RE ,H EHRTEGKTGRARTEH GUNRRGTGRA RE I
                                                                                                    198
                                                                                                          ,I A R R NT NS I N
    NSI   SX   RWEXARATNSI          UIOT    OWRMAV    WROVSNTAT AVV       OXSTW TWR       AEAN INVRXWI      AXW    OOW NTN

TNVUO SX SI TIW N        OMUVN ATNSIO AIRNVRXWI NI OSXISEXAOIOVSNTATNLW MOW ST                  I XNUNIAVNONIE TIW WR
                199
. ITWXIWTN            rettntt ee ep NI VMRNIE TIW ,IMUWXSMO STTWI WO I W A T O X S L NR W O T S X T
                                                                                 200
.npnsi ee e s            ep rs nsi ee hi ni neeis et ni           repeeepsrii          i t s te rse tis n ,sepnednp
ep s rnptee h ii eeh n en e se e nenn ede d ee ni                         repeeepsrii eei ie pnrepi i ie iin desii
                              201
.e p nse e nn dnpd nn


,ETRHRR KEGII NREARIE N T IGRTEG                 TH RE NRRGA RH     TE EEGKCGAI U H E N H T E     T R E R GA R R IR HI N

RTRE IH - A HIHKTERAGK I T                 UN THE RE    T R T RETRE IH TEHEHRE RA KRREGKE GAKI IHR TEH R

.KT IGRKRET RTGKC RE
                                                                    202
                                    KRUN UHIG U R KE      R    UHU        ini    si ndne stn ips n n rnpteet ie
e         t ep ee iin einpeni e ep np ie s dnpi tn iin tnpd nnt ,npnsin ni                repeeepsrii e rs nsi eet


197
   Personal communications with Advocate L Stuurman, South African Law Reform Commission.
198
   Section 2(a) Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996; Minnie "Sexual Offences" 537-538.
199
    Section 2(b), read with s 27 Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996; Minnie "Sexual Offences"
      537-538.
200
   Section 27(1)(a) Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996.
201
   Section 27(2)(a) Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996; see also "Offences" .
202
    Section 1 Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996 defines the term "", in relation to a film or
      publication, and without derogating from its ordinary meaning, to include "keeping or storing in or
      on a computer or computer system or computer data storage medium and also having custody,
      control or supervision on behalf of another person".

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                          203
. iin p d ni   t rped n         i t ie   n .dsni nee sni nse   n tsnnntt s i rpetnnsin   se np ii t sni
hn ne n iisi rnpteet need nin e npnsi ee s             ep rs nsi ee hi ni neeis et ni    repeeepsrii ep
21spn e rettntt ee e ep            tip sin tsni   sinp s nse n tneinenn ie   rp tee nei ep sr ie hie
         204
.inspt




203
   The term "pornography" is broadly defined in s 1 Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996.
204
   Section 30(1)(A) Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996.

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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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2.2.13 SEXUAL OFFENCES ACT 23 OF 1957


    H R U H N E R R G R G R A R R E T E RSEXUAL
                                                                                        205
                                                   OFFENCES ACT0922 RE 52                    SI AIR UA AXW OTNVV NI SOWXATN

EWWONIE ST       Thr oAe a adA ird ehr .OWRMAV WROVSNTATNSI UAI TXATTN ENIE TSXAOOV NI AOWO ST IM
                206
,A UXSTIWV        ST IALNIE MIVAETMV WOT TSX TIW OMXOSOWOAI ISMOW SX OVA W E EIN I NO RWTNIWR AO
                                                                                       207
.NIRW WIT OMXOSOW X AI STIWX VWER SX AXIAV NITWX SMXOW S                                  X W X A T T N E NI E A E W I T O E W T
                                                        208                                      209
    TWI W NI SILN TWR ST TINO STS           v Andrews         AO EWVV AO NI      S v Sayed.             in sni spiinp rped nt
                                                                    210
," nn n ie nnr s peiin "iisi nnpis e rnpteet spn                          ep stt ti ee , ep nas r n s rnptee             sese ee
                                                                                        211
.s peiin ep eeh ee i pnnn d ee               eeni si s peiin , e             sese ee          i t tnni ee nstit iin eni h n
te iisi rnprnipsiept tisp ee e iin rpe it ep stt ti ee e iin psee ee e s peiin st rspi e s ips n ee
.tnnesp e nse s te n rpetnnsin


PtfrPtftaaetS PSudftof,rhhuohutfSfPSf P fhtodfPssathPStroftofPffe PofS PhhthitoafthuoP tr S v Sayed,
                                                                                                                               212

                                                                                                       213
,spn iin rpenspn nei e s n s n e ep np ie isdn se sh s nspes einpnesptn                                      d ee ee iin nspe eet
                  214                                         215
e rpeti isi ee        .ep iin sn isi ee e rpeti isi ee          rnp       ii ee rpn      tnt ie n stn          ep iin , e s   i ee
                                                                                 216
. rspretnt e rpeti isi ee t s te np             es tn       se np ii t sni             ees     petnnsi ee esiiep ii in ysi
    pnrepin    need ni eet e inp t e ii t sni ep is se ips n ee sni d i nt e S v Sawatkan se                                  S v
                         217
Wiphatawaithaya.
2.2.14 CRIMINAL LAW (SEXUAL OFFENCES AND RELATED MATTERS) AMENDMENT ACT 32 OF 2007


TEH RH         I GAR EG        IT GARRIRHR ,I H NIRGT TGRAHRNHKG IIT ERE RH                        , U A T E EE GK C GA I E
H        I    R EEHA KHR       A R R GT E      U    IT GT     IH    RE      RR    .CHI NHERRA                RH RE TEH TE EEGK

    A UHIT TEH ,RT T TH GAKI IHI GA            RGAIIHCRIMINAL LAW            (SEXUAL OFFENCES AND RELATED MATTERS)


205
     A number of sections of this act were repealed by the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences
       and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007, namely s 9, 11, 12(2), 13-15, 18,
       18A, 20A – see the schedule to this act.
206
   Section 2 Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957; Minnie "Sexual Offences" 535.
207
   Section 1 Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957; Minnie "Sexual Offences" 534-535; see also National
      Director of Public Prosecutions v Geyser 2008 2 SACR 103 (SCA) 116, where the court ordered,
      in terms of the provisions of the Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998, the forfeiture to
      the state of the immovable property used as a brothel in a criminal enterprise.
208
   S v Andrews (unreported case no 27/50/1998) in which the accused were sentenced in the Cape
      Town Regional Court on 30 July 2004; see also NPA 2010a www.pmg.org.za 11.
209
   S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008; 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court).
210
   Section 3(b)-(c) Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957.
211
   Section 3 Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957.
212
   In S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008) the accused were convicted on 18 March
      2010 in the Durban Regional Court of contravening ss 2, 12A(1), 10, 17, 20(1)(a) and (c) of the
      Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957.
213
   Section 10 Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957.
214
   Section 20(1) Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957. This section was amended by the Criminal Law
      (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 – see s 68, read with the
      schedule to this act; Snyman Criminal Law 353.
215
   Section 12A(1) Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957; see also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 536.
216
   Section 17 Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957.

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AMENDMENT ACT( 5002 RE 25SEXUAL OFFENCES AMENDMENT ACT TEGR                                      KT U T      H      RHI   ,)
ERE TEH A E U A TE EEGKCGAINHTE TRER GARRIRHI GHK TH                     AI N AGRE NHER KKHRRE IIT TR NERR

.GT TGRA KTR RE RH
                                                                   218
                           I H NIR N ENRRHR RE R EGR R



KRAT GAHI GA H       EE     T R E R E EH A K HR GR K     R R GR A R E T E H R GI IT E R         IE    I HT GIH I I

EH KEGAI I R - E E .IGRHA          EGHE RRHERGHR GR          , ETGKIH IH TEH RKRNH RE TEGRTEGR KT E IIR R TRG
 RR    IT RE E NH AI GAIHKHAT KRUURA I R REEHAKHR HI T EHNI KGAI TEHKEHEREUR RHEH GATERI
                                                             219                         220
E NH T TRET REEHAKHR RERGTE TEH H THAIHI RT                    .VTAIR OWRMAV AOOAM             in nannri ees i pes
                                                                                  221                            222
 n e i eet e iin rpei in          nee sni e     eii iin e nennt e psrn                  se     tnass sttss i           isdn
s es    np e e nennt , e s         i ee . enpnstn iin rpeinni ee ses eti tnass                   tnee sni t ee nsei i
                                                                            223
. inspt se     e np spn s te rped n         ep 28ses eti rnpteet e                WIWOW STTWI          W O NI       VMR T
                                                       224
neese ee iin tnass tnpd nnt e tsni rnpteet                   ,WI WOS ENTIWOO OWRMAV STTSX SUOWVVNIE TIWU T
                                         225
,UAOTMXUATNSI-OWRMAV A TO SX OWVT           sest ep n s n ,pesetst hn st iin naretspn e iin ene is e
                     226
)" sti ee"( pnstit     . WAXO SX SVRWX 04 OWXOSIO INVR OSXISEXAOI TS AIR TIW WROSOMXW ST 227


 I NERTHKTGRA ERE KHI TR NERRGIH RNHKGRH               IRR     HHA GATERI A UHER R REEHAKHR E                ,R T       ITA

.KEGIIEHA
             228
               WITO NILSVLWR OW ST OXSOW MTNIE AEMOWTMV TSX TIW OMXOS I AT NO OA X T N M V A X V                          E
                                                                                                       229
,OWRMAV WROVSNTATNSI RWTNIWR STTWI WO ST ENIE AXW TIW UXSARV NI INVR OWR TXATTN                           OXSUSTNIE




217
   NPA 2010a http:www.pmg.org.za 12.
218
   Minnie "Sexual Offences" 541-562.
219
   Section 3 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007: "Any
     person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally commits an act of sexual penetration with a
     complainant ('B'), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of rape." For a discussion of
     the statutory offence of rape, see Snyman Criminal Law 355-369; Minnie "Sexual Offences"
     546-547.
220
   Section 5(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007. For
     a discussion of the statutory offence of sexual assault, see Snyman Criminal Law 371-378;
     Minnie "Sexual Offences" 547-548.
221
   The offence of rape prohibits "penetration", which is defined in s 1 to include "any act which causes
     penetration to any extent whatsoever by – )s(the genital organs of one person into or beyond
     the genital organs, anus, or mouth of another person; ) (any other part of the body of one
     person or, any object, including any part of the body of       an animal, into or beyond the genital
     organs or anus of another person; or )n(the genital organs of an animal, into or beyond the
     mouth of another person". See also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 546-547.
222
   The offence of sexual assault prohibits "violation", which is defined in s 1 Criminal Law (Sexual
     Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007; see also Minnie "Sexual Offences"
     547-548.
223
   Sections 8-11 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     see the discussion in Snyman Criminal Law 381-387.
224
   Section 11 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
225
   Section 8 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
226
   Section 9 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
227
   Section10 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
228
   Sections 15-22 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     see the discussion in Snyman Criminal Law 392-398; Minnie "Sexual Offences" 550-562.
229
   Section 17(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     see also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 553-555.

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                        230                                                                   231
, INVR OWR TSMXO              . NIE ST INVRXWIAIR TIW OWRMAV EXSSU                                  I AT M X    I W V V W U O I A O NO W O T U

WI WO IAO TS        SUUNT OWRMAV STT AEW AIR OXWOAXW TIWURXWI OS AO TS WI SMX TIW EXSSUNIE ST                                              INV
                                                                          232
. T X N A A S M T I O OWXNSMO              SI WXI NI UW SUW A                   EXSSUNIE NO A " T NI I NW O S NI T O S M T T I A U
                                            233
."WTNIW SUOVWR OXS WOO TS R                      t pnt tisenn se 'n ne npt stn dsp est                         niie t ie ednpne n s ni
edn "ep   " p ne ti r"ns n                -oesiit spn netespn              eie s te .nass snitie spn i                        ep inp eie t
se    i hsi e         nni eet hinpn ,ntrnn s i d s iin einpeni , i                             nset e ne           se nsi eet "pn si eeti r
i st s ie ne e         st n ne rsni                tnt se nn rieent spn e dne pnn ,gnhn npi ,e it tsni st n eii ee
             234
."s nni ee"     ni pne spn iir ns i rped n h ii s neie se                                ,nenn s ipsti pn si eeti r t ntis tin
hi ni ndneiss i             ndn er eie s            n se         ep ,e tnass snit pset se                      spn eps ss i eipe snn         i
                                   235
.s st dn tnass tnpd nnt


 GT GR A H A       GA K I     IH    TEH          NER EGHI        TR     NERTHKT          K E GII E T E H E        R EEHA KHR     I HR GI A R
                                                                           236
 NETHA ERE KEGII NREARIE I GART                          RGAI KEGIIE             ni     pne     n ee naretn ie ni              se ses eti
                                             237
. repeeepsrii ep repeeepsrii                         in SEXUAL OFFENCES AMENDMENT ACTV AVOS OXSLNRWO OOW NA
                                                                                                                                238
.ITAVV RNOAUVWRX OWXOSIO EIS AXW UWTNSI TSX INVRXWI TSTNSI VNEW TIW OXSTW OXSTW


2.2.15 INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS ACT 75 OF 1996


,KR ATEGHR RE REGIGA GA N ETGK I E                           URAI         ,I K R R N H E T G R A A T H E A T G R A I E I G K G G
HRNHKG IIT     ,HEEHKTGRHIT              T E U A TE EEGKCGAIGR HRRHATG I TR KRU                                ,GRATE ARGT AI IHRTGA T
. REIHE TE EEGKCGAI-KERRR
                                           239
                                                 I W T International      Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 0991 RE 22
TXN A AI R         A S M T I O TNSI UWTEWWITA NVNTATNIE                           SSOWXA EHI EI                 T KRATEG      THR GA TEGR
                                                           240
. XNUNIAV UATTWXO TSXWNEI SMITXNWO NI                            O NI    VM RW TIW U MTM AVIWOW                      X NU NI A V U AT T W X T
                                   241
.WOXSLNONSI ST WLNRWI                    TIW A T OXSLNRWO         ,UMOTN W NI TIW NITWXWOTO ST I                    A O W O E I W X W NT NO N

IE WLNRWI W NEI OTATW NI SUTANINONOTAI W TXSU A TSXWVWTTWX XWCMWOTNIE AO TSX TIW NOOMNIE ST A
                                                                                  242
.A TSXWNEI OTATW OXWOWIT NI OM I TXSU A OWXOSI EIS NO

230
   Section 17(6) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
231
   Section 18(2) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     see also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 555-558.
232
   Burchell Criminal Law 739.
233
   Minnie "Sexual Offences" 556-558.
234
   Burchell Criminal Law 739; Fritz "Child Slavery/Trafficking" 5; Minnie "Sexual Offences" 556-558.
235
   Fritz "Child Slavery/Trafficking" 5; Burchell Criminal Law 698, 739-740; Minnie "Sexual Offences"
     556-558.
236
   Section 20(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     see also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 559.
237
   Section 19 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007; see
     also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 558-559.
238
   Section 23-26 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     Snyman Criminal Law 398-400.
239
   David 2007 Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice 1; UNODC 2008 www.unodc.org 7;
     Planitzer Counter-trafficking Cooperation 17-18; UNODC 2009 www.unodc.org 83.
240
   Long title of the International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.
241
   Sections 2-12 International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.
242
   Section 2 International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.

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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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.ifttfPhSfPatrfhPhtatSPSutfSfuf eSePafuduheStrofrhftuoSuohutfPodfhr suotPSr fr du t
                                                                                                         243
                                                                                                               ,rep nas r n
hinpn s rnptee hie t tneinenn ie iin rsi nei e s en ep e ne rnetsi ee ie seeiinp rnptee ist
iin nespi    si ,rpernpii ee i e s epn ee tisin pe              hi ni iin en ep ne rnetsi ee nse n pnnednpn
                                                                                                                        244
.senn t teseii e ii t pnesp       pe   iin pn ndsei epn ee tisin ttsn s niinp e pn snti e hi ni stt ti


SfufPhSfhe Sfu fs rttdutfhr fSfufhrohtthPStrofPodfS Pothu frhfSfufs rhuudtfrhfh t ufhuSruuof f,UrSPha
.SfufyusehathfrhftreSffPh thPfPodfhr utaoftSPSut
                                                       245
                                                            stt tisenn      si n , e inp t e iintn rped t eet
e s , ttsn     e desii e p ns ,pn sntin        pe   s epn ee tisin e ep np ie nannsin s nee tnsi ee ep np
                                                                                                     246
. epn ee tisin e hi ni iin rnptee ses eti hie              iin ep np t      s n ehet rpernpii             e epn ee tisin
                                                                                                                            247
. si ee iin ts n st t pn snti desii e p ns ie nannsin s epn ee nee tnsi ee ep np e iin dnrs                             n
ntrnn s i hinpn ,eet        si n stn ie netspn gsti nn e te n is se ips n ee nstnt intn rped t
nee tnsi ee ep npt ses eti e snei s epese tn               np     n enihep t nse       n ne epnn         ee i e seeiinp
                                                     248
.neseipi e hi ni iin rnprnipsiept ehe rpernpii


3        Interim human trafficking offences


PsP Sfh r foe u retfudttStoafhr          rofaPrfPodftSPSeSr fs rttttrotfSfPSf P fhufPssatudfSrfs rtuheSuf
.tfru ufPatrf uhuoSa ftoS rdehudftoSrftreSffPh thPofaPr tsuhththfs rttttro-S Phhthitoaf,S PhhthitoafPauoSt


3.1      CHILDREN'S ACT 38 OF 2005


GA TEH NERKHRR RE R U U G R R G R A R         R R T GII K HER E U E        R I E E GK     A    R     T E R E GIH T E H R

,A TE EEGKCGAIEREU KRAKHEAGAI E U GARHRTGI TGAI I R EH
                                                                          249
                                                                             I TXATTN ENIE NITWXNU OXSLNONSIO S

    VMRWR NI TIWNI     INVRXWI EWXW NI        Children's Act( 5002 RE 24 CHILDREN'S ACTNI OAXTNAV )
X A T T N E NI E NI T M I NO I O M O O X W O O A I R O ,X W L W I T O V T S X S T S      SO     SUOVNAI W ENTI TIW
                                                                                                   250
.)X S T S S V O A V W X U S O( I NV R X W I   SU WI AIRE OOW             NA V V   W ,W X O S I O O    spretn e        in r


243
   Sections 13-18 International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.
244
   Section 13 International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.
245
   Sections 19-26 International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.
246
   Section 19 International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.
247
   Section 20 International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996.
248
    A number of sources have reported the involvement of organised criminal networks in human
      trafficking activities – Obokata Trafficking of Human Beings 46-47; Raymond 2002 Women's
      International Forum 493; Melvin Human Trafficking 22; International Crime and Terrorism 2004
      www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca      1;   Singh      2004   CILSA      344-345;    The    Future      Group
      2007tfgwebmaster.web.aplu.net 2; Dougherty and Burke 2008 America 13; Lee Human
      Trafficking 2. Kruger Organised Crime 1, 8 emphasises the international approach that the
      proceeds of crime should be confiscated by state authorities to remove the incentive for crime.
249
     SALRC 2004 www.doj.gov.za 1-3: SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za 1; SALRC 2008
      www.justice.gov.za 7; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-9.
250
    SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za 3; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-10; Kassan and Mahery
      Protective Measures 200; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 41.

                                                     29 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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e ii t sni t ie ne          si ips n ee e ni pne se ie e dn n nni 28iin ips n ee rped t eet e nisrinp
iin (hi ni t eneprepsin               eie iin sh e iin dnrs n e desii e p ns                         ,ie iin      s np e     peiene
                 251
.)dnrs       n


f Sfuf ,rof tfr SChildren's Act two main trafficking offences. First, trafficking of children by natural or
                                                                                252
juristic persons for an exploitative purpose is criminalised.                      dsni ips n ee t pnesp n st s tnp est
                                                                                                 253
.inspt       si iinpn epn n           retn 11e nenn se                rp tee nei e sr ie             e     i ees rpeinni ee ep
e iisi i t ee n nenn ep iin rnprnipsiep iisi iin ni                              ep iin rnptee isd ee ni pne t rped n
                                                                                                     254
.neeipe ednp iin ni           ist neetnein ie iin nar e isi ee ep                     nes s eri ee       rped n     ,rspiinp epn
i t s te ee n nenn ee s nispen e ips n ee e ni                            pne iisi ,iisi iin nar e isi dn rspretn t rpedne
                                                                    255
.piin eine n nar e isi ee ep s eri ee                    eei enns     t e esi ee ie np         es tn ' in s np e peiene
se    epese t ee ep         pnni ee eiinpt ie ne             i ii t np      n t , rsi ee st snne r nntrspi n ,siin rit
                                                                                                                     256
.se    en in nei ie ne             i s np     n ,neetr psni ,nednpn             i na ti ee ne t si ee ee siin ri


IGRHR TEH         KT   IRR KEGUGA           ,E E G K C G A I G A I T E H K E G U H R E T E N E T E E R U K E G U G A I G R
RGIH HAR IE IHE TR K RT TEH AHTAI GA KEGIIEHA GA REKGIGT TGAI TE EEGKCGKHET GA                                       HE RGR E E

.EGT EERU TEGR KEGUHHER TE T R                     IIT NERNI T- R ERIHTR GAKI IH TEH R EGR
                                                                                                           257
                                                                                                                 ne need ni ee e
    rp tee nei         si   n 'inspt 21e             s    sa    s     ,ii t np        n e   sn isi ee ips n ee e ni pne
             258
.     retn         iin rpei in          nisd esp neis t nst ee sei rpernpii ep iin rspretn e                               , e tiepi
einpeni tnpd nn ,rspiinp .isp esp ee s ips n n ni                          ep     tip si ee e ep si ee s s ee ie ips n ee
                                                                                                                                259
.i neeis et tsni rpei         in     e ep si eerped npt spn pn s pn ie pnrepi sei t in ee iin p tnpdnpt iis


251
    See ss 281-282 of the Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-13, 14;
      Dawes, Bray and Van der Merwe Child Well-being 247; Kassan and Mahery Protective
      Measures 200; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 285; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 42.
252
   Section 284(1) Children's Act 38 of 2005: "No person, natural or juristic, or a partnership may traffic
      a child or allow a child to be trafficked." See also SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 12; Kassan
      "Trafficking in Children" 18-15, 16; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 203; Bosman-Sadie
      and Corrie Children's Act 286-287; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za Mar 42.
253
   Sections 305(1) and (8) Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 203.
254
   Section 284(2)(a) Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-16; Kassan and
      Mahery Protective Measures 203; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 287.
255
   Section 284(2)(b) Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-16; Kassan and
      Mahery Protective Measures; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 287.
256
   Section 18 of the Riotous Assemblies Act 17 of 1956; Snyman Criminal Law 283-305; Burchell
      Criminal Law 619-657; see also 2.2.1 above.
257
    Section 28 Children's Act 38 of 20055; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 203-204;
      Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 287-288.
258
   Section 305(6) Children's Act 38 of 2005. If a person is convicted more than once of this offence,
      the sentence may be increased to a maximum of 20 years' imprisonment – s 305(7); SALRC
      2008 www.justice.gov.za 12.
259
   Section 285 Children's Act 38 of 2005: "(1) No person, natural or juristic, or a partnership, may –
       )s(knowingly lease or sublease or allow any room, house, building or establishment to be used
      for the purpose of harbouring a child who is a victim of trafficking; and ) (advertise, publish,
      print, broadcast, distribute or cause the advertisement, publication, printing, broadcast or
      distribution of information that suggests or alludes to trafficking by any means, including the
      use of the Internet or other information technology. (2) Every Internet service provider operating
      in the Republic must report to the South African Police Service any site on its server that

                                                               30 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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    E H I H E G A G T G R A G A T E H TCHILDREN'S   ACT"TE EEGKCGAI" RE TEH THEU
                                                                                             260
                                                                                               VR NO NI XWVATNSI TS A          IN
                                                                                                                           261
.X S T S S V O A V W X U S O SITANIWR NI TIW "IOTXATTN ENIE NI OWXOS" NTNSI STONUNVAX TS TIW RWTNI
,NX O T T .SXUMVATNSIOI TIW RWTNINTNSIAV TT RNTTWXWI WO UWTEWWTIWXW AXW A IMUUWX S ,S E W L W X I
    WTIW RWTNINTNSI NI TIChildren's      Act EH "R NNIT" RGA TE T THEUR R KE                       ,GR RRUHRE T ER IHE
R     IRR R IE GIIHI I UH AR G IRNTGRA RHK EHI TEE ,H K R A I I T R                     . KTGRAR IIHI R NEREG GTHI
.I GA KEGIIEHAAGTGRA RE TE EEGKCGAGAKI IHI GA TEH IHEG
                                                                           262                                           263
                                                                             ,A O O A I E I A E X W W U W I T E NT I N         i
nar e isi ee e iin s eri dn titin         se    sht " nset iin " nes s eri ee" sti n re ein esi iisi se
                                                                     264
."se eei ennnttsp i iin nar e isi ee e iin s erin ni


SfufPdrsSttufsP uoStf P forSffPtufSfuftoSuoStrofSrfudsartSfSfuf f, tuofrfu ufPfhftadfttftaauaPaa fPdrsSud
tehff taauaPaf PdrsStrotf       etSf huf dttStoaettfudf h r f taauaPaf PdrsStrotf SfPSf hrotStSeSuf f .hftadf PSf Paa
f rhfSfuf S Phhthitoaftofhftad uoftofSu      tChildren's Actf,Tr fPoftaauaPafPdrsStrofSrffePath fPtfS Phhthitoa f.
f,lPttPof teh tStf SfPSf Pof toSu s uSPStrof tfreadf huf hraarrudf tof atouf rtSff SfPSf tof Sfuf APau            rf A rSrhra
.hftadfoP ua fSfPSfSfufs t P ftoSuoStrofrhfSfuftaauaPafPdrsStrof etSfhufSrfudsartSfSfu
                                                                                                         265




     EEGKCGAI GA TEHTEH IHEGAGTGRA RE TE ,E G E I I T TCHILDREN'S ACT DIFFERS FROM THE PROVISION IN THE
                                                                                  266
PALERMO PROTOCOL REGARDING THE SO-CALLED "MEANS" ELEMENT.                               in     s np e    peiene pn s pnt
pss ep ,iipnsi ,tsni st epnn ,iisi iin rnprnipsiep             sti stn si nsti een e iin tin                   rpernp    nset
                                                267
,hine s s it spn ips n n           , nnnri ee         28 si eei ep iin ips n ee e s ni                  se np iin sen e


     contains information in contravention of subsection (1)." See also Kassan "Trafficking in
     Children" 18-17, 18; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures:203; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie
     Children's Act 287-288; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 42.
   Section 1 Children's Act 38 of 2005: "'', in relation to a child – )o(means the recruitment, sale,
260

     supply, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of children, within or across the borders of
     the Republic – (i) by any means, including the use of threat, force or other forms of coercion,
     abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to
     achieve the consent of a person having control of a child; or (ii) due to a position of vulnerability,
     for the purpose of exploitation; and )h(includes the adoption of a child facilitated or secured
     through illegal means."
261
   Article 3(a) Palermo Protocol (2000); Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-10, 11, 16; Dawes, Bray
     and Van der Merwe Child Well-being 251-252; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 285;
     HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 42.
262
    Section 1 Children's Act 38 of 2005; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 13; HSRC 2010
     www.hsrc.ac.za 42. For a critical view on the insertion of the illegal adoption of a child into the
     definition of "trafficking", see Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 202-203.
263
   Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-12.
264
   Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-12.
265
   Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-12; see also Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 202-203.
     The Official Interpretative Notes (Travaux Préparatoires) to the Palermo Protocol indicate that
     "where illegal adoption amounts to a practice similar to slavery as defined in article 1, paragraph
     (d), of the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and
     Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, it will also fall within the scope of the Protocol" – UN
     General Assembly 2000 u.st cd.               para 66; see also Jordan 2002 www.walnet.org 9-10.
266
   Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 285.
267
    Article 3(a) Palermo Protocol (2000); see also SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za 14; Kassan

                                                          31 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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          268
. inspt         iin     s np e     peiene         sit     ehe iisi iin ,trnn s rpeinni ee ep ni pne e rped ee
isp esp ee ep pnnn d ee e ,ipset np ,ipsetrepisi ee ,es n i iin pnnps i nei ,rpntnp n sni ee n n nei
ne     eeen e iin            nset tni nd ,neeti isint ips n ee e rnpteet ,s ni                      ep iin rspretn e nar e isi ee
                                                269
.esi e iin n e i ee hnpn stn                          iin ,te n iin     s np e        peiene CHILDREN'S ACTOXSLNRWO TIAT
NI VMRNIE ,AI UWAIO" UUNTTWR U                        S INUNTWR A TNSI TS UWXWI XWCMNXWO TIW OXSTXATTN ENIE NI                      INVR

TSX TIW         "RW WOTNSI ,TXAMR ,AURM TNSI ,ST SWX NSI TSX W SX STIWX TSXUO ,TIW MOW ST TIXWAT
                                    270
.NSIOMXOSOW ST WROVSNTAT                  t iisi ee       nset spn pn s pn      ep ni      "sei      nset"e nen einprpnisi ee
    se iist iin             n e i ee e iin ,ips n eeCHILDREN'S ACT RWTNINTNSI NI TIW SXXWOOSIRO ENTI TIW
T     A   R NT T W X W I T A O O A I         O S NI T O    SMT      T I AE   ,I W I     A E A NI T    .X S T S S V O     AVWXU S O

    TIW NO TIAT       "AI UWAIO" NITWXOXWTATNSI STChildren's ActTEH RNHKGEGHI IRHR EHC GEH RAH RE
. KCGAI GA KEGIIEHATR KRARTGT TH TE EEG UH AR TR
                                                                                              271
                                                                                H NEHRHAT            in siinp einprpnisi ee t
i t eei e en h ii iin , nset n n nei t pn s pn                          ep ips n ee e ni          pne    iin , e iisi ,rpe n si n
                                                                                                           272
.hi ni hs dnt iin              nset n n nei e pnesp ie ni              ips n ee , s np e peiene                  s si ee e     in ep
    e iin "ips n ee"n n nei e iin                      n e i ee e    " nset"iin CHILDREN'S ACT IAO TIWXWTSXW UWWI
A V W X U S O TIW TIAI NO XWCMNXWR U                      "TNAX UMXRWINIE A EXWATWX WLNRWI XNTN NOWR TSX                           XWAT"
                      273
.X S T S S V O


f Sfuftof"udsartSPStro"Pfhre Sffdthhu uohufsu SPtotfSrfSfufduhtotStrofrhfSfufSu                         f Children's Actrfthffttff,
t sathtSa ff"udsartSPStro"BrSffduhtotStrotfrhf f.tt taP fSrfheSforSftduoSthPafSrfSfPSftofSfufAPau                            rfA rSrhra
Sfuf APau        rf A rSrhraff ,trrutu f .hrtu f S Phhthitoaf hr f Sfuf se srtutf rhf Paaf S sutf rhf udsartSPStro
hu SPtof udP sautf rhf udsartSPSttuf f "tohaedutf PSf Pf                tot e "f "udsartSPStro"f tStseaPSutf SfPSf Sfuf Su
.se srtut             in Children's ActheSfPddtfrSfu fudP sautff,Patrfhrtu tfSfutufudP sautfrhfudsartSPStrof
                274


.hftadfaPhre fPodfSfuf u rtPafrhfhrd fsP Stf,hr hudf P tPauf,oP ua fduhSfhrodPauf,Ptfruaa
                                                                                                                             275




fPSfht tSfaaPohuftSftuu tfSfPSfSfufAPau                   rfA rSrhrafPodfSfu Children's Actdthhu fPatrfrtSff uaP dfSrfSfut f
rof Sfuf rouf fPodf Sfuf APau             rf A rSrhraf Pssatutf Srf Sfuf s rtuheStrof rhf rhhuohutf f .othrsuf rhf PssathPStr
, utSPhattfudf tof Sfuf s rSrhra
                                          276
                                                ipsetesi ees e esispn se          ede dn se "hinpn iietn e nennt spn
                                       277
."epese tn np               es epesr         iin ,ne iin eiinp Children's Acth ii e ep snpett "srr nt ie ips n ee

      "Trafficking in Children" 18-16.
268
    Article 3(c) Palermo Protocol (2000) see also SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za 14; Kassan
      "Trafficking in Children" 18-16.
269
   Article 3(c) Palermo Protocol (2000); SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za 14.
270
   Section 1 Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 202.
271
   Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-11; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 202.
272
   Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-11; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 202.
273
   For a critical view on the "means" element in the definition of "trafficking" in the Children's Act 38 of
      2005, see Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 202; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-11;
      HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 42.
274
   Article 3(a) Palermo Protocol (2000); Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 202.
275
    The Palermo Protocol recognises the removal of "organs" as an example of an exploitative
      purpose, which is a narrower concept than the removal of "body parts" listed in the Children's Act
      – SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 13.
276
   Article 5 Palermo Protocol (2000).
277
   Article 4 Palermo Protocol (2000).

                                                                 32 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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                                         278
."iin ep npt e iin dnrs n                  i ii iin en st ee e iintn hep t iin sni nednpt eei ee i ipsetesi ees
neseipi ips n ee h ii e iin ep npt e -ips n ee e ni pne ie se                                  pe      eiinp neseip nt si s te e
               279
.iin dnrs n      ,rehndnp            i         sti n epen e            e iisi iin     s np e        peiene ist ie n einprpnin
                                                                 280
,ieeniinp h ii iin npese tn                p     n   eednei ee        hi ni rped nt iisi iin e nenn e is se ips n ee
ips n ee ne t si ee h iiesi pn s p ee iisi ipsetesi ees ep - sti                            n ntis tin           e   e nti n sei
                                                     281
.epese tn np     n n n neit n rpntnei                      ,s iiesei iin tnern e srr nsi ee tnn t                npnei , inpn epn
 iin pes np tnern e iinChildren's Act peiene se iin npese tn                               e sni ne r nt h ii iin s np e
. p   n   eednei ee


 RE TEH   04 KE NTHE ,E E E G K C G A I R E E H A K H R N E T E E R U K E H T G A I T CHILDREN'S ACT IRR
A RE R KE     R TEH NERRGRGR ,EEGKCGAI GA KEGIIEHAHER GA EHI EI TR TE EHI I THR RTEHE U TT
                                          282                                              283
 TGRAGATHEA TGRA I KRRNHE                      .UMXNORN TNSI AIR WRTXATWXXNTSXNAV               Mier a ii il ehr a iA agr
dofrea af ehr e off Aere Ah ge ehr oAe fr ehr a ae erd fa ehr ,af ehr irde ier rded af ehr Ah ge
                                                                                                 284                           285
,oie fa darA f A odd deoiAr i rer i il ehr Ah ge ea ehr Xrarig A                                      gg od fa   rfr ogod or
                      286                                                287
AIR XWOATXNATNSI         Eoddoi ,Iaorer .a aArer rd                            eo ieo id ehoe ehr a ae d aid fa odd de il
                                                                288
 e off Aere Ah ge ri i ehrCHILDREN'S ACT                              O ST ENTI AVV ST TIW T OW RS IST TMVV               SUOV

A V W X U S O NRWX NI TWXUO ST TIWWR TS XWIRWX SX                         SIOWO OAXTNWO AXW SUVNEAOONOTAI W TIAT OTAT

                                         T Children's ActEH RRA TR " REHA                                  , IRR NERRGIHR TE T
               289
.X S T S S V O       TIW ,NI A V V                                                        KR ET E R

,TE EEGKCHI      KEGII RNRARG GIGTGHR E RHRAR RGTE N EHAT I EHTE T N EHATR RE NHER                                      " HIGHRH
GA " GAI NI KHIRGTE TEH KEGII                   H ,TR U T     H R RNHAIHIARG GIGTGHR           AI EGIETEHGE N EHAT I EHRNR




278
   Section 1(a) Children's Act 38 of 2005; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 286.
279
   Section 1(a) Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-12.
      )0(0 E T G K I H CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME – )5000(PALERMO
280

      PROTOCOL E I H E C RHH IRR ;)5000(COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING .
   f)1(23P SthaufConvention Against Transnational Organised Crime rhfSfufhrotuoStroff)1(23Pff.)1111(
281

      f ttf PssathPhauf Srf SfuPalermo Protocolrhf Sfuf s rSrhraf s rttdutf SfPSf rhhuohutf f )2(2huhPetuf Pf f ,
     udf tof Phhr dPohufutSPhattfudf tof Su tf rhf Sfuf f s rSrhraf etSf huf uaP dudf Ptf rhhuohutf utSPhattf
     r af.eordh.rrrf 1113NUrOlf f ;23r af .eordh.rrrf 1115tuuf Patrf NUrOlf f ;rtSff Sfuf hrotuoStro
      .176-179f,195-198
282
    182nrdsa t Children's Act"d offadeatu at khaic rt"roooot ;1119 f 28 nCRlk ;29 ,23-
         nocar otc k ar-l o ot ;22 o .u g. sosadr.                     1118Children's Act nlk ;186-
      .31 o.od.ho d.            1121
283
   Section 291 Children's Act 38 of 2005; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 13; Kassan "Trafficking in
     Children" 18-22; Kassan and Mahery Protective Measures 206; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za
     43.
284
   Section 286 Children's Act 38 of 2005; SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za 13; Bosman-Sadie and
     Corrie Children's Act 288-289; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 42.
285
   Section 288-289 Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-20; SALRC 2008
     www.justice.gov.za 13; Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act 290-291; HSRC 2010
     www.hsrc.ac.za 42-43.
286
   Section 290 Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-21; Bosman-Sadie and
     Corrie Children's Act 291.
287
   Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-18.
288
   Section 286 Children's Act 38 of 2005; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 42.
289
   Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-18.

                                                                 33 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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."R KR ET'T                                          ,THUNRE ET R EH K EH
                                                                                 290
                KEGIIEHANHAIGAI A GAC GET



fPhhthitoafs rttttrotftofSfuS -ifufhreoSu Children's Act PiuftSfsrttthaufSrfs rtuheSufrhhuodu tfhr fPo f
ttfSfPSfSfutuff,frrutu f ,nfPSf etSfhufhr ouftof todf .S sufrhfS Phhthitoafrfu ufPfhftadfttfSfuftthSt
tohr sr PStrof toSrf Sfuf s rsrtudff s rttttrotf u Ptof toSu t f s rttttrotf Podf rtaaf huf usuPaudf h f Sfut
.S PhhthitoafauattaPStro-hreoSu
                                  291




3.2      Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32
         of 2007


EHT   CRIMINAL LAW (SEXUAL OFFENCES AND RELATED MATTERS) AMENDMENT ACT( 5002 RE 25SEXUAL
OFFENCES AMENDMENT ACT             A KRUNEHEHARGRHIT GA            RH RE H NIRGT TGR KEGUGA IGRHR RH             I   )
.RGAIIH RT T TH
                   292
                      e s ep ne r s eseit ede dn          e tnass e nennt in sni s          ti


      the maximum and least traumatising protection that the law can provide ... by
      establishing a co-operative response between all government departments involved
      in implementing an effective, responsive and sensitive criminal justice system
      relating to sexual offences.293


,E R T R K R I N I H E U R N EHII KRUNIG AKH RGTE TRE IHIGRI TGRA GA E H A I G A I T E H             I R N T GR A N

 TEH AR RHEH GAKI IHI GATE EEGKCGAI NERRGRGR-TE ARGTGRA I                       ATGSEXUAL   OFFENCES AMENDMENT
ACTREGKE K UH GATR , ON 16 DECEMBER 2007. IN PARTIAL COMPLIANCE WITH SOUTH AFRICA'S
                                                            294
INTERNATIONAL COUNTER-TRAFFICKING OBLIGATIONS,                    tnt nee sni neeti isi ee ii t sni np        es
                                                   295
.ips n ee e rnpteet ep tnass nar e isi ee                in sni rpei it s rnptee pe          ips n ee sei eiinp
                                                                                             296
. ep iin rspretn e tnass nar e isi ee ,rnptee h iiesi iin neetnei e iisi ,rnptee


P uf duhtoudf tt taP a f Srf Sfrtuf tof Sfuf f "S Phhthitoa"ifuf PhStrof Podf    uPotf hr srouoStf rhf Sfuf Su       f



290
   Section 287 Children's Act 38 of 2005; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-19, 204; Bosman-Sadie
     and Corrie Children's Ac t289; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 42-43.
291
    SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za 3; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-10; Kassan and Mahery
     Protective Measures 201.
292
   Section 2 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007; see
     also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 541-562; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 41.
293
   Section 2(d) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
294
   Article 5(1) Palermo Protocol (2000); see also s 70(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related
     Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007; Minnie "Sexual Offences" 561; HSRC 2010
     www.hsrc.ac.za 41.
295
   Section 70(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
296
   Section 71(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007: "A
     person ('A') who traffics any person ('B'), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of
     trafficking in persons for sexual purposes." See also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 561; UNODC
     Global Report 127; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 41.

                                                      34 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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APau      rfA rSrhra
                       297
                         se        en s n


    the supply, recruitment, procurement, capture, removal, transportation, transfer,
    harbouring, sale, disposal or receiving of a person, within or across the borders of
    the Republic, by means of –
    (i)           a threat of harm;
    (ii)     the threat or use of force, intimidation or other forms of coercion;
    (III)         ABDUCTION;
    (iv)          fraud;
(V)      DECEPTION OR FALSE PRETENCES;
    (VI)          THE ABUSE OF POWER OR OF A POSITION OF VULNERABILITY, TO THE
        EXTENT THAT THE COMPLAINANT IS INHIBITED FROM INDICATING HIS OR HER
        UNWILLINGNESS OR RESISTANCE TO BEING TRAFFICKED, OR UNWILLINGNESS TO
        PARTICIPATE IN SUCH AN ACT; OR
        (vii)     the giving or receiving of payments, compensation, rewards, benefits or
        any other advantage.298

f Sfuf udsartSPSttuf se srtuf uau uoSf tof Sfuf ,trrutu Sexual Offences Amendment ActhPtatf Srf hr sa f
f,udsartSPSttuf se srtuf rhf Pf tudePaf oPSe uf roa f huhPetuf tSf s rttdutf hr f Pof ,rtSff Sfuf APau               rf A rSrhra
tohaedtoa


        any form or manner of exploitation, grooming or abuse of a sexual nature of such
        person, including the commission of any sexual offence or any offence of a sexual
        nature in any other law against such person or performing any sexual act with such
        person, whether committed in or outside the borders of the Republic.299

    GA TEH E H G R R    H R E K R A R H A T TSEXUAL         OFFENCES AMENDMENT ACTHATIT GR NNER KEHI IGEEHE
E     T KRARHAT RE TEH E H I                T T H E N E R R G I H R T T .E R T R K R I N   I H E U R N EERU TE T GA TEH

E GE TEH AR E RH             HHA    RHI RRE TEH NEREG GTHI UH GEEHIHR AT REHEH                AT TE EEGKCHI NHERRA GR

.TH ER 04 RE NHERRA AIHE TEH IH RER GR IHEGAHI R                          , KEGII TE EEGKCHI NHERRA GR
                                                                                                                 300
                                                                                                                     I TIW   S
    TIW ,STIWX IAIRSexual            Offences Amendment ActRER )" "( NHERRA ] [" RTGN I THR TE T
GKCGAI HAKH RE TE EEGR I GITT RE TEH REE                ,    RE RGTER T TEH KRARHAT        ,)" "( TE EEGKR AT NHERRA
."I N ENRRHRGA NHERRAR ERE RH
                                              301




.AKRHEKHI IEHHUHATUH AR RRI AT ET RE                          "KRARHAT" E H                               TT
                                                                                                               302
                                                                                 K T N E R R GI HR T E           te n iin
iin sni rpennn t ie ti s es                 np e n pns tisennt hi ni hes              enesin ds          , s np e       peiene


297
   Article 3(1) Palermo Protocol (2000).
298
   Section 70(2)(b) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
      HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 41.
299
   Section 70(2)(b) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
300
   Article 3(d) Palermo Protocol (2000).
301
    Section 1(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
      Minnie "Sexual Offences" 561.
302
   Section 71(3) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
      Minnie "Sexual Offence"s 561-562.

                                                             35 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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                                                                                                 303
.aissti dn ti e n pns tisennt si ti rs sint iisi ii t t eei se n ,neetnei                          erspi pe       s es     np e
                                                                                                           304
.iin     nset tin        e iin   s np e    peiene spn s te en s n ,eiinp n pns tisennt                           in sni spiinp
in p neetnei nnsstn i ,inspt spn eei s n ie neetnei ds                   i 21rped nt iisi ni pne n eh iin sen e
                                                                                 305
."de seisp i ep h iiesi nenpn ee" t eei pnesp n st n ee e dne                         iisi : in snti ee iisi sp tnt t
 in ep s si ee ee ?inspt 27ie 21nei i ni                    pne e sen iine t iin ret i ee pnesp ee s nen neet
 ii t ttsn e iinSEXUAL OFFENCES AMENDMENT ACT A V W X U S O LNONSI NI TIWRNTTWXO TXSU TIW OXS
UMT     , WAXO 05 VRXWI MIRWX AIR SLWXXWITNATW UWTEWWI                        INEIN I RSWO IST RNTTW ,X S T S                SVO
                                                                               306
. WAXO 04 ST OWXOSI MIRWX TIW AEW I RWTNIWO A INVR AO A                           TINO NT NO OMUUNTTWR TIAT ,W I              WI

NIW NSI TS UXNIE NT NI VTXATTN ENIE VWENOVAT-OWR               SMITWXRXWOOWR NI TIW OXSOSNOOMW IWWRO TS UW AR

.X S T S S V O A V W X U S O NI TIW ENTI TIW OXSLNONSIO


EGUH RE E U A GUGA IGRH TEH U GA KRT THR N ETGHR TR KE                                   N   ET        EE R U    EHC     GE GA I

T GR A R E GE HR T E H K E GU GA         IGR    ERTR KRI E         ETE HE EHC           N    I H E U R N TEH ,TE EEGKCGAI

U A TTHUNTR TR KRUUGT E R EHC GEHUHAT TE T                         'E R T R K R I N     I H E U R N E H T .EHI THI KEGUHR

RGAKH TEH       TTHUNT    ,E E G K A I R        R   T E R GA I GR      IEH IT KRRHEHIA IGRHTE EEGKCGAI                    H KEGUG

EE GK    A IHI     I     R   T E R TEH     RT ATGRH KEGUH GAGR EHKRIAGRHI                    R     R TR KRUUGT         AT KEGUH

.RTRTHU
          307
               iin , eeet pnesp t iin e        esi ee ie rpei i iin epese t ee se                  pnni ee e is se ips n
SEXUAL OFFENCES AMENDMENT ACTAVOS UMT ESWO TMXTIWX U                                   ,UVNEATNSI SUOVNWO ENTI TIAT S
IE SVVNIE TIW TXATTN ENOMOWXLNONIE SX               SITX     , SUUAIRNIE ,TXSU SXRWXNIE OXSINUNTNIE A OWXOSI
         308
. XNUW         EIN I   ,X S T S S V O A V W X U S O IW SUOXWIWIONLW TIAI T I W A T NO A V O S U S X W T
AI W STNIAVNOWO TIW OWXTSXU SIV                NI TIAT NT    XNU   "AO AI A     SUOVN W" OATNIE XNUNIAVNOWO OAXTN N

,OXSUSTNIE ,WI SMXAENIE ,UXNIENIE AUSMT , AMONIE ,NTTNIEWR AT                                SUUAI        A T EIN I NO ANU "
                                                                        309
."TXATTN ENIE SX OAXTN NOATNIE NI SITXNUMTNIE TSEAXRO


PodfroufSfPSfttfSrff, fPtsuhSftof utsuhSfrhfrfthffSfufPhSfttfh rPdu fSfPofSfufAPau                          rfA rSrhra Pfhe Sfu

303
   Section 71(4) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
304
   Section 71(4) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007:
     "Circumstances in which B does not voluntarily or without coercion agree to being trafficked, as
     contemplated in subsection (3), include, but are not limited to, the following – )s(where B
     submits or is subjected to such an act as a result of any one or more of the means or
     circumstances contemplated in subparagraphs (i) to (vii) of the definition of trafficking having
     been used or being present; or ) (where B is incapable in law of appreciating the nature of the
     act, including where B is, at the time of the commission of such act – (i) asleep; (ii) unconscious;
     (iii) in an altered state of consciousness, including under the influence of any medicine,drug,
     alcohol or other substance to the extent that B's consciousness or judgement is adversely
     affected; (iv) a child below the age of 12 years; or (v) a person who is mentally disabled."
305
   Section 71(4)(b)(iv) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of
     2007.
306
   Article 3(d) Palermo Protocol (2000).
307
   Attempt to commit a common law crime is in itself a crime under the common law, while s 18(1) of
     the Riotous Assemblies Act 17 of 1956 criminalises an attempt to commit a statutory offence –
     Burchell Criminal Law 619-641; Snyman Criminal Law 283-294; see also 2.2.1 above.
308
   Section 71(2)(a) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     Minnie "Sexual Offences" 561.
309
   Section 71(2)(b) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     see also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 561.

                                                            36 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

ttfSfPSfSfufPhSftoS rdehutfSfufh t ufrhftotratu uoSftofSfufS Phhthitoafrhfsu trotftofr du f f,hufruahr ud
SfufPhSfs rttdutff,rofSfttf uaP df.toafs rhuttSrfh toafSrfhrrifPaafPauoStfsaP toafPfsP SftofSfufS Phhthi
SfPSfPo fsu trofrfr


        INCITES, INSTIGATES, COMMANDS, AIDS, ADVISES, RECRUITS, ENCOURAGES OR
        PROCURES ANY OTHER PERSON TO COMMIT, CAUSE, BRING ABOUT, PROMOTE,
        PERFORM, CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS OR PARTICIPATE IN TRAFFICKING, IS GUILTY OF AN
                                                                              310
        OFFENCE OF INVOLVEMENT IN TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS FOR SEXUAL PURPOSES.


Sfuff,u tfrhSuofhPhtatSPSuffe PofS Phhthitoafh f rttoaftthSt tftaauaPaa fPh rttfoPStroPafhr du troftturfrhfSfufhPhSfSfPSfS Potsr S
                                             311
"hr      u htPafhP tu t"PhSfs rfthtStfPaaf         pe     p ee ee s rsttneenp eie ep pn ed ee s rnptee pe         desii e p ns h iiesi tsni s

.)iin dnrs n(n pe         iin dnrs n e desii e p ns rsttneenp isd ee ipsdn                 ens neit ep iin sh s neipi eie ep nrspisp
                                                                                                                                                .312
ep    nrspi pe      iin ,pn s e e , srt ie te n nainei h ii iin rpei i ee ses eti stt ti ee seeiinp ie neinp i t e nenn ednp
                                                                                                                313
     dnrs n e neeipsdnei ee e iinImmigration                    Act ( 5005af       02Immigration         Act. )         iin ,rehndnpSexual

Offences Amendment Actrped nt iisi iin ipsetrepi ee e ne np t s te s n ep rsi ee iin neti e iin ipsetrepin
                                                                    314
.ts n nnr ee se pnispe pe         desii e p ns ,t nspn'rnptee


              315
tSee     Po      ips n n rnpteet ,r nrep nas             .i ei eiit iin rpe n     iisi iin d ni   t e is se ips n ee spn e ine rpetnnsin
hie spn e desii e p ns h iiesi ds             ens neisi ee nnsstn iin p rsttrepit isdn nne nee tnsin                  i iin p ips n npt     si n
                                                        316                                                                               317
 rpetnnsin se np iinImmigration               Act,        .   eie rpeti isi ee   si n rpetnnsin     ep rpeti isi eehi n d ni   t epnn           in

Sexual Offences Amendment Acteei s n ep sei "s pnttnt ii t ttsn i ti rs si ee iisi s d ni                                      e ips n ee t
                                                                                                                                   318
."hi ni hst ne         iin st s   pnni pnts i e         n ee ips n n ,pn sin e nenn- ee sei        epsi ee en s ,np     es e nenn



f uaP dtftPohStrotfhr fS PhhthitoafrhhuohutfutSPhattfudftofSfuf PtSexual              Offences Amendment ActSfu ufttforftsuhththff,
                                        319
.suoPafs rttttroftohaedudftofSfufPhS           e iin )1(se        )2(72iin ips n ee e nennt e tnni ee ,rehndnp Sexual              Offences

310
   Section 71(2)(c) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     Minnie "Sexual Offences" 561.
311
   The term "commercial carrier" is defined broadly in s 70(2)(a) to include a company or the owner,
     operator or master of any means of transport that engages in the transportation of goods or
     people for commercial gain.
312
   Section 71(6)(a) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007:
     "A commercial carrier commits an offence if the carrier brings a person into or removes a person
     from the Republic and, upon entry into or departure from the Republic, the person does not have
     the travel documents required for lawful entry into or departure from the Republic." See also
     Minnie "Sexual Offences" 562; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 41.
313
   Section 49(2) Immigration Act 13 of 2002: "Anyone who knowingly assists a person to enter or
     remain in, or depart from the Republic in contravention of this Act, shall be guilty of an offence
     and liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment not exceeding one year." See also Stuurman
     2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5.
314
   Section 71(6)(c) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     see also Minnie "Sexual Offences" 562.
315
   Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 5.
316
   US Department of State 2011 www.state.gov 330.
317
   US Department of State 2011 www.state.gov 330.
318
   Section 71(5) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     SOCA Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za 2; HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 41.
319
   Lotan "Brief Outline" 11.

                                                                      37 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

Amendment Actf rhfSfuf1huhPetufSfu fP ufattSudftofsP Sfrfrhfthfudeauf f,P uf uaP dudfPtftu tretfrhhuohutfCriminal Law
Amendment Acts nespi t e en ie            retn s        e   s       tneinenn e      rp tee nei ep   n ee ,ennep ee i .2557e     219
                                                  320
,e iintn ips n ee e nennt e ne npt need nin         ts tisei s se ne rn ee n pns tisennt na ti "se ntt iin nespi e t iisi
                                                  321
."ee e s nttnp tneinennhi ni gsti i iin   ret i



4         Conclusion


aPrf uohr hu uoSf Podf s rtuheStrof f ,rof r du f Srf hr hPSf fe Pof S Phhthitoaf uhhthtuoSa f Podf uhhuhSttua
:of todfSfPSffe PofS PhhthitoafttfPfs rhuttf PSfu fSfPofPfttoaaufrhhuohu rhhthtPatf etSfiuusft


       TRAFFICKING MAY INVOLVE OFFENSES AGAINST THE STATE, SUCH AS ABUSE OF
       IMMIGRATION LAWS, DOCUMENT FORGERY, CORRUPTION OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS,
       MONEY LAUNDERING, AND TAX EVASION. OTHER VIOLATIONS ARE DIRECTED AGAINST
       VICTIMS: UNLAWFUL COERCION OR THREAT, EXTORTION, AGGRAVATED ASSAULT, SEXUAL
                                      322
       ASSAULT, RAPE, OR EVEN MURDER.


H GRTGAI KRUURA I R ,GRATE EEGKCGAI IHIGRI T-HARGRH KR ATHEHRHA RGTER T KRUNEHE ,E                                               RT

I KT RRHK TH KEGUGA I KRAIAGEGK AT TRRI TR NEREEHAKHR EHU GA                                        RG KEGUHR     AI RT T TRET

.TE EEGKCGAI NERKHRR KRUUGTTHI I EGAI TEH
                                                                323                                    324
                                                                    ,et hst re ein esi s edn                 WRNOTNIE OXSLNONSIO

A TNLNTNWO NI TSX TXATTN ENIE S SUTANI                  SILN TNSIOOVNWR OM               WOOTMVV     TIALW AVXWAR          UWWI AO

 i ehr Aodr afN .ENIEX TIAI IMUAI TXATTN TWXUO ST XNUWO STIWS V ANDREWSTIW A                                            MOWR EAO      ,
    nnr ee s peiin e inp t e iin NUOXNOSIUWIT TSX ' WAXO 02 OWITWI WR TSSEXUAL OFFENCES ACT
                                                                                                                     325
.WWO ST SUUSI VAE XAO IAXE AI A                   SUOVN W SI TES AO EWVV AO TSX UWNIE                      0922 ST 52      ,5000 I N
convictions were secured on nispent e inp t e iinPREVENTION OF ORGANISED CRIME ACT ST 050
                                                                                        326
0994      AI TEH IMMIGRATION        ACT 5005 ST 02                    GAS V   SAYED.          ALONLW TISMEI TIW          SUOXWIWI

I     SILN TWR NI TWXUOTXATTN EWXO IALW UWW ,X WNSI NO IST                          WT NI TSTXATTN ENIE VWENOVAT- SMITWX

AITS O    O S O R V R NI A A ,5000 M V U 09 I S .OXSLNONSIO NTNSIAV TXATTN ENIEST TIW MXXWIT TXAIO
 XUO ST TIWW NUOXNOSIUWIT NI TWEAO OWITWI WR TS VNTCriminal                             Law (Sexual Offences and Related
Matters) Amendment Act H T R R I U G C U H IGEIR EERUERE TE EEGKCGAI TEEH 5002 RE 25
. IR GT T GR A E E GK                                                 TER
                                                                            327
                           ER E    RH        I     H N          R                 iin   rne ee iin nesni nei e               , ist
iinpn spn es npest na ti ee ne               ee sh np                 nt se        ,ips n ee ne t si ee-n          psn ee sei -s
tisisiepi e nennt iisi nse n si tn ie rpetnnsin e ne npt ep snit ne                                  iin     sp ee iin ips n ee


320
   Section 51(1) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007;
     HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za 41.
321
   Section 51(3)(a) Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007.
322
   Bales Global Slavery 133.
323
    Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 2; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-10; SALRC 2008 www.
     justice.gov.za 14; SOCA Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za 2.
324
   See 2.2.7 and 2.2.13 above.
325
   S v Andrews (unreported case 27/50/1998; 27 August 2004, Cape Town Regional Court); see also
     NPA 2010b www.pmg.org.za 11.
326
   S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008; 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court).
327
   The accused was convicted in the Pretoria Regional Court in terms of the Criminal Law (Sexual

                                                            38 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1
           328
.rpenntt


 E H A T E H RPREVENTION AND        COMBATING OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS BILLKRUHR GATR 5000 RE 2
HR TR NERRHK TH        AGTG N   IIGTGRA I RNNRET RAR RGII GAIHHI RNHAGTR H THAIHI NERRGRG ,EREKH

GRA KE EIHR TEH NERRHK T RGTER T I NIGK TGAI ,T G I I R .EH GATHARGRHITE U A TE EEGKCGAI UR

IHATR RGTE          II RTEHEKE EIH TE EEGKCGAI              ,GKCGAI REEHAKHRGA    IIGTGRA TR TE EE    ,RER II
.RE II EREKH RE TEH I E TEH EEGKCGAI GR UHT RGTHAR EH TE T E U A TE EHIHR AT REEHAKHR TR
TE T U T         H E GU HR   A I N E R R GR GR A R E R HA    I R E H GR T GA I K R E T E GR E H R R A T E H   E
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 .E EEGKCGAIKRU         TGAI RE E U A T




       Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 – SAPA 2011 www.news24.com 1.
328
      Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons" 2; Kassan "Trafficking in Children" 18-10; SALRC 2008
       www.hsrc.ac.za 14; SOCA Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za 2.

                                                     39 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

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H H IHUMAN TRAFFICKING

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Lotan "Brief Outline"
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     Human Trafficking National Action Plan Conference 25-27 March 2009 Durban)


sn s e 2007 Vanderbilt J Transnat'l L
     f t s rttoaf Sfuf s utuoSPSttuf        uPte utf rhf Sfu f :Pof reohuf rhf s utuoStro"nhlaPtof iyf Trafficking
     Victims Protection Actf1117f"Vanderbilt J Transnat'l L617-981


5009 R R A U- R G I CK UOBITER
     f Sfuf lrotStSeStrof Podf Sfuf ,'eieSfrPaP'ifuf s PhSthuf rhf "nPtrof Of -nhoertdCriminal Law (Sexual
     Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Actf1115f"Obiter712-726


H I R G A UHUMAN TRAFFICKING

     fnuattofleHuman Trafficking: a Theoretical Application of Anomie on the Tier Placement System
     Utilized by the U.S. Department of State's "Trafficking in Persons" ReporttfOtttu SPStrof'nPtSu (
     )1116G Podf Paau ftSPSufNottu ttS f


fntaSroCommon Law Crimes
      iais t ulRSouth African Criminal Law and Procedure – Volume II: Common Law Crimes c rc
     )2556usso rrt st (


"E E H A K H R R H     I R" G A A G H U

     tf "Paf rhhuohutf PaPtotSf lftad uotude"ntootuf Of Boezaart T Child Law in South Africa leSPf(
     )1115laP u roSf



MNISI "TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS"
     R    TER E      U H R R E C GA E HI      II     EEHATK        – H E R R A R N E E E G K C G A I G A T" E A G R G U
     RECRERN RA R E             GA GA I T GR A I HIGR HE HI          TAN      IGR E H I K R A T E G    T   ( "E E G K
     4-1     T E R E GT T     ERRHK       TGA I N    T GR A   I A TEH E      E EGK C GA I E R R T HI       TT   U   AE

     )I R H U E R A T H G A   5004 K T R H E R
R A I R I R I R R R I R UTRAFFICKING IN CHILDREN

     f nrarf troarararTrafficking in Children for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation – South
     Africa)1111nrarftroarararflPsufirrof(


                                                        46 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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"i Phhthitoa"nr PrtiPf
       U H H I GA " E R N H H   R T H E A H EERU E   EEGK C GA I GA T R   A I T"   H R E R R C UHUMAN
    TRAFFICKING)5002 H R R A I      I G R E G A I N G I I A R(



5000 G H I R H A A-T E I R R R U H A H   A I UAFRICAN HUMAN RIGHTS LAW JOURNAL

    f?BuotaofPhhr      rdPStro"Utuatuoflf -tarSff&nrP huoufef UkuthwalaPodfSfuff'hr hudf P tPau'f,
    ftreSffPh thPoChildren's Actf1122f"African Human Rights Law Journal11-2



Ncube "Possible Contribution"
   Ncube J "Possible Contribution of SADC Secretariat to Prevent and Respond to
    Human Trafficking, Labour and Sexual Exploitation of Children in Southern
    Africa" (Unpublished contribution delivered at Regional Conference on
    Prevention and Intervention Against Child Trafficking hosted by the Southern
    Africa Network Against Trafficking and Abuse of Children [SANTAC] 8-9 October
    2008 Maputo)


fUrrPiCivil and Political Rights
       u   oe iU.N. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – CCPR Commentaryui Dturi rrhi (tc rc 1
    )1119


  RC   T   RTRAFFICKING OF HUMAN BEINGS
    f rhriPSPf iTrafficking of Human Beings from a Human Rights Perspectivef :towards a Holistic
    Approach)1116nP StoetfUtjfrhhfAehattfu tfeutduof(


I G R G H E RET AL INDIGENOUS LAW

    fratttu fUllet alIndigenous Law )2559PofBeSSu rr SftfOe h(




                                                 47 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

" aos adoi C         odhro"iado riia
      H H I GA   "H G A I R      U   AE E   I H GA T NNE R   KEHR TR TEH          GR T R E GK   I E"   ET G K E H I I G N
       UHUMAN TRAFFICKING)5002 H R R A I             I G R E G A I N G I I A R(



PLANITZER COUNTER-TRAFFICKING COOPERATION
      Planitzer J Guiding Principles on Memoranda of Understanding between Key Stakeholders and
      Law Enforcement Agencies on Counter-trafficking Cooperation)1115r i dartto (


f1111yP      rodfWomen's International Forum
      "dhr tr       u s offadeatu      s d i"los   tc ue Women's International Forum 911-


fytjiuoTrafficking in Persons
       la ert kTrafficking in Persons: Prosecution from a European Perspective dik Coor i roo dhr (
      )1112 ousr


"E E E G K C G A I T U A E" E H I I H T R
      f tof euuf nf "te Pof i Phhthitoaf Ptf Pf Tr             f rhf i PotoPStroPaf l t u "tfuaau f ef Human
      Trafficking)1117ntaaPofAehattftoafOutrof(


f1113ttoaffCILSA
       1113 "iar datu shr grai t s offadeatu at        rt"natuh e CILSA272-231


5009 I           H E T ROBITER

      s rsu S f tafStfPodfrrou tftsfrhff –rfhPofdrfrfPSfrfrPoSfrtSfftSf f,ifttfttf              fitdou "taPhhu Sfnf
      f1115f"Pofr aPotfe Obiter 927-



Smith "South Africa's Strategy"
      Nosehattfudf(f "tf tS PSua f Srf Pdd uttf te Pof i Phhthitoaf tof Au trot 'treSff Ph thP"t tSff Af
      hroS theStrof duattu udf PSf yuatroPaf lrohu uohuf rof A utuoStrof Podf roSu tuoStrof PaPtotSf lftadf
      uf rhf lftad uofi Phhthitoaf frtSudf h f Sfuf treSfu of Ph thPf UuSrr if PaPtotSf i Phhthitoaf Podf Phet
       f5-8f]tPUiPl[2008 Maputo)



fto     PoCriminal Law
      nts ot kl Criminal Law)1118Rr aour ao es hot (sh rc 9


"G K T G U R R" A T U A R
      f tof OPtttf ef Podf to        Pof yf " thSt tf rhf te Pof i Phhthitoa"to      Pof yf Victimology in South


                                                       48 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

    Africa)1119 PofthfPtifA uSr tPf(


f1113tSee   PofEye on Human Trafficking
    1113 "s offadeatu iruaoiosa t dot t i tur hr criosrc -Ctsa"nsss   ot R Eye on Human Trafficking2:9



UN.GIFT "DEMAND FOR FORCED LABOUR"
   United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) "Demand
    for Forced Labour and Sexual Exploitation – How and Why It Fuels Human
    Trafficking" (Background Paper 004 Workshop [UN.GIFT B.P.:004] delivered at
    The Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking 13-15 February 2008 Vienna)


UN.GIFT "HUMAN TRAFFICKING"
   United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) "Human
    Trafficking for the Removal of Organs and Body Parts" (Background Paper 011
    Workshop [UN.GIFT B.P.:011] delivered at The Vienna Forum to Fight Human
    Trafficking 13-15 February 2008 Vienna)


UN.GIFT "PROFILING THE TRAFFICKERS"
   United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) "Profiling
    the Traffickers" (Background Paper 016 Workshop [UN.GIFT B.P.:016] delivered
    at The Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking 13-15 February 2008 Vienna)


 ARIKTOOLKIT
    f)NUrOl(NotSudfUPStrotfrhhthufrofO eatfPodfl t uf Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons –
    Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings )1116NotSudfUPStrotfUurf r if(




                                                49 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

fNUrOlGlobal Report
    f )NUrOl(Podf l t uf f NotSudf UPStrotf rhhthuf rof O eatGlobal Report on Trafficking in
    Persons)1115NUrOlf tuooPf(


f tajruoHuman Rights Law
     dai rt International Human Rights Law in Africa )1117     f c tagr oass i roo ur n e (


ATHEA    T GR A   I G RI RHET-A T G   HGR R   ERIT   A I RABOLISHING SLAVERY

    f taPtu f roSu oPStroPa-uttth rdSf Of Podf PoStnAbolishing Slavery and Its Contemporary
    Forms(Report for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
    HR/PUB/02/4))1111NotSudfUPStrotfUurf r if(



Register of legislation


BASIC CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT ACT0992 RE 22
Child Care Act 2582rhff73
CHILDREN'S ACT5002 RE 24
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa,2556f
CRIMINAL LAW (SEXUAL OFFENCES AND RELATED MATTERS) AMENDMENT ACT5002 RE 25
Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act 2551rhff231
FILMS AND PUBLICATIONS ACT0991 RE 12
General Law Amendment Act 2551rhff225
HUMAN TISSUE ACT 0942 RE 12
Identification Act2557rhff68f
IMMIGRATION ACT 5005 RE 02
International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act2556rhff79f
NATIONAL HEALTH ACT5002 RE 10
Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Ac 1113rhff21Sf
PREVENTION OF ORGANISED CRIME ACT0994 RE 050
Riotous Assemblies Act2596rhff27f
SEXUAL OFFENCES ACT0922 RE 52
Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill 1121–7B



Register of government publications

Proc R19 in GG 27503 of 18 April 2005
Proc R20 in GG 33187 of 14 May 2010


Register of international instruments

CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME)5000(
Palermo Protocol (Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially
Women and Children) )1111(
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION CONVENTION (NO. 29) CONCERNING FORCED LABOUR )0920(
Universal Declaration of Human Rights)2538(f

                                                50 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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Register of case law

Green v Fitzgerald 1914 AD 88
National Director of Public Prosecutions v Geyser 2008 2 SACR (SCA) 103
National Director of Public Prosecutions v RO Cook Properties (Pty) Ltd; National Director of Public
     Prosecutions v 37 Gillespie Street Durban (Pty) Ltd; National Director of Public Prosecutions v
     Seevnarayan 2004 2 SACR 208 (SCA)
NDPP v Mohamed )ll(f256yftPlf1f1111
R V HANSON 1849 2 C & K 912
R v Holliday259lAOff2517f
S V ANDREWS H I G R A I E R R A T N H K ,5008 I R T          52 ;0994/20/52 . AEHNRETHI K RH AR(
)R E T K
S v De Vries 2009 1 SACR 613 (C)
S v Dos Santos (unreported case; 19 July 2011, Pretoria Regional Court)
S v Eloff )nuair f;18/955ttf.eo usr SudfhPtufor(
S v Mudaly (pending case no. 41/890/2007; Durban Regional Court)
S v Netcare Kwa-Zulu (Proprietary) Limited (unreported case no. 41/1804/2010; 8 November 2010,
     Durban Regional Court)
S V NYALUNGUT 02528 IER5002
S V SAWATKAN ) E    A I ;04/5082/80 . AEHNRETHI K RH AR(
S v Sayed )Oe hPofyuatroPaflre Sf,1121nP hfff28f;1118/1722/132f.eo usr SudfhPtufor(
S V WIPHATAWAITHAYA) E     A I ;09/5/202 . AEHNRETHI K RH AR(



Register of Internet sources

hr .th thd.rrrf1118Tuaarrtf
     fi Phhthitoaf   Brd f   AP Stf   tof   nreP htfeuf     Podf   treSff   Ph thP f   1118Tuaarrtf   tf
      n-Ph thP-treSf-Pod-nreP htfeu-to-AP St-Brd -i Phhthitoa/91192222/drh/hr .th thd.rrr//:fSSs
      ]9222tusff92dPSufrhfetuf[euPaeuf-ytafSt-te Po-reP htfeu


eP.Ph.ft h.rrrf1121ttylf
     Nodu tSPodtoafSfuf Ot uottrotfrhff :itt uaudePotf 1121f)ttyl(te Pof thtuohutfyutuP hff lreohtaf
     f19dPSufrhfetuf [fsfS a.1659-Orhe uoS/eP.Ph.ft h.rrr//:fSSsfte Pof i Phhthitoaftof treSffPh thP
      ]1121nP f


K   .IK.U HKG-IE GT.RRR 5008 H E E R E G R U T E G U H    AI K ATHEA    T GR A   IG

     te Pof i Phhthitoaf Podf nta PoSf t eaaatoaf f 1113Su oPStroPaf l t uf Podf iu r tt f ro
     Urtff 21dPSuf rhf etuf [Ptsf .uo-S Phhthitoa_fe Po/toSu oPStroPah t u/hP.ah. Puht-dhPtS.rrr//:fSSs
      ]1116


I   .REI.GRU 5004 GRU
     ifuf roSu oPaff :Urf dsu tuohuf UuhuttP f 1118f )rrn(roSu oPStroPaf r aPotePStrof hr f nta PStrof


                                                 51 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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   i Phhthitoaf          rhf           Au trotf            tof           treSff            Ph thPf
   f91=rSu td212=atd&duSPtat_drh=SPti&drh Po_hr =rsStro?sfs.todud/ttSu/eP.r a.tr //:fSSs
   ]1118Urtff3dPSufrhfetuf[


JORDAN 2002 WWW.WALNET.ORG
   lr staudfhr fSfuf(ifufPoorSPSudfGetdufSrfSfuflr sauSufNUfi PhhthitoafA rSrhraf f 1111lr dPofPOf
   AOTf.iyPTTrll-NU/sPsu t/httt/r a.rPaouS.rrr//:fSSsf )roSu oPStroPaf te Pof ytafStf ePrf G res
   ]1118Urtff22dPSufrhfetuf[




                                            52 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
PER / PELJ 2012(15)1

NPA 2010A WWW.PMG.ORG.ZA
     s ot d offadeatu nsosaosado :uosa toi i ordssatu Cssh ass 1121 )uiC(ordssatu Cssh ass uosa toi i
   i rortsosa t s shr usosadr otc k tosasssa toi ergri          rts i sf ia k              assrr t –otc koor Ctoisoao
    ]1121u g 13cosr f sor [ cf.t o212226/c do/fairo/ o. u.               u.      //:hss 1121u gr hr 26


NPA 2010b www.pmg.org.za
    – 1121uosa toi i ordssatu Cssh ass nsosaosado u gr hr             1121 )uiC(uosa toi i ordssatu Cssh ass
    c do/fairo/ o. u.   u.     //:hss Ccg C got cr lsi
    ]1121u g 13cosr f sor [      s.t o222221/


NPA 2010c www.pmg.org.za
   nsosaosado   t   s ot :uosa toi i ordssatu Cssh ass 1121 )uiC(uosa toi i ordssatu Cssh ass
    26i rortsosa t s shr usosadr otc k tosasssa toi ergri          rts i sf ia k            assrr t –d offadeatu kooro
    ]1121u g 26cosr f sor [ io .uiCnsoso212226/ doc/fairo/ o. u.               u.          //:hss 1121u gr hr


eP.r a.s a.rrrf1121AP atP uoSP flr              tSSuufrofletSthufPodflrotStSeStroPafOutuars uoSf
    HR HIR N U HA T I R A R T GT    TGR A   IK     R T GK H      A I E R U U GT T HH R A K         EIG U HAT      ETN

    :)5000-2 ( G I I     RHERRA N E      EE GK C GA I GA T R U          T GA I R E K E HR HA T GR A         AIN   5000
    R E TER IGR N HHT GA I R E U GA      THR R EU    –        U G R R G R A R R H R N R A R H T R E R'H N   ETU HATI

    5000 H N T H U H E R 02 ,H R H I R N U H A T I R A R T G T T G R A I K       R T GK H     A I E R U U GT T HH R A K

    [ 73332/NEGAT/I .REI.NUI.RRR//:ETTNOF USE 24 NOV 2010]


5008 R IEKWWW.DOJ.GOV.ZA
    .i Phhthitoaf tof Au trotf 1113f )tPeyl(treSff Ph thPof ePrf yuhr               f lr      ttttrof 131       (Issue
    Paper 25)ffffffhttp://www.doj.gov.za/salrc/ipapers/ip25_prj
131_2004.pdf]1118nP ff22dPSufrhfetuf[f




                                                   53 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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f1116tPeylfwww.doj.gov.za
      .i Phhthitoaf tof Au trotf 1116f )ltPey(treSff Ph thPof ePrf yuhr                    f lr   ttttrof 131 (Discussion
      Paper 111)http://www.doj.gov.za/salrc/dpapers.htm ]1118nP ff22dPSufrhfetuf[


I   .IRR.E RTGKH.RRR 5004 R IEK
      .yusr Sf rof i Phhthitoaf tof Au trotf 1118f )tPeyl(treSff Ph thPof ePrf yuhr                      f lr          ttttrof 131
      http://www.justice.gov.za/salrc/reports/r_pr131_
      trafficking_2008.pdf [date of use 23 Mar 2008]


KRU.58AHRR.RRR             5000 R N
      f    'te Pof        i Phhthiu f     GuStf   ethuf     tuoSuohu'f    1122tPAPf         News24f2f        1122lea f        f   11
     PSuf rhfd[f 7u-dh59-h312-9753-uP51hdhh=Ptd&th P u?Ptsd.s toSP Sthau/hr .13ourt.rrr//:fSSs
      ]1122leaff12etuf


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          T GR A    IA A GT GA      EE GE R       RUU       A GT T K EEHA K HR     AIR H          I R(   )AN ( A G T          RRK
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      ]5000 E U 8 RE RH


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      E GR GR R EK HK          E GT T R    U   AE      – E EE GK C GA I T        U   AE     5002 E R N I           T    EHE EHT

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      ]5004 I


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      RTHR         ER E   TEHA      A T HE N E HT T GR H G     :I I H A I U       5000 R R H U I T             HAHE       II      A
      H K R E I R E E E G K G I R(TRAVAUX PRÉPARATOIRESE R T R K R I              N H I R T G T G R A R E T E H A RE TEH )
     RU HA     R IITHRNHKG ,H E R R A R N E E E G K C G A I G A T             A GR E N     NNEHRR        A I R ,E H R H A T N TR

      I    GA R T       R A R HA TGR A K       T GR A R A A GT H I        NNIHU HA TGA I TE HR               ,E G I I E H A K     AI

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      RRA     04 I TH RE         RH[ NIE.H-H RRC_10028-08/5001_KTRKKRN/NIE/REI. ARIK.RRR//:ETTN

      ]5004


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     euattaPSttuf Getdutf hr f Sfuff 1113f )NUrOl(rof O eatf Podf l t uf f NotSudf UPStrotf rhhthu

                                                             54 / 428
HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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   r sau uoSPStrof rhf Sfuf NotSudf UPStrotf lrotuoStrof PaPtotSf i PotoPStroPaf r aPoteudf l t uf Podf
    uo/eordh/r a.eordh.rrr//:SfufA rSrhratfifu uSrffSSs
    ]9222eafPf21dPSufrhfetuf[ffS a.aetdu-auattaPSttu/lirl/S uPStut/


r a.eordh.rrrf1118NUrOlf
    5004 ) ARIK( E G U H K E I R       A I I EEGKH R A R     T GR A R A A GT HI   TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING

    IN   PERSONS – GLOBAL PROGRAMME AGAINST TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS. NEW YORK: UNITED
    NATIONS HTTP://WWW.UNODC.ORG/DOCUMENTS
    /HUMAN-TRAFFICKING/HT_TOOLKIT08_ENGLISH.PDF [DATE OF USE 16 OCT 2008]


r a.eordh.rrrf1115NUrOlf
     R ER E I R I HIU     5009 ) ARIK( E G U H K E I R         A I I EEGKH R A R      T GR A R A A GT HI

    /TE EEGKCGAI-E U A/IRK UHATR/REI. ARIK.RRR//:H E R R A R E T T N N E E E G K C G A I G A T
    ]5000 I E I TH RE RH[ I E N.TGN_ I GART_ R I_R I H I U


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    )T T H R H N E T U H A T R E I   R( T T H R H N E T U H A T R E I U H E G K    T T HR R ER A GT HI

   HNRET     E             HERRARN                   E   EEGK C GA I              GA T              5002
    ]5002 I E 55 I TH RE RH[ 5002/TGNENT/EIR/TGN/I/IRR.RT TH.RRR//:ETTN


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    )T T H R H N E T U H A T R E I   R( T T H R H N E T U H A T R E I U H E G K    T T HR R ER A GT HI

   HNRET     E             HERRARN                   E   EEGK C GA I              GA T              5004
    ]5004 I      0 I TH RE RH[ 5004/TGNENT/EIR/TGN/I/IRR.RT TH.RRR//:ETTN


art.tSPSu.rrrf1115NtfOusP S uoSfrhftSPSuf
    )T T H R H N E T U H A T R E I   R( T T H R H N E T U H A T R E I U H E G K    T T HR R ER A GT HI

   HNRET     E             HERRARN                   E   EEGK C GA I              GA T              5009
    REI AGI TGRA/IRK UHATR/IRR.RT TH.RRR//:ETTN

    ]5009 A E 20 I TH RE RH[ NIE.052222/




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HB KRUGER AND H OOSTHUIZEN
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art.tSPSu.rrrf1121NtfOusP S uoSfrhftSPSuf
   i Phhthitoaf toff 1121f )P S uoSf rhf tSPSuNtf Ous(NotSudf tSPSutf rhf P u thPf OusP S uoSf rhf tSPSuf
    drhe uoSt/art.tSPSu.rrr//:fSSsfAu trotfyusr S
    [fsdh.279212/r aPotePStro/of use 18 Jun 2010]



US Department of State 2011 www.state.gov
   toaf tofi Phhthif 1122f )Ntf OusP S uoSf rhf tSPSu(NotSudf tSPSutf rhf P u thPf OusP S uoSf rhf tSPSuf
    ]1122leaff29dPSufrhfetuf[f1122/Sts sS/ at/Sts/a/art.tSPSu.rrr//:Au trotfyusr SffSSs


ZIMMERMAN ET AL 2006 WWW.LSHTM.AC.UK
    f Ct   u    Pof let al Smiles: a Summary Report on the Physical and Psychological Health
    Consequences of Women and Adolescents Trafficked in Europe (Report for the London School
    of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London) http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/genderviolence f23dPSufrhfetuf [
    ]1118leaf


List of abbreviations


CILSA                             Comparative         and     International     Law      Journal     of
                                       Southern Africa
Hum Rts Q                         Human Rights Quarterly
ILSA J Int'l & Comp L             ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law
Med L Rev                         Medical Law Review
NYUJ Int'l Law & Pol              New York University Journal of International Law and
                                       Politics
Trafficking Protocol              Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking
                                       in Persons, Especially Women and Children,
                                       supplementing the United Nations Convention
                                       against Transnational Organized Crime
UNCTOC                            Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime
Vanderbilt J Transnat'l L         Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law




                                               56 / 428

				
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