Docstoc

Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in Applied - NORED

Document Sample
Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in Applied - NORED Powered By Docstoc
					 Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in
Applied Technology Program Feasibility Study




                               February 2005




                                Dr. William Chance
                                 Dr. Richard Lutz




    N O R T H W E S T         E D U C A T I O N         R E S E A R C H        C E N T ER

                           4218 Leavelle NW, Olympia, Washington 98502
     phone: 360-866-4651   fax: 360-866-4652   e-mail: www.bcnored@aol.com or: www.nored.us
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




       Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in
       Applied Technology Program Feasibility Study

                                         Report Summary

       The report was prepared for Lake Washington Technical College [LWTC] in accordance with a
Request for Proposals issued in April 2004. The RFP and the resultant work plan entailed both a
determination of need and feasibility for a Bachelors of Applied Technology [B.A.T.] program and an
estimate of the time required to perfect and establish such a program. The study was conducted over the
course of the summer and autumn months of 2004.
        It concludes that there is demonstrable need for a B.A.T. program at LWTC and that such a
program is feasible and wanted in the institution’s service area. The envisaged model also is appropriate
and in full alignment with the College’s mission.
        The recommended program would lead to a Bachelor of Applied Technology degree built on the
education that graduates of Associate of Applied Science or Applied Technology programs have with an
“umbrella” of upper-division courses to prepare them for managerial and supervisory positions in
commerce and industry. It not only would accommodate the A.A.S. preparation of students at LWTC
but that of students at other technical colleges as well.
       The upper-division component would comprise a structured sequence of courses addressing such
matters as business statistics, economics, communications, finance, organization management, business
operations, planning, personnel, safety and security, business law, ethics, risk management, cost
estimating, quality assurance, and purchasing.
       The same upper-division management program would apply to all associate degree technical
programs regardless of the specific or particular lower-division major. Coursework would be balanced
with real-life projects and interactions with business leaders. The program schedule would be designed
around the needs of working adults.
       The preferred B.A.T. program is intended to address a number of considerations:
       •   State interests in increasing capacity at the Bachelors level in high demand fields;
       •   Employers’ needs for managers in high technology fields, improving the skill level of the
           work force, and making firms more competitive;
       •   Student needs for opportunities to advance their education qualifications by surmounting the
           “terminal degree” connotation of the A.A.S. degree, which impedes their access to a bachelor
           degree and better paying careers;

                                                                                                            2
                                                    LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       •   The institution’s need to attract high school graduates into high technology fields and high
           demand industries.
       The program also would attract community partners and improve the associations and
partnerships that well from those relationships, reducing the demand on state funding. Through such a
program, LWTC could become fiscally stronger and more diversified as an institution and as a business
model. Most of all, the program is essential to fulfilling the institution’s mission “to prepare students for
today’s careers and tomorrow’s opportunities”
        The indications of need and evidence of support for the program in the community are strong.
People at Lake Washington consider this particular form of B.A.T. program to be the right degree at the
right place; they also believe that a pilot program can be started and up and brought to running speed
quickly with little exposure to the state and without disruption of the existing high quality technical
education the institution provides.
        The three major categories of need – consumer, community, and institution -- are addressed with
an overview of the demographic and economic characteristics of LWTC’s service area, the contributions
and relevance of other institutions and programs, and summaries of the qualitative and quantitative
survey research involving institution staff, faculty, students, local employers, and community residents
that was conducted as part of the study.
       The major findings of the employer survey include the following:
       • Half of the responding employers reported that a bachelor’s degree was the preferred
         credential for new supervisory and managerial staff.
      • Management and specific occupation preparation constituted the preferred majors.
      • Most (64%) direct their main recruitment efforts to the East Lake Washington and Puget
         Sound regions.
      • Half reported there are unmet needs for a bachelor’s program such as the one described in the
         questionnaire (lower division occupational specialization/upper-division management)
      • More than half (58%) felt such a program should be offered at LWTC.
      • Most also believed the quality of such a program at LWTC would be sufficient to their needs.
      • Nearly half indicated their company would be likely to offer incentives to employees
         attending such a program.
      • Nearly two-thirds agreed that the presence of such a program at LWTC would make the
         community a better place to live and work.
      • A similar portion believed that such a program would help attract new firms and retain those
         already there.
      • Similarly, 62% reported that such a program at LWTC would help their staffing and
         recruitment efforts.
      Although the employer responses regarding the envisioned program were favorable, responses
from members of the communities directly served by LWTC were even more so.
       •   Ninety-one percent felt there are unmet needs in the community for a bachelor’s program
           such as the one envisioned by LWTC.
                                                                                                              3
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       •   Sixty-one percent believe the absence of such a program creates problems for them with
           respect to their education needs.
       •   Eighty-nine percent felt such a program should be offered by LWTC.
       •   More than half believe it should be offered by LWTC alone; 38% believed it should be
           provided collaboratively with another institution.
       •   Eighty-five percent reported they would be comfortable with the quality of such a program.
       •   Sixty-one percent believed there are unmet needs for still other types of bachelor programs in
           the community as well.
       •   Sixty-five percent considered it very likely or likely that they or a member of their household
           would enroll in such a program if offered.
       •   Eighty-seven percent either agreed or tended to agree with the statement that such a program
           at LWTC would make the community a better place to live and work.
       •   Two-thirds felt that present higher education programs and services in the area were not
           adequately meeting employer, student, and community needs for bachelor degree programs.
       Bachelors programs in community and technical colleges are increasing in number throughout
the country. According to one recent estimate between as many as 200 community colleges either offer
or provide access to a bachelors-degree program. Two basic models have formed. One involves
collaboration between two- and four-year institutions [“university centers”]; the other involves
indigenous community/technical college baccalaureate degrees [C/TCBs].
       The appearance of these programs relates mainly to the needs of place-bound students, people
who experience restricted mobility because of a family, a home, or a job. They also may be community
college students whose lower-division technical program credits do not transfer in substantial share to an
upper-division university program; who discover that the upper-division programs offered by the
university do not align with their technical career aspirations; who cannot get in because the queue for
admission to the university program is too long and there is no room at the top; or who encounter
obstacles because of scheduling, price, or travel.
        The different cultures and the educational experiences available in the two types of institutions
also are a consideration. Universities tend to cater to full-time students between the ages of 18 and 22
who want an on-campus academic program experience; community and technical colleges specialize in
services to part-time students, including single and working parents and older students. Many are
pursuing programs that emphasize work skills over theoretical knowledge. Although the graduates of
both types of institution may have similar career and professional plans, it can be more difficult for the
technical college graduate to make the transition from the technical to the professional ranks in the
workplace because of the difficulties of acquiring the relevant upper-division, baccalaureate program
credentials. Whatever the reason, the effects are the same: the aspiring student is stuck, or, more
conventionally, place-bound.
       A number of internal and external factors are converging to affect higher education in many
ways. Community/technical colleges are reacting to these forces by revisiting campus missions, visions,
and organizational priorities. It is in this context that community/technical college bachelor degrees are

                                                                                                             4
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

capturing the attention of higher education policymakers, college faculty, and administrators alike. Such
changes have been underway for at least the last ten years, and they are occurring in all regions of the
country.
        The concerns about mission drift such endeavors seem to prompt probably are more routed in the
clichés about duplication and competition than the needs of local employers and the aspirations of
students. If community college baccalaureate programs are addressing previously unmet needs, in this
case baccalaureate opportunities for local residents and the workforce requirements of local employers,
and they are not detracting from public institutions with established programs, it is difficult to
understand how a charge of mission drift should apply.
       Lake Washington Technical College is particularly suited to provide well-qualified bachelor’s
degree graduates in high demand technical-management fields. The anticipated LWTC
BAT/Technology Management program is intended to prepare students to:
       • Utilize technology from a variety of disciplines to assume managerial level positions;
       • Use entrepreneurial skills to develop and manage resources;
       • Supervise and manage the financial operations of a business;
       • Apply human relation skills, as well as team-building, and motivational skills to create high-
         performing work teams;
      • Use project and quality management strategies to manage specialized technology projects;
      • Apply oral and written communication skills and leverage technology to enhance
         communications;
      • Manage a business or a business unit within legal and ethical boundaries;
      • Employ creative and critical thinking to problem solving in a service or manufacturing
         environment;
      • Utilize personal and business interactions within the organization to enhance the quality the
         product;
      • Employ sound organizational behavior principles;
      • Use appropriate electronic commerce strategies to increase profitability of the enterprise or
         business unit; and
      • Exhibit analytical thought, informed judgment, ethical behavior, and an appreciation for
         diversity.
      The report reviews expected costs and implementation stages and determines that both are
manageable, and it concludes that such a program is feasible and needed. Thus it recommends that
LWTC be encouraged and authorized to proceed with program development and implementation.




                                                                                                            5
                                                               LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                     Page
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7
         The Scope of the Study ............................................................................... 12
Indications of Need: The General Evidence .......................................................... 14
         Service Area Needs...................................................................................... 17
         The Employer Survey .................................................................................. 20
         The Community Survey............................................................................... 36
Program Models ..................................................................................................... 45
         Experiences of Other States......................................................................... 47
         Community/Technical College Baccalaureate Model................................. 50
         Oregon Institute of Technology Model ....................................................... 57
         Other Programs in LWTC’s Service Area................................................... 60
         Examples of Best Practices.......................................................................... 62
         Pros and Cons of Different Arrangements .................................................. 66
The LWTC Bachelor of Applied Technology ...................................................... 69
         Accreditation................................................................................................. 72
         Estimated Costs............................................................................................ 75
Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 79
Appendix: Letters and Resolutions of Encouragement and Support..................... 81




                                                                                                                              6
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




         Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in Applied Technology
                         Program Feasibility Study

                                             Introduction
       This study was conducted for Lake Washington Technical College [LWTC] in accordance with a
Request for Proposals issued by that institution in April 2004. The RFP and the resultant work plan
required both a determination of need and feasibility and assistance with a plan that would include
estimates of costs and the time required to perfect and implement the model.
       The research would need to involve a number of qualitative and quantitative research methods
and consultation with a wide range of constituents in the community and on the campus. Different
program models also would need to be identified, considered, and compared. These would include
collaborative partnerships with other institutions, conjoint degrees, university centers, and polytechnic
arrangements, among others, but not the least of which would be an indigenous technical college
bachelor’s degree program.
        This work was accomplished over the course of the summer and autumn months of 2004, and
this report is the product. It concludes that there is strong evidence of need for a baccalaureate program
of a specific type at LWTC and that such a program is feasible and highly desirable. This proposed
model is appropriate for Lake Washington’s technical college and in full alignment with its mission.
Briefly stated, it would lead to a Bachelor of Applied Technology degree built on the education that
graduates of two-year Associate of Applied Science or Applied Technology programs have with an
“umbrella” of upper-division courses to prepare them for managerial and supervisory positions in
commerce and industry. The upper-division umbrella would comprise a structured sequence of courses
addressing such matters as business statistics, economics, communications, finance, organization
management, business operations, planning, personnel, safety and security, business law, ethics, risk
management, cost estimating, quality assurance, and purchasing, among others. The same upper-division
management program would apply to all associate degree technical programs regardless of the specific
or particular lower-division major, and to programs at all of Washington’s technical colleges.
Coursework would be balanced with real-life projects and interactions with business leaders. The
program schedule would be designed around the needs of working adults.
       The evidence of interest in such a program is great, as shown by the results of the surveys of
employers and community residents undertaken as part of the study. There also is considerable
enthusiasm for the program, judging from the excitement at meetings and conversations with students,

                                                                                                             7
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

members of the faculty, employers, and residents of the community when the program model was
discussed, and by the comments that were volunteered in the survey responses.
        Obstacles exist. Most devolve in one form or another to the persistence of attitudes that
community and technical colleges are and should remain “two-year institutions” and that they should not
aspire to anything other than that. These beliefs often are present in comments about ‘mission creep’ or
‘mission drift.’ Such opinions, however, also are being increasingly challenged across the country as
more and more states and institutions seek solutions to the swelling education needs of residents in
effective and affordable ways.
        This phenomenon also is explored in this report, but here it can be stated that serious and
sustained interest in the presence of baccalaureate degrees in community and technical colleges is on the
increase throughout the country. Following the 1993 advent of one of the earliest initiatives at Utah
Valley State College in Provo, indigenous bachelor programs in American community colleges have
multiplied both in number and variety.1 In many ways this is a reflection of changing needs and
conceptions of responsiveness and the roles community and technical colleges should assume in the
drama.
         Washington is one of the states that rely on the statutory assignment of institution missions to
allocate responsibilities for the delivery of higher education services. These display both liberating and
confining intentions. RCW 28B.50.020, for example, enacted in 1969 as part of the legislation
establishing the state community college system (and what is now the State Board for Community and
Technical Colleges), after specifying that community colleges are to be open door and comprehensive
institutions (responsible for affordable academic transfer, occupational education, community service,
recreational, and adult basic education courses) and establishing a governance-administration system
with state and local components, it recognized the inevitability of change by calling for a concept that
would “Allow for the growth, improvement, flexibility, and modification of the community colleges and
their education, training, and service programs as future needs occur.”2


1
  This program was established in accordance with a recommendation in a 1992 NORED report prepared for the Board of Regents of the
Utah University System. The report strongly advocated adherence to UVCC’s established community college mission in its call for a
limited number of upper-division programs attuned to local needs. It advised against a substantial change in mission beyond this. When the
legislature authorized such programs, it renamed the institution ‘Utah Valley State College.’ A similar action followed a second NORED
report, 1998, on baccalaureate needs in St. George, Utah. Authority for Dixie College to emulate the UVSC model was given, and the
institution was renamed ‘Dixie State College.’
2
  Specific statutory program authorizations apply to other institutions as well (e.g., authority for the University of Washington to maintain
schools of medicine, dentistry, and related health sciences [RCW 28B.20.300] and exclusive courses in agriculture, veterinary medicine,
and “economic science in its application to agriculture and rural life” to WSU [28B30.060]). “Major lines” were commonly and exclusively
extended to the UW and WSU in “liberal arts, pure science, pharmacy, mining, architecture, civil engineering, electrical engineering,
mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, home economics, and logging engineering” in 1917, when Central, Eastern, and Western
still were two-year normal schools and The Evergreen State College was little more than a strip of forested land along Eld Inlet on Cooper
Point in Olympia. A few of these major lines remain exclusive to the two universities. But most others – liberal arts, pure science – are
essential components of the core curriculum of any university deeming itself worthy of the name. Perhaps the most significant step in the
mission differentiation process is the 1969 establishment of the community college system (and, later, the addition of the technical
colleges). This (these) notable event(s) increased the availability of comprehensive higher education services throughout
Washington, but by virtue of the fact that they would be considered ‘two-year institutions,’ by implication limited to the associate degree
level, albeit for purposes of academic training, sooner or later the model would prove to be stunted, as was the case with the comprehensive
universities which at this time also were constrained by limited graduate program authority directed for the most part to master’s degrees
                                                                                                                                           8
                                                                     LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




        An inevitable and perhaps fundamental conflict exists, however, between such hopes for
flexibility and responsiveness, on the one hand, and constraints on institutional authority to pursue such
missions, on the other, particularly when they are grounded in statute and not very amenable to change.
This is particularly difficult when statutory missions become internally inconsistent as amendments
accrete. The community college statute’s affirmative perspective on the future of the system, for
example, is followed immediately by an admonition that is ambiguous and incomplete:
          “ . . . community colleges are, for purposes of academic training, two-year institutions,
          and are an independent, unique, and vital section of our state’s higher education system,
          separate from both the common school system and other institutions, and never to be
          converted into four-year liberal arts colleges.”3 [Emphasis added.]
        The italics are important. While some evidence of intent is apparent – these are not to be four-
year colleges -- the subject is “academic training.” Since community colleges do a lot more than this,
different interpretations naturally apply, among them the possibility the proscription is not applicable to
technical programs or to four-year programs in technical colleges.
        The latitude for interpretation does not end there. The part of the community/technical college
statutory mission statement that applies to occupational education directs them to “Provide . . .
occupational education and technical education at technical colleges in order to prepare students for
careers in a competitive work force.” This can mean a lot of things not all of which would fit under the
requirement that they are “two-year institutions for purposes of academic training.” Indeed, RCW
28B50.090 (3), which addresses the mission of the technical colleges specifically states that “technical
colleges, and college districts containing only technical colleges, shall maintain programs solely for
occupational education, basic skills, and literacy purposes” and contains no language one way or the
other about these institutions offering lower- or upper-division programs.
        Lake Washington’s institution mission statement avows that its purpose is “to prepare students
for today’s careers and tomorrow’s opportunities” and implies no limitations on program level.
Logically, if “today’s careers and opportunities,” “careers in a competitive work force,” and adaptation
“as future needs require” entail at least some bachelor’s degree opportunities for associate degree
holders, which the evidence in this report demonstrates, the provision of such opportunities at LWTC is
both valid and reasonable.
        Arguably, institutional missions and program and service inventories should align with at least
three categories of need:


for teachers’ and liberal arts students, in a state college setting. Master’s degrees with professional titles – e.g., MBA, MPA, MFA, etc. --
remained the province of the research universities until the law was changed in the mid-1970s, and the comprehensive universities were
allowed to develop into the universities they have become. These examples show both the importance of changing missions with time and
the difficulty of doing so when they are inscribed in statute.
3
  In Washington’s public institution sector, The Evergreen State College is probably the one that comes closest to qualifying as a “liberal
arts college,” although it also offers master’s programs involving studies in professional fields, rendering the reference to ‘state college’ in
its title more nominal than real. The three regional universities, Central, Eastern, and Western, are universally regarded as comprehensive
universities.
                                                                                                                                                   9
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study



            •    Those of consumers, especially students, actual and potential;
            •    Those that emanate from the society and the community the institutions serve, particularly as
                 they apply to an enhanced civic culture and an educated work force; and
            •    Those that issue from the institutional culture and the faculty’s values and aspirations with
                 respect to the importance of rewarding teaching and professional experiences.
         All three must be addressed in any effort to refine an institution’s character and focus, and all
three, accordingly, come into play in any comprehensive assessment of program relevance, but some
may be more important than others. In the present case, to the extent that the community interests
represented in the first two categories are not fully accommodated by the existing LWTC’s mission and
program structures, the stronger will be the potential for irrelevance and sub-optimization in its
programs, or, stated differently, for a gap between community needs and hopes and institutional
priorities and goals. There is evidence that such a gap exists both in Lake Washington’s service area and
throughout the state as a whole.
       Situations and times change, all of which is to say that what might been intended as a
proscription in 1969 will not be able to permanently resist change induced by time. In this sense the
1969 legislation may be something of a metaphor for conditions that have caused Lake Washington
Technical College to consider ways to balance its efforts to be responsive to local needs for new
opportunities with an assignment composed almost 40 years ago, at a time when it was a vocational
school and part of the local school system. At that time, 1970, Kirkland had a population of 14,970;
Bothell could count 5,420; and Redmond reported 11,020. The combined three-city total was 31,410.4
         The 2002 population estimates, respectively, are 45,790, 16,330, and 46,040, comprising a
three-city total of 108,160. If Woodinville, which was not incorporated at the time and was not
represented as a separate city in 1970, is added (2002 estimate, 9,215), the total jumps to 117,375, more
than Bellevue’s 2002 figure (117,000).5 The net increase for the three cities that were incorporated in
19706 is 85,965, or approximately 275 percent, an average annual increase of nearly nine percent.
       This dynamic may not have been foreseen in 1970, the year after the Community College Act
was enacted, when the population of Seattle seemed to be evaporating because of the Boeing slump, and
people were talking about turning off lights on their way out. Rather than a vision of responsiveness
harmonious with social growth and change, because of a slumping economy the imperative then was
more constrictive, based on concerns for accountability and worries about duplication and competition.
Born as it was in that setting it is remarkable that words in the Act such as “open door,” affordability,”
“access,” and “comprehensiveness” have retained the value they have for the system.




4
    1970 Census; this was before the establishment of Cascadia.
5
    Washington State Office of Financial Management, 2000 Population Trends, September 2001.
6
    Kirkland was incorporated in 1905; Bothell in 1909; and Redmond in 1912.
                                                                                                                           10
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




        Sometimes statutory mission assignments work – they always do for a while; sometimes they do
not. Over time they begin to represent a rather clumsy and often counterproductive way of encouraging
public institutions to remain abreast of developing social needs. Their greatest effectiveness probably
resides in their capacity to protect institution spheres of influence and ensure maintenance of the status
quo.
       In so far as the present situation is concerned, one result is that institutions at all levels are
defined by the number of years (not very realistically in some cases) associated with the most prominent
degree they award: e.g., “two-year,” “four-year,” and, in the case of research universities, “doctoral-
granting” colleges and universities.7
        As a state with an unevenly distributed population, Washington constantly faces problems
meeting the needs of place-bound students. The lessons of history bring both good and bad news. In the
case of the community and technical colleges, the good news is that a lot of people in Washington have
earned an associate degree. Most could not have accomplished this without the comprehensive two-year
system that was created to provide and expand these programs. The bad news is that many of these
people are stalled: they do not have a feasible and affordable way to build on their accomplishments and
move on to the next level. The survey results presented later in this report show that many would like to
acquire further education, training, and certification to the baccalaureate and beyond. They also reveal
their frustration over the limited range of opportunities and programs available to accommodate these
needs.
        The situation is compounded by the escalating requirements and expectations of employers and
industry for people with bachelor-level qualifications. In fact, the problem with baccalaureate
‘production’ is considered so severe that the Higher Education Coordinating Board [HECB] has
identified it as a strategic planning priority. Of more immediate interest is the HECB Plan’s implicit call
for reconsideration of earlier state policies defining institutional missions.
         Since if left unattended mission assignments reify as social and economic needs change, they
must be revisited regularly. Washington’s recently recognized8 comparatively poor record in four-year
institution bachelor degree production has gained attention at the policy level, and this is stimulating a
search for flexible and affordable ways of addressing it.
       There are many ways to address the need. One is through a modified conception of mission that
focuses on institutions as community higher education providers, responsible to supply or arrange higher
education services suited to the higher education needs of residents of their


7
  The HECB (WAC 250-61-100) defines associate degrees as requiring at least ninety quarter or sixty semester credits (two years of study)
and the baccalaureate degree as requiring at least 180 quarter or 120 semester credits (four years of study), a net effect may have been to
limit the ‘two-year’ institutions to the offering of the associate degree, irrespective of what may be the needs and aspirations of the people
who reside in the areas they are obliged and committed to serve.
8
 The reference to ‘recent’ applies to policy-level recognition. The 1980 Council on Postsecondary Education’s enrollment study report,
“The Seven Percent Solution” pointed to the presence of the problem. This was nearly 25 years ago.
                                                                                                                                           11
                                                             LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




service area.9 By definition community and technical colleges are central higher education providers for
their communities or districts. It is especially in this sense that strong arguments can be advanced for the
presence of uniquely suited baccalaureate and other forms of professional programs in these institutions.
These can be offered in a manner that combines the institution’s lower division technical curriculum with
an upper-division management or general education curriculum, as a technical-management form of an
“inverted curriculum” or as an “extended major” model, in which the upper-division work is composed of
further technical studies built- on the technical fields in the associate. Both should be broad enough to
accommodate a range of lower-division fields. They also should be sufficiently limited in number within
the institution to protect its community/technical college identity. Each would allow maximal use of a
community or technical college’s existing faculty and resources. These options are discussed in more detail
later in this report. Whichever is pursued, the choice should be based on strong evidence of need.
        Thus, each community and technical college’s mission should be revisited in such a context, and,
based on the need assessment, consideration should be given to authorizing these institutions to provide
or otherwise supply the variety and range of services that residents of their districts desire and require.
This study represents such an assessment in LWTC’s case.
The Scope of the Present Study
         The LWTC RFP that called for assistance with the study specified several activities.
         •   Conduct qualitative and quantitative research for the purpose of demonstrating a need for a
             Bachelor of Applied Technology or similar degree.
         •   The constituents to be consulted should include students and alumni of LWTC and other
             technical colleges, faculty, staff, trustees, local civic leaders, area legislators, businesses, and
             employers.
         •   The research program should determine the regional demand for the degree, availability of
             similar degrees at other colleges, “economic impact and resulting needs gap,” and
             employability of graduates.
         •   Specified methods include focus group meetings, campus and community surveys, and
             analyses of labor market data, the HECB master plan, and the SBCTC master plan.
         •   The research also should address the options for inter-institution partnerships, conjoint
             degrees, university centers, polytechnic models, and what would be required in terms of
             legislative authority to offer a B.A.T. or other baccalaureate program, and an indigenous
             degree at LWTC.
         •   The RFP also called for the development of a best practices portfolio of at least three similar
             institutions that have successfully addressed the issue. The portfolio should consider how the
             matter was addressed, implemented, and evaluated.
         •   The study should determine the necessary steps to a B.A.T., including lower division
             curricula, new curricula development, implications for faculty and staff, implications for


9
 This approach has been recommended in recent NORED studies of governance and mission systems in Colorado, Kansas, West Virginia,
Washington, and others.
                                                                                                                               12
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

           support services, including library, student services, and learning resources, admission,
           tuition, fees, cohort capacity, and the availability of qualified instructors.
       •   It should provide a schedule of steps involved in the development and delivery of a B.A.T. or
           similar degree.
       •   Finally, it should estimate the comparative cost and time involved to establish such a
           program.
         This study has developed accordingly, and this report is organized along these lines. It opens
with a review of the evidence of need and interest in such opportunities at Lake Washington Technical
College. The findings of the qualitative and quantitative survey research are summarized in this section.
It is followed with an examination of different models and approaches to the provision of bachelor
degree opportunities in or through community colleges. A summary of best practices is included in this
section. Attention then turns to an examination of various logistical considerations, including such
matters as accreditation and costs. The report concludes with a summary of findings and
recommendations, including an implementation schedule outlining the significant steps and
requirements should the College elect to provide such opportunities.




                                                                                                           13
                                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




               Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in Applied Technology
                               Program Feasibility Study

                                                     Indications of Need
        The three major categories of need – consumer, community, and institution -- are addressed in
this report principally with an overview of the demographics of LWTC’s service area, the contributions
and relevance of other institutions and programs, and summaries of qualitative and quantitative survey
research involving institution staff, faculty, and students, local employers, and community residents.
Evidence of unmet need in all three categories is evident.
The General Evidence
        A disparity in the generation of two- and four-year degrees in Washington has existed for many
years. A 1980 report of the erstwhile Council on Postsecondary Education10 noted that Washington was
in the top decile in per capita conferrals of two-year (Associate) degrees nationally and in the bottom
decile in four-year (baccalaureate) conferrals. The reasons were considered to be functions of the
respective numbers of the two types of institutions. At the time Washington had 27 public community
colleges (the five technical colleges then were vocational-technical institutes; these were added later to
the SBCTC system) and six public four-year institutions, two of which were research universities. The
state ranked seventh nationally in community college participation, and forty-first nationally in four-year
participation.
         Changes would occur that would alter the percentages but not the patterns (e.g., the re-
designation of the state colleges into regional universities; authorization for them to offer professional
master’s degree programs; the establishment of university branch campuses in generally underserved
cities, the addition of the technical colleges). Washington has moved up in the state rankings in terms of
bachelor degree production (the HECB now reports that the state is 33rd in the country). But it was only
during the branch campus discussions of the late 1980s that this generally acknowledged anomaly began
to evoke serious consideration. It now appears to have been elevated to the state policy level.
       The present catalyst is the Higher Education Coordinating Board’s 2004 Strategic Master Plan
for Higher Education.11 The Plan centers on achieving two goals by 2010




10
     “The Seven Percent Solution,” op. cit.
11
   Final Draft, July 22, 2004. Olympia, Washington. On an another point, the Plan described the higher education system’s mission in these
terms: “The mission of Washington’s higher education system is to support the economic, cultural, and civic vitality of the state through
education, research, and public service to provide tangible benefits to residents, businesses, and communities.”

                                                                                                                                       14
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

            •   Increase opportunities for students to earn degrees: Specifically the Plan calls for a 12
                percent increase in the number of students who earn college degrees by 2010. In terms of
                bachelor’s degrees, the goal is a total annual rate of 30,000 conferrals per year, which entails
                an increase of 4,100 per year over the present rate to accomplish that goal.
            •   Respond to the state’s economic needs: The Plan’s focus with respect to this goal is on a) the
                need for more people with “high-level skills required for jobs in many high-demand fields,”
                and b) more people with the basic work skills required to obtain the most desirable jobs and
                continually adapt to the changes that will continue to affect our evolving economy.”12 The
                Plan calls for an increase of 300 conferrals in high-demand fields to reach a cumulative total
                of 1,500 by 2010.
        In the chapter of the Plan entitled “Reducing Barriers to Non-Traditional Students,” the HECB
notes that the present system works well for traditional students, those of conventional college age who
enter immediately after high school graduation. It works less well for the non-traditional student,
including in this group people who need skill upgrading and full-time working students who need to
attend college part-time (although, notably, according to the Plan, the community and technical colleges
have made significant strides meeting these needs in the last decade). It calls for statewide integration
and coordination of a number of ongoing efforts, including the establishment of applied baccalaureate
programs for students who have taken a technical curriculum at a community or technical college but
have not earned four-year degrees. It cites CWU’s efforts to develop such programs in Safety and Health
Management and Industrial Technologies and calls for such efforts to increase to include other majors
and other colleges and universities.13
        In its October 2004 Draft Implementation Plan for the Strategic Master Plan, particularly the
section entitled “Meeting Regional and Statewide Higher Education Needs,” the HECB announced its
intention to present a reconfiguration plan based on a collaborative process to revise the missions and
services of existing institutions and determine whether new colleges and universities are needed to meet
regional and statewide needs. More specifically with respect to the issue at hand,
                “By March 2005, the HECB and higher education stakeholders will assess options to expand
                higher education enrollment capacity in the state, including (a) expansion of regional
                comprehensive universities, (b) expansion and/or development of additional off-campus
                learning centers and distance learning, (c) branch campuses, (d) the transition of selected
                two-year colleges to baccalaureate institutions, (e) performance contracts between the state
                and public four-year institutions, and (f) the role of private colleges and universities,
                including in-state and out of state providers.”14 [Emphasis added.]
       This feasibility study is in accordance with the essence of this Implementation Plan statement
except that it does not presume “the transition of selected two-year colleges to baccalaureate


12
   HECB Plan, op. cit., pp. 7-8. “High-demand fields” are defined as “(1) Instructional programs or fields in which student enrollment
applications exceed available slots, and (2) career fields in which employers are unable to find enough skilled graduates to fill available
slots.” (p. 19). The Plan also states that the HECB will develop “an ongoing method of identifying high-demand fields and programs based
on student and employer needs and master pan goals.” (p. 20)
13
     These comments appear on pages 45 and 46 of the Plan. The CWU programs are examined later in the present report.
14
     HECB, “2004 Strategic Master Plan for Higher Education: Draft Implementation Plan,” October 2004, p. 20.
                                                                                                                                        15
                                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

institutions;” rather, and significantly, it explores the need and feasibility of a bachelor’s program in a
two-year institution. The emphasis is on the provision of a specially designed bachelor’s program in a
technical college setting, in this case a program uniquely suited to LWTC’s associate degree programs
responsive to the student and employer needs of its service area.
        The distinction between ‘baccalaureate institutions’ per se, and associates colleges that award
baccalaureates is recognized in the Carnegie Commissions typology (2000 edition), which subdivides
these institutions into three types:
                Baccalaureate Colleges—Liberal Arts: These institutions are primarily undergraduate
                colleges with major emphasis on baccalaureate programs. During the period studied, they
                awarded at least half of their baccalaureate degrees in liberal arts fields.
                Baccalaureate Colleges—General: These institutions are primarily undergraduate colleges
                with major emphasis on baccalaureate programs. During the period studied, they awarded
                less than half of their baccalaureate degrees in liberal arts fields.
                Baccalaureate/Associate’s Colleges: These institutions are undergraduate colleges where the
                majority of conferrals are below the baccalaureate level (associate’s degrees and
                certificates). During the period studied, bachelor’s degrees accounted for at least ten percent
                of undergraduate awards. [Emphasis added.]
        Actually, none of Washington’s public four-year institutions fit any of these baccalaureate
classifications (these, including Evergreen, are either Doctoral/Research universities or Master’s
universities). The LWTC model would fit the “baccalaureate/associate’s college” classification in that
the bachelor’s degrees would account for less than ten percent of its undergraduate awards.
        Other studies also recognize the presence of a variety of significant needs for additional
baccalaureate opportunities for Washington residents. The following comments, quoted at some length
here, are from a study prepared by President Jean Floten of Bellevue Community College:15
                “The most serious enrollment problem at the moment [in Washington] is increasing
                baccalaureate production to keep pace with population changes. Admission standards for
                universities are getting more stringent. Students are growing increasingly concerned about
                their ability to be admitted to the universities of their choice within Washington State.
                Students planning to start at a community college and transfer to a public state university are
                questioning whether they should start their education in Washington because they have
                learned through the media that they may not have a space at the junior level.
                “Studies show that students who leave the state to pursue higher education are not likely to
                come back to work or raise their families.16 Washington cannot afford to lose its youth and
                talent, and already Washington’s baccalaureate production is at the bottom of the nation. The
                state has remained competitive edge by importing people with bachelor degrees, which adds
                even



15
     Upper Division Enrollment Planning, November 10, 2004 Draft, pp. 4-5.
16
   Adam Bryant, “Program aids out-of-state students”, The Daily Beacon Online, (Vol. 97, No. 40, 10/11/04). Margie Watson, “NJ
economy hurt by students going to out-of-state school”, The Daily Targum. (1/25/02).
                                                                                                                                 16
                                                                LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

                more congestion; taxes our roads, infrastructures and schools; and adds to our population
                base. Washington is quickly losing its capacity to assimilate these new families, as space
                becomes a premium.
                “Another factor to consider is that maintaining the status quo does not address how the state
                will prepare graduates to enter jobs that used to require two-year professional-technical
                degrees and now require four-year applied degree. Universities do not currently offer this
                new type of applied degree,17 and for the most part they are not prepared or well positioned to
                start offering them.
                “Investing in higher education by adding more enrollment slots will help keep our youth in-
                state to take our high paying jobs and will help stave off the ancillary and opportunity costs
                of bringing in people from out of state.
                “In all, the status quo has resulted in a ‘spotty’ approach to meeting demand and ‘uneven’
                availability and quality of upper division services throughout the state. Lack of funding
                and/or incentives to address upper division demand in underserved regions and with
                competing priorities on main campuses have led some universities to postpone or cancel
                planned off-campus programs for financial or program management reasons, in some cases
                after students have been recruited. Some communities have tried in vain for several years to
                find willing partners but are still without upper division capacity for their population’s
                needs.”
        Perceptions of a problem operate at the local level, as shown by the results of the survey research
conducted in connection with this study. People who live and work in LWTC’s service area also are
convinced of the presence of a problem and are supportive of the College taking an active role in
addressing it. This group contains observers who are concerned not only with the statewide policy
aspects of the issue (e.g., legislators, state officials), but students, faculty, employers, and community
leaders who feel directly the effects of the status quo.
Service Area Needs
       A considerable emphasis was placed in the study on qualitative and quantitative research
involving members of both the institutional and larger communities. Much of this transpired between
August and October 2004. It commenced with a series of interviews, meetings, and conversations with
people from both sectors.18 The purposes of these interviews and meetings were threefold: (1) to sample
opinions on the need and support for a bachelor’s program at LWTC; (2) to discuss and test reactions to
major program models; and (3) to acquire information that would help with the design, distribution, and
questionnaires to be used in the quantitative surveys that would follow.
        Interview and small group participants, numbering about 100 people, expressed strong support
for relevant bachelor’s programs at LWTC; students and employers were particularly vocal in this
regard. Initially some members of the faculty were hesitant, but as the conversations delved more



17
     This is not necessarily so in Washington, where the HECB recently approved CWU proposals for two BAS programs.
18
  These involved students, staff, and faculty members of LWTC, governing board members, legislators, city officials (Kirkland and
Redmond), local chamber of commerce members and staff, employers, and local press reporters, among others.
                                                                                                                                    17
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

deeply into discussions of the type of program envisioned this hesitation turned to enthusiasm.19
Community employers similarly expressed strong support for the prospective program concept. Local
government and industry representatives were supportive of the notion and, particularly in the case of
people from the local chambers of commerce, expressed willingness to assist with some of the logistics
that would be involved in the quantitative survey research efforts.20 Students were no less enthusiastic.
When the study was announced and the members of the research team were introduced at a meeting of
the administration and students from other countries, for example, the description of the envisioned
model evoked a standing ovation.
        There is no easy way to summarize all of the conversations that transpired during this phase of
the study. The following comments, however, are exemplary and reasonably descriptive of the opinions
expressed and the matters discussed.
         •    “This would be so great for students. They could continue their work here without trying to
              transfer into a new institution. The students here love LWTC. They know the faculty and the
              institution, and they like going to school here. It would be great if they could stay here for a
              bachelor’s program.” [Student]
         •    “Now it’s kind of like a roadblock. There is no room at the universities and no program for
              students to stay here.” [Student]
         •    “Students are very supportive of a bachelor’s program at LWTC. This is what employers are
              looking for.” [Student]
         •    “Both day and evening courses would work for students.” [Student]
         •    “When they do transfer, students from LWTC find that they transfer into universities with
              too many credits they cannot use (usually involving technical credits).” [Board Member]
         •    “People are trying to get into many jobs on the basis of their substantive (technical)
              knowledge, but they also must be educated as managers – they must have something like the
              Bachelor of Applied Technology or Science degree.” [Employer]
         •    “I would like to see the college give more back to the community. A lot of people here feel
              that LWTC needs to expand to offer bachelor’s degrees, and maybe even beyond this.”
              [Chamber of Commerce Member]
         •    “Managerial courses [in any LWTC bachelor’s program] are important. They need to include
              such things as strategic planning, risk management, and quality engineering.” [Local
              Employer]




19
   Although this was still early in the study process, it was clear that the number of bachelor program models that fitted LWTC’s
institutional mission and culture were limited. (The different models are described later in this report.) These were discussed during the
interviews, and it soon was apparent that the one considered most appropriate was an upper-division management program that could serve
graduates from all of the College’s Associate’s programs: the management focus, in other words, would apply to all of LWTC Associate’s
program fields and would lead to a BAT degree. The interviews and conversations formed around this particular type. This also was the
model described in the questionnaires used in the later community and employer surveys.
20
  For the most part this involved lists of names and addresses of members of the chambers and survey announcements in chamber
newsletters; their offers of assistance were pursued and proved instrumental to the effectiveness of the surveys.
                                                                                                                                       18
                                           LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

•   “Twenty-eight percent of the students who come to LWTC already have some degree when
    the come in. Thirty-one percent are people of color. They are seeking careers as
    professionals.” [College Administrator]
•   “What about continuing education for people who have degrees. Yes, there is a role for
    LWTC here.” [Board Member]
•   “There are some very large firms here but also a lot of small businesses. Visual Arts people;
    medical people; dental people, all need a bachelor’s degree and management skills. They
    already have the technical skills.” [Local Employer]
•   “LWTC would be able and willing to take the graduates of Associate’s programs in the other
    technical colleges. This could be a program for all of these institutions, at least during the
    early stages. We would work with them on this. This could be a niche for the technical
    colleges.” [College Administrator]
•   “The program could be offered on a cohort basis, possibly on weekends.” [College
    Administrator]
•   “I see no facilities barriers to a bachelor’s program at LWTC.” [College Administrator]
•   “This would be a real plus for the students.” [Faculty Member]
•   “Employers want people who have the AAS to move into first or second level management
    positions, but they would need a BAS or BAT do to this.” [Employer]
•   “Microsoft doesn’t pay much attention to education as a credential, although this is an
    important factor. It would be very receptive to such a program at LWTC.” [Human
    Resources Staff]
•   “We want people with experience in the workplace. People with good communications skills,
    who are dependable, who can work well with others, who can complete assignments, and
    who also are able to work independently.” [Employer]
•   “What is the cost of this program, in comparison with programs offered at the University of
    Washington and Washington State University? Would it get into tenure, publishing (or
    perishing)? How would this affect LWTC?” [Faculty Member]
•   “People need management skills, and this program will provide them through a management
    add-on. This program is really not aimed at young undergraduates. The University of
    Washington has no interest in a BAT. Our students want to get in and get out; this could be a
    good program for them.” [Faculty Member]
•   The student demand is there. So also is employer demand. But much will depend on the
    program, the curriculum that is developed. [Employer]
•   A bachelors’ program will add credibility to LWTC as an institution. People will see that it
    really is much more than a voc-tech. [Faculty Member]
•   “Maybe some small amount of the upper-division program could be in a field directly related
    to the student’s Associate degree major. In Horticulture, for example. Maybe this could
    involve an internship of some actual practical experience.” [Student]
•   “Maybe we should focus on evening and weekend scheduling. Online offerings could open a
    lot of classes. I know there are other alternatives. The afternoons also tend to be underused.”
    [Faculty Member]
•   “Much of the receptivity to the idea among faculty would depend on how it is presented. You
    cannot denigrate what is happening now – skills training, preparation for workforce entry –
    or the present terminal degrees (Associate of Applied Science). People need to see this as
                                                                                                    19
                                                    LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

            providing students with another option, but you have to honor what we do here now.”
            [Faculty Member]
        Again, the interviews were intended both to provide information and set the stage for the more
extensive surveys that followed. There were two of these: The first was directed to area employers; the
second to a wider spectrum of community residents. The questionnaires in both cases were similar, but
since these were separate surveys they are discussed separately in the following sections, starting with
the employer survey.
The Employer Survey
        Similar mail and Internet surveys were designed to measure local employers’ attitudes on the
feasibility of a bachelor’s degree at Lake Washington Technical Colleges. These were distributed to
firms located in the College’s immediate service area (essentially the East Lake Washington, Kirkland,
Redmond, Woodinville, Bothell metropolitan area) in Fall 2004. A total of 132 completed responses
were received. Because the surveys employed both mailed and Internet distribution methods it is not
possible to determine a specific response rate overall. An examination of those responding to the mail
survey component, however, which employed a sample that could be quantified, indicated a return rate
of about 24 percent. The data reviewed here describe the results of frequency counts of responses to the
individual questions. Additional comments are listed next the questions to which they apply. Rather
than reviewing response patterns to selected questions because some are more directly germane to the
present study than others, all are included.
         With respect to survey demographics, while all of the firms are locally sited or have local
facilities, a significant portion was composed of companies that are national and international in scope,
e.g., Boeing, Microsoft, etc.
        Employers were asked to identify the nature of their business and the number of employees. Not
all responded to this question, but the list of those that did is considered reasonably representative of the
survey sample.
       •   Health, Hospital                    9
       •   Manufacturing                       5
       •   Hospitality/Hotel                   3
       •   Food Services                       2
       •   Services (Govt., Insurance)         2
       •   Non-Profit                          3
       •   Press, Printing                     3
       •   Computer Services                   3
       •   Engineering/Construction            3
       •   Recreation                          3
       •   Retail Sales                        2
       •   Health Fitness                      2
       •   Landscape/Nursery                   2
                                                                                                             20
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       • Automotive Services                   2
       • Retirement Services                   2
       • Performing Arts                       1
       Similarly, not all of the responding firms provided information on the number of employees (27
declined). Of those that did, the distribution was as follows:
       Number of Employees            Number of Firms
       • 1 to 5                              13
       • 6 to 20                             16
       • 21 to 50                            13
       • 51 to 200                           23
       • 201 to 500                           8
       • >500                                22
       • N/A                                 10
       • Total                             132
       The major findings of this survey are:
       •   Nearly half reported that a bachelor’s degree was the preferred credential for new
           supervisory and managerial staff.
       •   An associate degree was considered acceptable for these positions by only about 28%.
       •   Management and specific occupation preparation constituted the preferred majors.
       •   Most direct their main recruitment efforts to the East Lake Washington and Puget Sound
           regions.
       •   Nearly half reported there are unmet needs for a bachelor’s program such as the one
           described in the questionnaire (lower division occupational specialization/upper-division
           management)
       •   Nearly sixty-percent felt such a program should be offered at LWTC.
       •   Most also believed the quality of such a program at LWTC would be adequate to their needs.
       •   Nearly half indicated their company would be likely to offer incentives to employees
           attending such a program.
       •   Nearly two-thirds (62%) agreed that the presence of such a program at LWTC would make
           the community a better place to live and work.
       •   A similar portion believed that such a program would help attract new firms and retain those
           already there.
       •   Similarly, 62% reported that such a program at LWTC would help their staffing and
           recruitment efforts.
       •   The preponderance felt that existed programs were inadequate as they disagreed with a
           statement to the contrary.
       Response patterns for each of the questions are illustrated in the following graphics, presented in
the order of the questionnaire. In some cases additional respondent comments immediately follow the
question to which they apply.
                                                                                                           21
                                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       New Staffing Requirements: The responding companies report a preference for people with
bachelor’s degrees for managerial and supervisory positions. Nearly half (48%) indicated this was the
case. Associate degree holders were preferred by 27%, and master’s degree credentials were preferred
by about 10%.

                                           Q1. When your company seeks new staff for
                                         managerial and supervisory positions, what are the
                                                 preferred degree qualifications?




                                                                       63
                                        70
                                        60
                                        50                  36
                                        40
                                        30       12                                13
                                        20                                                          6         2
                                        10
                                         0




                                                                                               er



                                                                                                         /A
                                                                       s



                                                                                rs
                                              es



                                                           s


                                                                     or
                                                         te




                                                                             te



                                                                                             th



                                                                                                        N
                                            at



                                                       ia



                                                                   el


                                                                             as



                                                                                            O
                                          ci



                                                        c


                                                                 ch
                                       so



                                                     so




                                                                            M
                                                               Ba
                                                   As
                                    As
                                    <




       The “Other” references were to “Experience” (5) and “Promote from within” (1)
        Management and Specific Occupation majors were preferred, respectively by 17% and 18% of
the choices reported. Business Administration (16%) and Computer Science (14%) followed in that
order. Collectively these four majors comprised 65% of the total.

                         Q2. What are the Preferred Majors? (More than one
                                      answer possible; n=259)

                         N/A                                     17
                        Other                                                     27
                      Hi-Flex                      9
                       Comp                                                                     35
                       Quant.                                                          29
                       Mgmt.                                                                                      44
                        Tech.                5
                        Prof.                5
                    Spec. Occ                                                                                          46
                    Bus Adm.                                                                                 42

                                0                10               20               30                   40                  50



       Not all of the “Other” category responses were specified by respondents. Those that were
included
       •   Engineering (5)
                                                                                                                                 22
                                                    LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       • Master’s degrees
       • Exercise Science (5)
       • Horticulture
       • Political Science
       • Food Studies
       • Health Care Services
       • Human Services, Counseling
       • Nutrition
       • Finance
       • Public Administration
       • Medical Assistant
       • Nursing
       Recruitment Issues: Nearly half of the responding employers (47%) reported no difficulty
finding employees with the desired credentials. Thirty percent reported that they did. Nearly a quarter,
however, did not answer the question.

                                          Q3. Does your company experience
                                          difficulty finding employees with the
                                                    desired credntials?
                                                           n=132




                                                   N/A
                                                   23%              Yes
                                                                    30%




                                                          No
                                                         47%




       Most did not specify the reasons. Examples of those that did include:
       •   People have certification but lack degrees
       •   Candidates don't prepare for future; they have technical but not managerial training
       •   People fresh out of school rarely have the needed managerial skills immediately
       •   Many dental assistants do not even have a high school education
       •   The quality of the job pool is low
       •   There are fewer engineering grads; we also need project managers
       •   Lack of Management Training


                                                                                                             23
                                                              LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       When asked how much difficulty they have experienced finding qualified employees during the
past year, 44% indicated “Much” or “Some.” The portion reporting “None” dropped to 11%. “Don’t
Know” and no answers combined totaled 45%.

                                            Q4. If "Yes," how much difficulty have you
                                          experienced finding qualified employees during
                                                     the last 12 months? n=132



                                                                             Much
                                                                             12%

                                                       N/A
                                                       40%
                                                                                    Some
                                                                                    32%


                                                      Don't Know
                                                                      None
                                                         5%
                                                                      11%




        Most of the employers recruit locally in the East Lake Washington or Puget Sound regions,
nearly 64% of the choices indicated. Conversely, about 14% recruit nationally.

                                         Q5 To w hich geographic areas does your com pany
                                      direct its efforts to recruit em ployees? (More than one
                                                      answ er acceptable; n=151)


                                     80                75
                                     70
                                     60
                                     50
                            Number




                                     40
                                     30     21                           20         21
                                     20
                                                                5                            7
                                     10                                                             2
                                      0
                                          Locally -   Puget   State      NW         Nat'l   Other   N/A
                                            East       Sd
                                            Lake



       Nearly three-quarters (74%) of those responding to the question stated that they did not seek
graduates of any particular institution in their recruitment efforts.




                                                                                                                       24
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                 Q6. Does your company seek graduates of any
                                 particular institution in its recruitment efforts?
                                                      (n=132)



                                                              Yes
                                             N/A              18%
                                             32%




                                                              No
                                                             50%




   Among the responders who stated preferences the institutions were:
     • WSU, CWU
     • WWU
     • Law schools
     • Tech Colleges
     • LWTC (11)
     • WSU (4)
     • Renton,
     • Green River CC
     • Clover Park TC
     • Edmonds
     • SSCC
     • BYU
     Need for the Program at LWTC: Nearly half, 49%, believe there are unmet needs in the
community for programs such as the one envisioned by LWTC. Another four percent were unsure.




                                                                                                            25
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study



                                Q7. Do you believe there are unmet needs for a
                                bachelor's program such as the one described
                              [Management/Technical degree] in the community?
                                                    (n=132)




                                                     N/A
                                              Unsure 11%
                                               4%

                                                                     Yes
                                                                     49%
                                                No
                                               36%




       About a third (34%) stated that the absence of bachelor degree programs at LWTC added to
problems for their staff recruitment program.

                              Q8 Does the absence of bachelor's degree programs at LWTC
                               contribute to any problems with respect to your company's
                                              recruitment program? (n = 91)



                                                     N/A
                                                     9%
                                                                 Yes
                                                                 34%



                                                 No
                                                57%




     More than half – 58% -- thought that a program such as the described BAT should be offered at
LWTC. Only four percent disagreed.




                                                                                                            26
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                               Q9 Do you think a program in technology management such
                                   as the one described should be offered at LWTC?
                                                        (n = 92)




                                             N/A
                                             38%

                                                                   Yes
                                                                   58%
                                                 No
                                                 4%




       If Yes, Why? Responses included:
       •   “Great opportunity for individuals in this area.”
       •   “Employees w/practical management degree are more valuable than someone with a business
           admin degree.”
       •   “Better qualified applicants, more opportunity for students and community.”
       •   “Management needs are great in the technical field!”
       •   “Students can combine tech skills w/management.”
       •   “Many now know field but do not know how to manage.”
       If No, Why?
       •   “I’m not sure of the market for Tech Management.”
       •   “Not applicable to our company.”
       •   “Problems with enrollment & paperwork; until communications w/new students is resolved,
           nothing more should be added.”
        Time and Mode of Offering: Weekends and evenings were the scheduling preferences for
program operation. A third of the responding firms made this their choice. Twenty-three percent
preferred regular daytime hours.




                                                                                                            27
                                                           LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                    Q10. In terms of scheduling, when should such a
                                               program be offered? n=132


                                                  N/A           3

                                          All of these                7

                                                Other                          13

                              Evenings and Weekends                                                            44

                                           Weekends                  6

                                             Evening                                               29

                                             Daytime                                               30

                                                           0          10            20         30        40         50



        A combination of on-campus and Internet classes was the preferred delivery option by half of the
firms. On-campus alone was preferred by about 24%.

                                    Q11. How and where should it be offered? n=132


                                                N/A                      15

                                              Other             6

                                        All of these        3

                               On-campus & Internet                                                             66

                                            Internet                 11

                                        On-campus                                        31

                                                       0        10        20        30        40    50    60    70



      Respondents also offered these comments:
      • “LWTC with the most efficient use of other available institutions.”
      • “A collaborative if a good partnership potential exists.”
      • “Either way could work.”
      • “A connection with UW Extension would be a winner.”
      A plurality of the respondents, 40%, felt that such a program should be operated collaboratively
between LWTC and another institution. Twenty-eight percent, however, believe it should be offered by
LWTC alone.




                                                                                                                         28
                                                     LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                Q12. Should it be offered by LWTC alone, or
                               should LWTC provide it through a collaborative
                                arrangement with another institution? n=132


                                                  N/A                       Alone
                                                  27%                       28%




                                             Other
                                              5%



                                                  Collab.
                                                   40%




        Program Quality: Seventy percent indicated that such a program would compare as more (32%)
or at least as desirable (38%) as programs offered by private institutions serving the area. Only 1l%
considered it less desirable.

                                Q13. How would such a program at LWTC
                                compare with programs offered by private
                                     institutions in the area? n=132



                                                  N/A
                                                  19%
                                                                     More desirable
                                                                         32%

                                 Less desirable
                                     11%




                                                     As desirable
                                                         38%




     Most (57%) indicated that they would be comfortable with the quality of such a program at
LWTC. Only 15% reported they would not.




                                                                                                              29
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                Q14 Would you feel comfortable with the quality of
                                the suggested program as far as your company's
                                       employees are concerned? (n = 89)




                                              N/A
                                              28%


                                                                Yes
                                                                57%
                                               No
                                              15%




       Those who stated why reported:
       •   Cost Effective
       •   LWTC's reputation as a regional college of choice for workers and educators
       •   We are supporting our public college system
       •   Local name recognition; great reputation
       •   Local candidates would be locally educated and make stable workers.
       •   Cost and the staff teaching courses
       •   LWTC is a solid foundation
       There also was this negative comment:
       •   Names [technical colleges, universities, etc.] Lack of experience at the school
       Employer Support: A plurality, 44%, reported that their firm would be likely to offer incentives
to employees to attend such a program at LWTC.




                                                                                                           30
                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                  Q15. Would your company be likely to offer
                                  incentives for employees to attend such a
                                               program? n=132

                                                 N/A
                                                 20%



                                                                         Yes
                                                                         44%




                                                 No
                                                36%




       Examples given were these:
        • Tuition Assistance (15)
        • Tuition Assistance, Released Time (3)
        • Internships (2)
        • OJT (2)
        • Internships and OJT (2)
        • Released Time and OJT
        • Pay for books
        • Pay for license
        • Tuition, released time, OJT, internships
        • Scholarship funds
        • Internships
        • Opportunity for promotion
        • Released time
        Question 16 asked for an estimate of how many workers might be interested in such a degree.
Thirty-four of the respondents offered numerical estimates ranging between 2 to 20. One estimated 55;
another estimated 500. Several others answered the question with references to particular types of
programs. Because of the variances, the data were considered indicative of an appreciable level of
interest but not amenable to quantification.
       Responding firms were equally divided at 44% each on answers to a question about employees
presently pursuing a bachelor’s degree.




                                                                                                          31
                                                      LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                       Q17. Are any em ployees presently pursuing
                                               a bachelor's degree? n=113




                                                     N/A
                                                     12%


                                                                            Yes
                                                                            44%


                                               No
                                              44%




        Program Effects: Employers were then presented with a series of statements and asked to
indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with each on a Likert scale ranging from Agree to
Disagree. Sixty-two percent either agreed (40.9%) or tended to agree with a statement that bachelor’s
programs at LWTC would make the community a better place to live and work. Less than four percent
disagreed with the statement.

                                Q18. "Bachelor's programs at LWTC would help
                               this community grow and make this a better place
                                           to live and work." n=132

                         60     54

                         50

                         40                                                            34
                                             28
                         30

                         20
                                                                                  11
                         10                                         4
                                                           1
                          0
                               Agree       Tend to     Tend to   Disagree     N/O      N/A
                                            Agree     Disagree



      Similarly, 62.8% agreed (20.4%) or tended to agree (42.4%) with the statement that a bachelor’s
program at LWTC would help attract new industries to the area and retain those that are there.



                                                                                                               32
                                                     LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                    "A bachelor's program at LWTC would help to
                                   attract new firms and industries to the area and
                                           keep those that are here." n=132

                          60                  56

                          50

                          40

                          30        27
                                                                            23
                          20                            14

                          10                                                          7
                                                                   5

                              0
                                   Agree   Tend to   Tend to    Disagree   N/O        N/A
                                            Agree    Disagree



       In total, sixty-two percent also agreed (27.2%) or tended to agree (34.8%) that such a program
would help them with their recruitment and staffing efforts. About 11% disagreed or tended to disagree
with the statement.

                                  Q20. "Our company's recruitment and staffing
                                    program would benefit from a bachelor's
                                            program at LWTC." n=132

                         50                  46
                         45
                         40        36
                         35
                         30
                         25
                                                                            18         17
                         20
                         15
                                                        8          7
                         10
                          5
                          0
                                  Agree    Tend to    Tend to   Disagree    N/O        N/A
                                            Agree    Disagree



       Sufficiency of Existing Services: A plurality, 42%, did not agree that the present higher
education resources in the area are adequately meeting needs. About 31% felt they were.




                                                                                                              33
                                                         LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                      Q21. "The present higher education institutions
                                     and programs in the East Lake area are adequately
                                     meeting employer, student, and community needs
                                           for bachelor degree programs." n=132


                                35
                                                             31
                                30

                                                 23                   24
                                25                                                 22
                                       19
                                20

                                15                                                             13

                                10

                                 5

                                 0




                                                           Disagree


                                                                      Disagree
                                       Agree


                                               Tend to




                                                                                   N/O



                                                                                               N/A
                                                           Tend to
                                                Agree




         Most of those who chose to answer the next to last question, 54%, believe there are unmet needs
for other types of bachelor programs (than the one proposed by LWTC) in the area. Forty-six percent
felt there were not. There was a substantial portion of respondents, 43%, who chose not to answer the
question.

                                Q22. In your opinion, are unmet needs for other
                               types of bachelor programs present in the area?
                                                     n=132


                                                                                         Yes
                                                                                         31%

                                               N/A
                                               43%




                                                                                  No
                                                                                 26%




       When those who answered yes were asked which were needed, their responses included the
following:
       •   B.A.T. specifically; Bachelor degrees generally
       •   Computer Tech
                                                                                                                  34
                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       •   Nursing, Allied Health
       •   Business administration
       •   Hotel/Restaurant Management
       •   Exercise Science
       •   Nursing, Medical Imaging, various Medical Specialties
       •   Dental Technician
       •   Upside-down programs
       •   More business-technical programs
       •   Biotechnology, nanotechnology, manufacturing and quality control
       •   Welding and Construction Technology
       •   Nursing and Healthcare Administration (2)
       •   Exercise Science
       •   Software Engineering
       •   Sociology, General
       •   Computer Science
       •   Electrical Engineering
       •   Public Administration
       •   Business and Technology
       •   Human resources
       •   Dental Hygiene
       •   Computer Technology
       •   Nursing, Allied Health
       •   BAT specifically; Bachelor degrees generally
       •   Business administration
       •   Hotel/Restaurant Management
       •   Nursing, Medical Imaging, Medical Specialties
       •   Dental Technology
       The last question (Q23) was an open-ended invitation for people to offer additional thoughts.
Several responded with these comments:
       •   “This seems like a good extension of LWTC's goal of producing students with the skills
           needed to quickly find employment and effectively help their employer.”
       •   “I strongly support this for our employees and for the benefit of Puget Sound employers. I
           also support increasing access to bachelor programs statewide.”
       •   “Registration and completion problems; students are alienated, drop out, and no one ever
           knows. Communications must improve.”
       •   “I support LWTC raising the bar.”
       •   “I would like to see articulated pathways to access supervisory and management positions.”


                                                                                                          35
                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       •   “Most supervisors have little higher education. People with higher education want too much
           money. Don't know how to sell the idea here, but it would help.”
       •   “It would be high quality and relevant to health care industry.”
       •   “This seems like a good extension of LWTC's goal of producing students with the skills
           needed to quickly find employment and effectively help their employers.”
       •   “I think this is great! I hope the responses will be good and LWTC will expand beyond
           degrees in technology.”
       •   “Do it!”
       •   “A great opportunity -- building on the strong base of programs at LWTC and allowing
           students to return to the workforce after the Associate degree and continue working on.”
       •   “Sounds like a great idea to me. UW is no longer accepting transfers from community
           colleges, so other alternatives are a bachelor's degree.”
       •   “Call it Bachelor of Management in Technology.”
       •   “It is exciting to have a broadened range of education programs on the Eastside. Education
           convenience is important.”
The Community Survey
        Although the employer responses regarding the envisaged program were favorable, responses
from members of the larger community were dramatically so. The community survey was announced
through community outlets and chamber of commerce newsletters. The survey itself was posted and
distributed online. There is no way to determine how many questionnaires were read and considered,
and, hence, no way to ascertain a response rate. There were fewer questions – 14 – on the community
questionnaire than the one directed to employers (which contained 23 questions), as some of the
questions pertaining to recruiting, providing incentives, qualifications of employees, etc., were not
relevant to this audience and were dropped.
        Some 230 completed and usable questionnaires were received. Respondents (not all answered
the question) were about evenly divided between males (45%) and females (44%). Nearly half (49%)
were parents. The enthusiasm of the community survey respondents for the program was very strong, as
reflected in the following observations:
       •   Ninety-one percent believe there are unmet needs in the community for a bachelor’s program
           such as the one envisioned by LWTC.
       •   Sixty-one percent felt the absence of such a program create problems for them with respect to
           their education needs.
       •   Eighty-nine percent felt such a program should be offered by LWTC.
       •   More than half (51%) believe it should be offered by LWTC alone; 38% believed it should
           be collaboratively.
       •   Eighty-five percent reported that they would be comfortable with the quality of such a
           program.
       •   Sixty-one percent believed there are unmet needs for other types of bachelor programs as
           well.

                                                                                                          36
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       •   Sixty-five percent considered it very likely or likely that they or a member of their household
           would enroll.
       •   Eighty-seven percent either agreed or tended to agree with the statement that such a LWTC
           program would make the community a better place to live and work.
       •   Two-thirds (c. 66%) took exception and disagreed with a statement that present higher
           education programs and services in the area were adequately meeting employer, student, and
           community needs for bachelor degree programs.
       The frequency patterns and related comments for the community survey questions are as follows.
      Unmet Needs: Most of the respondents, 91%, felt there were unmet needs for the LWTC
program in the community. Seven percent reported otherwise.

                                 Q1. Do you believe there are unmet needs for
                                   a bachelor's program [such as described in
                                  the questionnaire] in the community? n=230

                                                        N/A
                                                 No
                                                        2%
                                                 7%




                                                              Yes
                                                              91%


       More than 60% felt the absence of such a program created problems for them educationally.
Thirty-seven percent reported that it did not.

                                 Q2. Does the absence of a bachelor's degree
                                 program at LWTC contribute to any problems
                                   with respect to your education needs and
                                                  plans? n=230
                                                      N/A
                                                      2%


                                           No
                                          37%

                                                                     Yes
                                                                     61%




                                                                                                           37
                                                LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

        Enthusiasm for the LWTC program concept also was apparent in the 89% favorable response to
a question about whether it should be offered. Seven percent responded negatively.

                                  Q3. Do you think a program in technology
                                    management such as described [in the
                                  questionnaire] should be offered at LWTC?
                                                    n=230
                                                   N/A
                                                No
                                                   4%
                                                7%




                                                          Yes
                                                          89%


     When asked why they felt the way they did, a very large number of respondents offered
comments. The following are representative but not exhaustive:
       • “To offer a more balanced, more in depth program to students.”
       • “There is a demand for tech people in this area, but not enough programs to prepare
         properly.”
     • “Many credits from LWTC are not transferable to 4-yr colleges, it would be nice to have
         them available at LWTC.”
     • “A BA may prove beneficial to people whose jobs at one time only required an Assoc.
         Degree but now more is needed for advancement.”
     • “It would allow credits that are not transferable to other colleges to be applied to a BA from
         LWTC.”
     • “It is an accessible college with good instructors.”
     • “LWTC offers good programs, but these are incomplete if students need a BA for their
         career.
     • Many who want a 4-yr degree have to leave LWTC, and it is a great school. They would
         complete there if they could.”
     • “The local community is in need of skilled and qualified workforce. This will provide a
         viable degree option.”
     • “If LWTC offers a bachelor's degree, I will be the first to sign up so that I can pursue my
         dreams.”
     • “More education = higher salary = better community.”
     • “If a bachelor’s is there, I might come back.”
     Scheduling and Mode: As was the case with the employer respondents, members of the
community group were most in favor of a program that would be availably in the evenings and on

                                                                                                         38
                                                     LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

weekends. A plurality of the answers, 35%, favored this option. Twenty-seven percent favored a day
schedule.

                                  Q4. In terms of scheduling, when should it be
                                   offered? (More than one answer possible)

                            100                                         90
                             90
                             80       69
                             70
                             60
                             50                                                         45
                                                41
                             40
                             30
                             20
                                                              6
                             10
                              0
                                     Day     Evening Weekend Weekend Other (All)
                                                             & Evening


       In a similar pattern with the employers, community respondents also favored a program
involving campus and Internet course delivery. Eight-four percent favored such a combination.

                                    Q5. Where and how should it be offered?
                                        (More than one answer possible)

                                               Campus
                                                only
                                                13%
                                                                             Internet
                                                                               3%




                                                 Both
                                                 84%




       Members of this group also were more favorable toward an LWTC initiative as opposed to a
collaborative. Fifty-one percent favored an indigenous option at LWTC; thirty-eight percent favored a
collaborative arrangement.




                                                                                                              39
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                   Q6. Should it be offered by LWTC alone or
                                       should LWTC provide it through a
                                    collaborative arrangement with another
                                               institution? n=230
                                                          N/A
                                                          7%
                                              Other
                                               4%




                                                                    LWTC only
                                                                      51%
                                      W/Another
                                        Inst.
                                        38%




        Individual preferences are apparent in the following responses, in this case to Q7, which asked,
“If you feel it should be with another, which would you prefer?
       A number of respondents answered generally, e.g., “a four-year state university” or “a reputable
and respected university.” Responses designating particular institutions arrayed as follows:
       • University of Washington                39
       • City University                          6
       • Central Washington University            5
       • Washington State University              4
       • Bellevue Community College               4
       • Western Washington University            3
       • Everett Community College                3
       • University of Puget Sound                2
       • Edmonds Community College                2
       • Seattle University                       1
       • Cascadia College                         1
       • The Evergreen State College              1
       • University of Phoenix                    1
       Program Quality: Most, 60%, believe that a LWTC program would be better than programs
offered by private institutions in the area.




                                                                                                           40
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


                                   Q8. How do you think a program at LWTC
                                   would compare with programs offered by
                                    private institutions in the area? n=230

                                                     N/A
                                            Less     10%
                                             5%



                                        As
                                     desirable                         Better
                                       25%                              60%




       More than 100 respondents (101) answered an open-ended inquiry about why they felt this way.
The following sample is illustrative.
       •   “LWTC has a good reputation.”
       •   “Closer to home.”
       •   “Some of them are strictly online schooling.”
       •   “LWTC is designed to know what industry wants and work it.”
       •   Strong local institution, not like private, national "chain"
       •   “LWTC's reputation in community, local presence is attractive.”
       •   “LWTC has good facilities and instructors. Privates too $$$.”
       •   “I know Phoenix offers many distant learning, but cost too high.”
       •   “This is a state sanctioned college, not merely a business.”
       Also like the employers, members of this response group had no problem with program quality.
Eight-nine percent reported they would be comfortable with the quality of a LWTC program.

                                   Q9. Would you feel comfortable with the
                                   quality of the suggested program? n=230
                                                           N/A
                                                           9%
                                             No
                                             6%




                                                                 Yes
                                                                 85%


                                                                                                            41
                                                     LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

        Program Effects on the Community: Their Likert scale responses to a series of statements
about the issue that was similar to those presented to the employers, the community respondents
demonstrated the same response patterns, although generally stronger than those of the employers.
Seventy-two percent agreed that bachelor’s programs at LWTC would make the community a better
place. And additional 15% tended to agree, for a total of 87%.

                                 Q10. "Bachelor's programs at LWTC would
                                  help the comunity grow and make this a
                                   better place to live and work." n-230
                              165




                                         35
                                                      7         4            8      10

                              Agree    Tend to       Tend   Disagree        N/O     N/A
                                        Agree      Disagree


        Sufficiency of Present Programs: Thirty-six percent disagreed with a statement to the effect
that existing programs and services were adequate, and 30% tended to disagree, for a total of 66%, i.e.,
stated differently, two-thirds felt they are not adequate.

                                     Q11. "The present higher education
                                  institutions and programs in the Eastside
                                   area are adequately meeting employer,
                                      student, and community needs for
                                     bachelor degree programs." n=230
                                                          82
                                              71

                                48


                                                                       19
                                                                                  10


                             Tend to      Tend        Disagree         N/O        N/A
                              Agree     Disagree




                                                                                                              42
                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

      Sixty percent felt there are unmet needs for other types of bachelor programs in the area.
Twenty-eight percent reported otherwise.

                                 Q12. Are there unmet needs for other types of
                                   bachelor programs present in the area?
                                                   n=230


                                                 N/A
                                                 11%



                                            No
                                           28%                   Yes
                                                                 61%




       When asked which other programs might be needed, ninety-five respondents identified particular
programs as follows:
       •   Nursing                                  18
       •   Computer/Information Sciences            12
       •   Medical Specialties                       8
       •   Business/Accounting                       7
       •   Technical Management                      6
       •   Engineering                               5
       •   Hospitality                               4
       •   Biotech                                   3
       •   Dental Fields                             3
       •   Graphics Design/BFA                       3
       •   Education                                 2
       •   Social /Human Svcs/Crim. Justice          1
      The last question invited respondents to add any other comments they wished. Fifty-three did,
some making further or other references to specific program needs. Examples from the list follow:
       •   “LWTC needs to offer an RN program that leads to BSN.”
       •   “LWTC needs a BA program, especially in MMDP & Culinary Arts.”
       •   “Radiology programs offerings are needed at LWTC.”
       •   “There are many interesting careers I can’t do -- no BA.”
       •   “If this program had been available earlier, I would have attended.”
       •   “Hard to find a BA program that allows work and school.”
       •   “Great idea, I hope to see it soon.”
                                                                                                          43
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       •   “Like the idea of smaller college providing higher degree.”
       •   “New program suited to locals would enhance the eastside.”
       •   “A BA would give me a definite advantage.”
       •   “I feel I can't be competitive in CSNT field w/out BS.”
       •   “If offered you will be giving a poor kid a head start.”
       •   “Excellent idea!!!!”
       •   “Earning a bachelor's from a college that focuses on working public, good.”
       •   “Having a viable and highly employable 4 yr degree is needed on Eastside.”
        Although the survey research centered on bachelor program needs generally, it also tested
reception to one particular form. There are other models as well. Attention now turns to a review of the
more prevalent versions in community colleges throughout the country.




                                                                                                           44
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


              Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in Applied Technology
                              Program Feasibility Study

                                                        Program Models
        According to one recent estimate21 “between 100 and 200 community colleges currently either
offer [or strive to increase access to] a bachelors-degree program in some capacity.”22 Some are provided
independently by the respective community colleges;23 others involve a joint arrangement with a
participating university. Usually in this case the university awards the degree although the courses are
offered on the community college campus and in fact usually engage the faculty, often in the
preponderance. It appears that two basic models for providing bachelor’s programs in or through
community colleges have formed, although there also appears to be some confusion regarding variants
of each. The two basic forms involve collaborations between two- and four-year institutions [“university
centers”], and indigenous community/technical college baccalaureate degrees [C/TCBs].
        The reason for the occurrence of these programs devolves mainly from the needs of place-bound
students. Restricted mobility because of a family, a home, or a job is one but not the only definitional
qualification of ‘place-bound.’ Community college students can be place-bound because their lower-
division technical program credits do not transfer in substantial share to an upper-division university
program; the upper-division programs offered by the university do not align with the student’s career
aspirations; the queue for admission to the university program is too long; there is no room at the top; or
there are problems with scheduling, price, and a variety of other things.
        Then there also is the fact that the cultures and the educational experiences available in the two
types of institutions are different. At the undergraduate level, “Universities cater to full-time students
between the ages of 18 and 22 who want an on-campus [academic program] experience. . . . [community
colleges ] tend to cater to part-time students, including single and working mothers and older students.”24
Many of these are pursuing programs that emphasize work skills over theoretical knowledge. Although
the graduates of both types may have similar career and professional plans, it can be a little more
difficult for the technical college graduate to make the transition from the technical to the professional
ranks in the workplace because of the difficulty of acquiring the relevant upper-division, baccalaureate
program credentials. The effects, are the same, the aspiring student is stuck, or, more conventionally,
place-bound.



21
     Patricia Troumpoucis, “The Best of Both Worlds?” Community College Week, April 12, 2004.
22
  It may be a little early for this, but at least two observers, James Samels and James Martin, describe the phenomenon as an “emergent
megatrend for community and technical colleges throughout the nation.” See “One Step Back to Take Two Steps Forward,” Community
College Week, April 12, 2004.
23
   A recent survey conducted by Dr. Danny Gonzales of Great Basin College, Nevada, identified 131 such programs offered in 21 current
or re--designated community colleges.
24
     Troumpoucis, op. cit., quoting Dr. Kenneth Walker, President of Edison Community College in Ft. Meyers, FL.
                                                                                                                                      45
                                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       Jane Wellman argues that a number of converging forces are driving students to begin higher
education at community colleges including:25
              (1) Increasing numbers of high school graduates
              (2) Increasing proportion of low-income and minority students
              (3) Stricter admission requirements at four-year institutions
              (4) Escalating college tuitions
        These factors are making community colleges the single largest sector in higher education, a fact
validated in data provided by the National Center for Education Statistics. One result is a growing
number of qualified community/technical college graduates with not a lot of places to go to continue
their education. The presence of some private institution programs is not an answer for many because of
price. Some also believe that an aspect of equity is involved, stated as “Why should a community or
technical college student be obliged to pay a premium price a private institution to continue his or her
education when the student who entered the public four-year institution fresh from high school is not?”
       Another reason for the growing presence of baccalaureate programs in community/technical
colleges concerns difficulties universities have providing sufficient numbers of graduates to fill voids or
shortages in professional fields, e.g., a teacher’s shortage, or, in the present case, shortages of staff with
both the managerial and technical training that were identified by many of the employers who were
surveyed as part of the present study.
        A larger and somewhat newer consideration originates in the essence of the community-technical
college mission. Typically this centers on the education and training needs of residents of the
communities these institutions serve. Although historically these needs have been defined by the
associate – ‘two-year’ – degree, there is no logical reason why they should be abridged at the associate
degree level. The fact they are is an artifact stemming from the genesis of community colleges in the
junior college experience. Junior colleges, many of which used to be operated by local school boards,
were two-year institutions – prep schools – preparing local students for further college work in a ‘four-
year- institution.
        Another now erstwhile type of two-year institution was the public normal school, of which in
Washington there used to be three – Eastern, Central, and Western. Just as these institutions evolved into
four-year teacher colleges in accordance with the changing needs of the profession, and then into
regional and subsequently comprehensive universities in accordance with the education needs of the
regions they served, so now are similar pressures converging on many community/technical colleges. In
this instance, though, these institutions need not be reconstituted into four-year colleges with full
panoply of baccalaureate programs just because there exist community needs for a few programs of this
type, programs that can be offered at a time and in a manner convenient to the needs of people who must


25
  Wellman, J. V. (2004, March). State policies on 2/4 transfers are key to degree attainment. National Center for Public Policy and Higher
Education Policy Alert.


                                                                                                                                       46
                                                                LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

work and raise families, and they need not involve the same professional requirements for research and
publication that apply to university faculty. Rather, they can remain true to their roles as community and
technical colleges and still offer a bachelor’s program to complement their associate degree offerings. In
virtually every instance in which a community college was re-designated into some form of a four-year
school when it was authorized to offer bachelor’s programs in another state, the re-designation was a
political response: the change in designation occurred because the central state agency or the legislature
wanted it. There is no indispensable reason, however, why this has to occur.
        The point is that a number of internal and external factors are converging to affect higher
education in a number of ways. Community/technical colleges are reacting to these forces by revisiting
campus missions, visions, and organizational priorities. It is in this context that community college
bachelor degrees are capturing the attention of higher education policymakers and community college
faculty and administrators alike.26 Such changes have been underway for the last ten years. And they are
occurring throughout the country.
Experiences of Other States
       A number of higher education organizations such as the National Center for Public Policy and
Higher Education, the Education Commission of the States, and the Community College Baccalaureate
Association have published briefs and papers related to state policies affecting baccalaureate degree
attainment and the evolving role of community colleges in addressing workforce needs.27 A growing
number of community colleges have taken the necessary steps to implement baccalaureate degree
programs, including requests to regional accrediting bodies and college governing boards to approve a
mission change.
        These programs, community-technical college baccalaureates (C/TCB) are distinct, but they are
not the only forms. There is a difference, for example, between programmatic models where upper-
division coursework is available to students by a four-year college or university on a
community/technical college campus, on the one hand, and an indigenous bachelor degree by a
community/technical college, on the other.
        An ECS Policy Paper released in 2000 identified four forms of the inter-institutional
collaborative or joint model (University Centers, in which community college enter into partnerships to
offer the degree on the community college campus with the program under the governance authority of
the university; multi-institutional consortia with two- and four-year institutions located on the same
campus, e.g., the Auraria campus in Denver; two-plus-two partnerships, somewhat along the lines of the


26
   In the November 10, 2004 draft of her paper, “Upper-Division Enrollment Planning in Washington State,” Jean Floten identifies “Four
different ways of creating and delivering upper division access -- university expansion, branch campus growth, university center
development, and community college baccalaureate authority. She compares the four approaches and notes that “Each option has
significantly different service features, attributes, limitations and cost structures.”
27
   This section employs materials from a paper by Dr. Danny Gonzales of Great Basin College, Nevada, “Institutional Frameworks for
Community Colleges Offering Bachelor’s Degrees, August 24, 2004, prepared for NORED as part of this study. It also employs material
from a September 7, 2004 working paper, “Applied Baccalaureate Degree,” by Loretta Seppanen and Tina Bloomer, of the SBCTC and
Madeline Thompson, of the WTECB. Finally, some material from earlier NORED reports, particularly those concerning the UVCC and
Dixie College studies also is included.
                                                                                                                                      47
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

original Tech-Prep model; and distance education programs, such as envisioned for Western Governors
University, where students acquire credits online and obtain degree certification.)28 In a more recent
essay, Floyd and Walker29 distinguish among different frameworks by providing a typology of four
programmatic models for education programs that are applicable to other programs:30
              (1) Articulation model
              (2) University center model
              (3) Certification model
              (4) Community college baccalaureate model
        Each of these four conjoint models has different variations that are dependent on institutional
characteristics, partnerships, and authority to offer upper-division coursework. For example, in an ECS
paper, Amy Cook describes four approaches to increase student access to bachelor degrees in the context
of collaborative models between two-year colleges and four-year institutions:31
              (1) University center model
              (2) Multi-institutional consortium model
              (3) Two-plus-two partnership model
              (4) Distance education model
        According to Cook, the university center model brokers community college partners with four-
year universities or colleges to offer baccalaureate degrees on the community college campus. The
center usually is staffed by four-year and two-year faculty and is governed by the university.
        The multi-institutional consortium model, the second form, requires two- and four-year systems
to locate on the same campus. Even though the college and university system have separate curricula,
faculty, administrations, and resources, the institutions collaborate to serve students and use facilities
and other resources in more efficient ways.
        The two-plus-two partnership model is similar to the previous model in that it creates a more
seamless transition between the student’s first two years of community colleges and four-year campuses.
The distance education model utilizes technology such as the Internet, interactive video, WebCT, and
other distance learning applications to provide programs.


28
  February 2000, perhaps owing to its comparatively early release vis-à-vis the C/TCB phenomenon, more of the partnership or
collaborative models are not really examples of a baccalaureate degree in a community college. Nevertheless, this particular typology
continues to influence the literature, as will be seen shortly.
29
  Floyd, D. L. & Walker, D. A. (2003). Community college teacher education: A typology, challenging issues, and state views.
Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 27(8), 643-664.
30
  Three of the four are reflected in goals of the Community College Baccalaureate Association, which are: “encouraging development of
baccalaureate degrees conferred by community colleges; encouraging development of university centers on community college campuses;
and encouraging joint-degree programs with universities on community college campuses. The over-arching purpose is to help” more
people to realize their dreams of earning a bachelor’s degree.” From the statement, “The New and Improve Community College
Baccalaureate,” by Dr. John Garmon, President of Vista Community College in Berkeley, CA.
31
  Cook, A.C., “Community college baccalaureate degrees: A delivery model for the future?” Education Commission of the States Policy
Papers, (February 2000) pp. 1-8.
                                                                                                                                        48
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

        Other partnerships include offering bachelor degrees by universities at branch campuses,
providing classes via distance education technologies, and multi-institutional agreements and
consortiums that create university centers on community college campuses. Similar to the transfer and
articulation models, another type of model allows the student to be enrolled concurrently in both a
community college and four-year college or university. Summer school students are also considered
part of this category. These students often enroll in summer school and transfer classes.
        In an August 2004 a Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges and
Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board paper, Loretta Seppanen, Tina Bloomer, and
Madeline Thompson offer this about Applied Baccalaureate degrees, “After a few years working in their
field, many associate degree graduates from work-related programs [in Washington] will need additional
education, frequently a baccalaureate degree. This continued education is needed by technicians moving
into management and by those needing advanced training in their technical field.32 While options exists
for technical degree transfer, there are currently too few options to meet the needs of that portion of
nearly 8,000 technical degree graduates who will need further education.”33 Their focus appears to be
more on curricula configurations than inter-institutional structure. They identify several associate
degree-to-baccalaureate pathways. Those that bear most directly on the present report include the
following:
                          Career ladder pathway [lower- and upper-division curricula sequentially
                          organized in a single discipline]. This form applies most directly to occupations
                          with both sub-baccalaureate and baccalaureate employment options in the same
                          general field, e.g., Engineering, Nursing. Typically listed as a Bachelor’s of Science
                          Degree or Bachelor’s in [field of study named, e.g., Nursing].
                          Management ladder pathway – this arrangement moves students from their
                          technical area specializations into management responsibility in that area, e.g., an
                          Associate degree in a career field and a bachelor’s degree in technical management or
                          management science. This pathway is typically listed as a BS in Technology
                          Management or Management Science.
                          University Center Model: The university center model involves the offering of
                          university programs on community college campuses. For students there are
                          advantages to remaining at the community college campus such as access to student
                          support services, computer labs, and library acquisitions.



   According to these authors, “By definition these [technical degrees] are degrees developed in support of career advancement for adults
32

with technical backgrounds, typically community and technical college graduates with professional/technical associate degrees (AAS32
degrees). These applied baccalaureate degrees meet the needs of working adults and their employers. For these applied degrees, the
baccalaureate role is limited to the upper division work because the first two years are completed via the applied associate degree.” They
also note, “The applied associate degree that works best for students is one that includes a core of at least 20 credits in general education
courses common to other transfer degrees. In most states, technical degrees were developed with the assumption of a core of traditional
academic transfer courses. In the northwest, however, technical degrees can be offered with communication and computational skill
courses that traditionally do not transfer. In 2002, the Washington community and technical college system adopted the Associate in
Applied Science –T (AAS-T) designation for technical degrees consistent with the dual purpose of transfer and preparation for direct
employment.
33
     “Applied Baccalaureate Degrees,” August 2004 Draft.
                                                                                                                                            49
                                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

                          Inverse (“Inverted curriculum”) or “upside-down” degrees. In effect this model
                          turns the articulation model upside down, treating the specialized education received
                          in a technical associate degree program as the major and requiring the student to
                          complete a liberal arts (“general university requirements”) curriculum in the final two
                          years with assumption that major is complete via the lower division “major” degree.
        To the extent that none of these examples involve specific bachelor degree granting authority for
the community or technical college they are curricular rather than structural arrangements, and for a
variety of reasons some consider them workarounds, arrangements that involve multiple institutions in a
task that can be more efficiently and effectively provided by one – in this case, the community or
technical college. Perhaps in part because of this the community/technical college baccalaureate
(C/TCB) appears to be the emergent model, one that probably will replace many of the others.
Community/Technical College Baccalaureate Model
       The C/TCB model enables community/technical colleges to offer upper-division coursework and
confer bachelor degrees directly. The model provides for freestanding -- rather than collaborative --
bachelor degree programs in these institutions. In the words of the Education Commission of the States,
“Unlike the re-designation of [community/technical] college as a four-year institution, the [C/TCB]
implies that the degree-granting institutions maintains its [community/technical] college identity.”
        Released in 2000, the ECS paper is now a little dated, and as noted elsewhere in the present
report, there are different ways of doing this. The ECS writers, however, define the C/TCB this way:
“This new type of baccalaureate degree would be granted by the community college, with classes taught
by community college faculty. This new arrangement is contrary to other models such as university
centers that award degrees from four-year universities located on two-year campuses.”34
         The Policy Paper continues with the observation that the C/TCB is often described as an
expanded version of the AAS degree. Actually there are a number of variations on a theme. The one that
best fits the technical college role, when as in Washington these institutions offer the AAS, in effect the
bachelor’s degree is accomplished through a kind of inverted curriculum, with the student building on
the technical curriculum and the AAS degree with two more years of advanced management
coursework.
        Two-plus-two arrangements have provided the basis for community colleges to establish the
admissions process for their bachelor degree programs by requiring the associate’s degree and giving the
student junior standing upon being accepted into the bachelor’s program. Critics of the C/TCB model
are concerned that community and technical colleges will “drift away” from their core values and
mission and contend that campus resources may be diverted to exclusively support baccalaureate
program development and not support programs that serve populations such as nontraditional and first
generation students. Thus, this is one example of how the community college baccalaureate has raised
questions concerning mission creep when it confronts needs for evolving community responses.



34
     “Community College Baccalaureate Degrees: A Delivery model for the Future?”, Policy Paper, February 2000.
                                                                                                                          50
                                                                    LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       Proponents argue that the C/TCB model should only be considered when certain factors exist.
Kenneth Walker (2001) describes the advantages of community colleges offering baccalaureate
degrees:35
            •    Increased geographical, financial, and academic access to upper-division education
            •    Cost efficiencies through the use of existing infrastructures
            •    Success among nontraditional or returning students through smaller classes, less rigid
                 sequencing, and greater scheduling options
            •    Ready matriculation and upward mobility for students with associate degrees
            •    Stable family-employment relationships for students while completing their degrees
            •    Community college commitment to economic workforce and development
            •    Responsiveness to community needs for specialized programs.
        Additional reasons include increasing higher education access to students from historically
underserved and underrepresented groups, addressing workforce shortages in education and nursing, and
examining ways to lower the costs of receiving a baccalaureate education due to increased tuition and
fees. All of these are present in the LWTC situation.
        Historically the A.A. and A.S. degrees have been considered the transfer degrees. Since students
enrolled in applied science degrees were not expected to transfer to a four-year college or university, the
A.A.S. degree was commonly referred to as the “terminal degree.”36 Even though technical degrees in
applied science and applied technology were not originally designed for university transfer, studies
indicate that when technical graduates do transfer, they do as well or better than native university
students.
       Consequently, the Bachelor of Applied Technology (B.A.T.) and Bachelor of Applied Science
(B.A.S.) degrees emerged as natural degrees for community/technical colleges to confer. Since the
number of general education credits is limited for A.A.S. degree programs, the curricula for the
bachelor’s degrees are generally setup to include upper-division general education coursework as well.
       Definitional problems work their way into the conversation at this point, and ECS may or may
not have incorrectly identified the first of these – a C/TCB -- as Arkansas’ Westark Community College
authorization to offer a bachelor’s degree on its campus in 1997. The honor probably also could be
extended either to Utah Valley Community College in Provo or to Vermont Technical College, both of
which gained authority about four years earlier than Westark (although UVCC was re-designated a state



35
     Walker, K. P. (2001, April). An open door to the bachelor’s degree. Leadership Abstracts, 4(2), 1-2.
36
   A recent variant on the Associate in Applied Science has been added in Washington. In their SBCTC paper, op. cit. Seppenan, etal. note
the students are best prepared for these pathways if their associate degree includes minimum a core of 20 credits in general education
courses common to transfer to baccalaureate degrees in general. In most states technical degrees were developed with the assumption of a
core of traditional academic transfer courses. In the Northwest, technical degrees must include communication and computational skills,
but the courses offered to meet those requirements need not be traditionally transfer courses. In 2002, the Washington Community and
Technical College System adopted the Associate in Applied Science –T designation for technical degrees consistent with the dual purpose
of transfer and preparation for direct employment.
                                                                                                                                       51
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

college in the process.).37 Examples of such programs in the United States (there are none in
Washington) include those on the following lists.
         The first list was composed by Dr. Danny Gonzales of Nevada’s Great Basin College in
conjunction with the present study. It reflects the variety of institutions conferring bachelor degrees,
range of instructional programs, and nature of applied bachelor degree programs. It is based on IPEDS
data, and, since the reporting is delayed by one-year, there are institutions that have not been captured on
the list. For example, in 2003 the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board approved Brazosport
College in Lake Jackson, South Texas Community College in McAllen, and Midland College in
Midland to offer bachelor degrees in applied science and technology fields that correspond to industry
needs.38 In Arizona community colleges may offer bachelor’s degrees if need is demonstrated through a
careful assessment, and universities have exercised a right of first refusal. Utah Valley State College
does not appear on the list, although more than 30 such programs are offered there, and while officially a
state college it remains preponderantly a lower-division community-focused focused technical
institution.39 In Florida during the 1999 session the legislature authorized two-year institutions to offer
baccalaureate degrees under certain circumstances. Although the emphasis was on university-college
arrangements, two-year institutions were allowed to pursue a process to seek legislative approval if four-
year institutions were unwilling to enter into a partnership with them.40
       Community colleges in Hawaii also were recently granted authority to offer baccalaureates.
Maui Community College appears to be the first in line with on campus courses directed towards its first
four-year degree scheduled to start in 2005. According to the announcement on the institution’s home
page, “The Western Association of Schools & Colleges/Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges &
Universities (WASC/ACSCU) recently approved MCC’s Eligibility Request that makes MCC eligible to
apply for and be visited for candidacy or initial accreditation. This visit is scheduled to take place during
March 2005. The degree, a Bachelor of Applied Science in Applied Business and Information
Technology, covers the two areas of high interest indicated in responses to a countywide survey
conducted in 2002. . . The first two years of the program consist entirely of classes currently available
at MCC. In addition, selected third-year courses will be offered in Spring 2005. Designed to be flexible,


37
  One also could argue that those American normal schools that evolved into state colleges and, more recently than that, in the Northwest,
the Oregon Institute of Technology, which received authorization to offer bachelor’s degrees in 1966, were reconstituted institutions, and
the emphasis should be placed on the re-designated status rather than the C/TCB.
38
   According to ECS, “Before Westark could offer a degree it was required to demonstrate that there wan an industry need and that students
in the program would complete their degree in fewer than four years. In Fall 1998 the college began offering a three-year program leading
to a Bachelor’s of Manufacturing Technology. The time needed for attaining an applied baccalaureate education is shortened because the
program is designed for employed students who already understand their specific training needs. Rather than be issued grades, the . . .
student . . . is required to master 67 competency modules and participate in a capstone experience, which is similar to completing a student
portfolio.”
39
   According to the description of UVSC on the Board of Regents’ webpage, “UVSC consists of two interdependent divisions. The
lower division embraces the mission of an open access comprehensive community college, which provides general and
liberal education as well as applied technology programs leading to Associate of Arts, Science, or Applied Science degrees.
Certificates are awarded for short-term and applied technology programs. The upper division consists of programs leading to
baccalaureate degrees in areas of high community demand and student interest.”
40
     ECS, Policy Paper, op. cit., p. 2.
                                                                                                                                         52
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

the program allows students following the first two years of the curriculum to earn an Associate in
Applied Science degree in Business Careers.” These programs also are not listed in the following, or
first, list, but they are on the second. Currently, technical and community colleges in eleven states and
most of Canada are offering baccalaureate degrees to meet similar challenges and to fill unmet needs.41
         According to the Gonzales’ IPEDS query, bachelor degrees are being conferred at the following
institutions:
          University of Arkansas at Ft. Smith (Arkansas)
                         B.A. in Liberal Arts
                         B.A.S.
                         B.S. in Accounting
                         B.S. in Business Administration
                         B.S. in Early Childhood Education P-4
                         B.S. in Imaging Science in Diagnostic Medical Sonography or Management
                         B.S. in Information Technology
                         B.S. in Middle Childhood Education with Emphasis in Math/Science
                         B.S. in Music Education
                         B.S.N.
          Chipola College(Florida)
                         B.S. in Secondary Education-Math
                         B.S. in Secondary Education-Science
          Miami Dade College(Florida)
                         B.S. in Elementary Education
                         B.S. in Secondary Education
          Great Basin College(Nevada)
                         B.A. in Elementary Education
                         Bachelor of Applied Science (Areas of Concentration in the following areas: (1)
                         Management, (2) Instrumentation, and (3) Geomatics)
                         B.S.W. (3 + 1 Collaborative Agreement with University of Nevada, Reno)
                         B.A. in Integrative and Professional Studies
                         B.S.N. (Currently in Development Stage)
                         B.A. in Secondary Education (Currently in Development Stage)



41
   This includes jurisdictions that authorize either the C/TCB or other configurations to improve access to baccalaureate studies for students
in community/technical colleges.
                                                                                                                                           53
                                          LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

St. Petersburg College (Florida)
           B.A.S. Dental Hygiene
           B.S. in Education
           B.S. in Nursing
           B.A.S. in Technology Management
Dalton College (Georgia)
           B.B.A. in Management
           B.S. in Management Information Systems
           B.S. in Industrial Operations Management
           B.A.S. in Technology Management
           B.S. in Marketing Systems
           B.S. in Social Work (B.S.W.)
Macon College (Georgia)
           B.S. in Information Technology
           B.S. in Communications and Information Technology
           B.S. in Health Information Technology
           B.S. in Health Services Administration
           B.S. in Nursing
           B.S. in Public Service
Louisiana State University at Alexandria (Louisiana)
           Bachelor of General Studies
           Bachelor of Liberal Studies (Psychology Major)
           B.S. in Biology
           Bachelor of Liberal Studies (Business Major)
           B.S. in Elementary Education
Sanford-Brown College (Missouri)
           B.S. in Business Administration
           B.S. in Healthcare Administration
           B.S. in Information Technology Management
Morrisville State College(New York)
           Information Technology Management-B.B.A.
           B.B.A. in Resort and Recreation Service Management
           Application Software-B.T
                                                                                                   54
                                           LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

          Electronic Marketing and Publishing-BT
          End-User Support-B.T.
          Network Administration-B.T.
          Web Development-B.T.
          Automotive Technology-B.T.
          Automotive Technology Management-B.T.
          Dairy Management-B.T.
          Equine Science and Management-B.T.
          Renewable Resources-B.T.
Kent State University-Salem Regional Campus (Ohio)
          Business Management
          Early Childhood Education
          Human Development and Family Studies
          B.S.N.
          Radiological and Imaging Sciences
          Technology
Rogers State College (Oklahoma)
          Applied Technology-B.T. (Available On-line)
          B.S. in Biology
          B.S. in Business Information Technology (Available On-line)
          B.A. in Liberal Arts (Available On-line)
          B.A. in Communications
          B.S. in Justice Administration
          B.S. in Social Science
Dixie State College (Utah)
          B.S.N.
          B.S. in Business Administration
          B.S. in Computer and Information Technology
          B.A. in Elementary Education
Northern Marianas College (Northern Mariannas)
          B.S. in Elementary Education
Colegio Universitario De San Juan (Puerto Rico)


                                                                                                    55
                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

                  Note: Although this institution was identified in the query, no program information
                  was available.
       University of Puerto Rico-Utuado (Puerto Rico)
                  Note: Although institution identified in query, no program information was available.
       SUNY College of Technology at Alfred (New York)
                  B.S. in Architectural Technology
                  B.S. in Computer Technology
                  B.S. in Construction Management Engineering Technology
                  B.S. in Electrical Engineering Technology
                  B.S. in Electromechanical Engineering Technology
                  B.S. in Mechanical Engineering Technology
                  B.S. in Surveying Engineering Technology
                  Construction Management Technology-B.T.
                  Information Technology: Applications Software Development-B.T.
                  Information Technology: Network Administration-B.T.
                  Information Technology: Web Development-B.T.
                  B.B.A. in Technology Management: Financial Services
       SUNY College of Technology at Canton (New York)
                  Business Administration (B.S. with SUNY Potsdam)
                  Public Safety Technology: Criminal Investigation-B.T.
                  Technology Management: Financial Services-B.B.A.
       SUNY College of Technology at Delhi (New York)
                  Application Software Development-B.T.
                  Network Administration-B.T.
                  Web Development-B.T.
                  B.B.A. in Business Administration in Hospitality Management
                  B.B.A. in Golf Course Management
                  B.B.A. in Hotel and Resort Management
                  B.B.A. in Veterinary Technology Management
       The next or second list was prepared by Beth Hagan on behalf of the Community College
Baccalaureate Association. It appears to focus on the C/TCB, although she also acknowledges the




                                                                                                          56
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

presence of definitional problems. This is probably the most relevant list to the C/TCB among those
available for this study. Ten states are represented on the list:42
                  College                      State         Began        Discipline                Additional Degrees
       Utah Valley State College            Utah           1993    Nursing                          32 including business
                                                                   Architectural Engin.
       Vermont Technical College            Vermont        1993    Tech.                            Computer Engin. Tech.
       Westark Community College            Arkansas       1997    Manufacturing Tech.              11 including nursing, IT
       St. Petersburg Community
       College                              Florida        1997        Education                    Nursing, Tech. Mgt.
       Dixie State College                  Utah           1999        Education                    Bus. Admin, Comp. and IT
                                                           1999/200                                 Electrical instrumentation, mgt.
       Great Basin College                  Nevada         1           Education                    Tech.
       Honolulu Community College           Hawaii         2002
       Kapi'olani Community College         Hawaii         2002
       Maui Community College               Hawaii         2002
       Chipola Community College            Florida        2002        Education
       Miami Dade Community
       College                              Florida        2002        Education
       Brazosport College                   Texas          2003        Applied Science & Tech.
       South Texas Community
       College                              Texas          2003        Applied Science & Tech.
       Midland College                      Texas          2003        Applied Science & Tech.


The Oregon Institute of Technology Model
       Several institutional models have formed for providing bachelor programs in
community/technical colleges or former institutions of that type. In some cases with the advent of
bachelor’s degree programming, the institution is designated a unit of the state university system or,
perhaps a state college. More often it remains a community/technical college offering predominantly
lower-division courses and programs and a limed number of bachelor’s programs that address
community needs in a form that articulates well with its own and other institutions’ associate degree
programs.




42
   As part of her research for her “Upper Division Enrollment Planning for Washington State” report, Jean Floten interviewed people at 22
institutions with baccalaureate options on their campus. As far as two-year campus options are concerned, she focused on two alternatives:
university centers and C/TCBs. Hence, her list includes institutions with university centers and a few other configurations and is not limited
to the C/TCB. The institutions she contacted – 22 in 15 states -- and which compose her list are: Miami Dade College, FL; Chipola
College, FL; Clayton College and State University, GA; Louisiana State University at Alexandria, LA; Southwest Virginia Higher
Education Center, VA; University Center Greenville, SC; Lorain County Community College, OH; Macomb College University Center,
MI; William Rainey Harper College, IL; Brazosport College, TX; Midland College, TX; South Texas Community College, TX; North
Harris Montgomery Community College, TX; Oklahoma State University Technical Branch Okmulgee, OK; The University Center at Carl
Albert State College, OK; Ardmore Higher Education Center, OK; Northern New Mexico Community College, NM; Dixie State College,
UT; Utah Valley State College, UT; Great Basin College, NV; Auraria Higher Education Center, CO; New Jersey Coastal
Communiversity, NJ.


                                                                                                                                           57
                                                                    LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

        As noted, instances of institutional re-designation evoke images of mission drift and
transformation. Such a change in character is not always necessary, however, and when it occurs to can
lead to a new type of institution particularly suited to addressing the needs of its constituents.
        The Utah Valley State College, a re-designated institution (along with a sister institution in Utah,
Dixie State College), is really a different sort of state college and as such provides a model that offers
one approach to preserving the community/technical college mission while accommodating the new
functions. According to a Utah Board of Regent’s description, “UVSC consists of two interdependent
divisions. The lower division embraces the mission of an open access comprehensive community college,
which provides general and liberal education as well as applied technology programs leading to
Associate of Arts, Science, or Applied Science degrees. Certificates are awarded for short-term and
applied technology programs. The upper division consists of programs leading to baccalaureate degrees
in areas of high community demand and student interest.” [Emphasis added.] In 1999-2000 (the most
recent data year posted on this section of the Regents’ homepage) 80 percent of the degrees awarded by
the institution were at the certificate/associate level. Less than 18 percent were bachelor’s degrees,
enough to address local needs but not enough to materially change the institution’s character as a
comprehensive technical college.
         The Oregon Institute of Technology, the only state institute of technology in the Pacific
Northwest, also is an institution transformed from a lower-division technical college. According to its
mission statement, “OIT provides degree programs in engineering and health technologies, management,
communications, and applied sciences that prepare students to be effective participants in their
professional, public and international communities.” It operates with locations in Klamath Falls (the
home campus) and Portland. It also offers an in-house bachelor’s completion program at Boeing
facilities in the Seattle area. It was scheduled to offer a Master of Science in Manufacturing Technology
at each of these locations in fall 2004.43
        Classes were started in Klamath Falls in a deactivated World War II Marine Corps hospital.
Associate degree programs in Surveying and Structural Engineering Technologies received professional
accreditation in 1953. In 1960 governance responsibility for OIT was shifted from the State Board of
Education to the State Board of Higher Education, and two years later the Northwest Association
accredited it. In 1966 it was granted authority to offer bachelor’s degrees and in 1989 it was authorized
to offer master’s degrees. OIT is a statewide institution of higher learning with about half of its
undergraduate enrollment taking classes at the lower-division level. It awards associate, bachelors, and
master’s degrees (in one field – Computer Engineering Technology). Associates degrees comprised 17
percent of the total 2003-04 awards, and more than three-quarters of these were A.A.S. degrees. The
institute clearly has evolved, and it has done so rather steadily since it establishment more than fifty
years ago. Washington is the only coastal state that does not have a polytechnic institute, and calls for
the establishment of one recur from time to time. The OIT experience in this regard would be a



43
     This and the related information are from the institutions 2003-2004 Fact Book.
                                                                                                                             58
                                                             LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

consideration should that issue arise For now it is sufficient to note that ‘mission drift’ is not necessarily
a bad thing.
       The community college mission has progressed over time, influenced by a changing workforce,
globalization, competition by private and for-profit institutions, calls for accountability, and university
and public expectations. Philosophically, community and technical colleges may be viewed with
ambivalence because of the variety of purposes they fulfill and the varieties of students they enroll,
many who would not otherwise go to college. Moreover, because they do so with open doors and
concern for affordability, providing access to historically underserved and underrepresented student
populations, they exemplify the nation’s tradition of egalitarianism and inclusive public education, with
few barriers to entry.44
        These are important values, but in an almost uniquely American form of irony, they also can
confer a second-class status. This is changing, but change comes slowly and in this case it continues to
influence the way people think about the advent of bachelor’s degrees in these institutions, no matter the
quality of their faculty, the relevance of their resources, and the strength of the evidence of interest and
need.
        In their recent Chronicle of Higher Education article on community colleges, Messrs. Grubb and
Lazerson, concerned about such contradictions, offer a few words of advice. Several of these apply to
this feasibility study:
         •  “Community colleges should clarify the changing status of occupational education. Older
            occupations associated with the industrial revolution . . . have shaped the current image of
            vocational education. But the fastest-growing midlevel occupations, and 85 percent of
            occupational enrollments in the community colleges, are now in ‘modern’ occupations, like
            biotechnology, business, computers and information technology, electronics, engineering,
            and health. Such occupations are more likely to enjoy the benefits of professional status . . .
       • “Community colleges should recognize that high-quality occupational programs involve a
            delicate balancing act. On the one hand, the programs need to focus on those occupations
            with relatively high wages and decent prospects for advancement, so community colleges
            must be responsive to local labor market conditions and practices. On the other hand, such
            programs should not become overly job-specific – both because that would harm students in
            the long run as specific skills become obsolete, and because commercial firms can provide
            that specific training more effectively.
       • “Community colleges, with the support of better social policies, must help resolve the work-
            family-education dilemma. Some colleges already offer flexible schedules for students who
            cannot attend at conventional times. Others provide child care or refer students to family
            services in the community, and virtually all colleges maintain employment offices to help
            students find ‘stay in school’ jobs that fit with [their] schedules . . .”
       Such values motivate and find a place in efforts to expand bachelor’s degree opportunities for
students in community/technical colleges, and these efforts are evoking interest in many states. Many


44
  W. Norton Grubb and Marvin Lazerson, “Community Colleges Need to Build on Their Strengths,” Chronicle of Higher Education,
October 29, 2004.
                                                                                                                               59
                                                               LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

also believe there are a number of ways to accomplish them -- university centers, joint-degree programs,
transfer and articulation agreements, and K-12 and postsecondary education partnerships. Standalone
baccalaureate degree programs conferred by community colleges is still another.


On The Matter of Other Programs in the LWTC Area
       A search for similar programs available in the East Lake Washington area that focused on
Kirkland, Bothell, Issaquah, Redmond, and Woodinville found none. The institutions identified in the
search were these:
           Kirkland:
           • LWTC (Associates degree)
           • Northwest College of the Assemblies of God (Baccalaureate/Masters; no B.A.T.)
           Bothell:
           • University of Washington – Bothell (Master’s, Bachelor’s; no B.A.T.)
           • ITT Technical Institute (Associates degree)
           • Western Seminary – Seattle Branch (Master’s; no B.A.T.)
           Redmond:
           • Northwest Graduate School of Ministry (Doctor’s, Master’s; no B.A.T.)
           Woodinville:
           • None found
           Issaquah:
           •    Trinity Lutheran College (Bachelor’s, Associate; no B.A.T.)
        The University of Phoenix, DeVry, and City University, all private proprietary institutions,
respectively offer the Bachelor of Science in Management (B.S.M.), Bachelor of Science in Technical
Management (B.S.T.M.), and Business Administration (City University accepts the technical associate
degree at full value in its Business Administration program). City University and the University of
Phoenix operate out of learning centers in Bellevue, the closest location. Although in some cases there
are similarities between these and the LWTC concept, they are different, and none lead to the B.A.T.
       Two program proposals from CWU were on the HECB December 10, 2004 agenda.45 The first of
these was a B.A.S. in Safety and Health Management. The program would be offered at the home
campus, the university’s SeaTac location, and at its Lynwood Center. According to the HECB
descriptive material, the “program is designed to serve students who hold an applied
professional/technical degree from a community [or technical] college but lack the general education
coursework required for a Bachelor of Science [sic, the proposal is for a B.A.S.] degree.” This program
appears to employ a combination of the career ladder and inverted curriculum models and is designed to

45
     These were on the HECB consent agenda and presumably were approved by the Board.
                                                                                                                        60
                                                                    LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

fulfill the upper-division component of students in a particular discipline, Safety and Health
Management. Accordingly, it is more narrowly focused than the LWTC initiative and presumably
students from A.A.S. programs in other fields would not be eligible. The program also is comparatively
small, anticipating an enrollment of 22 students in the first year and a steady-state year-three enrollment
of 66. Program costs are estimated at $6,587 per FTE in year one, and $3,550 per FTE in year three.46 It
is expected to be self-supporting, administered by the University’s continuing education unit
[presumably at SeaTac and Lynwood]. The language in the HECB staff recommendation, which was
favorable, is interesting in its relevance to the issues LWTC is trying to address:
                “The Bachelor of Applied Science in Safety and Health Management at Central Washington
                University, with delivery to the Ellensburg, SeaTac, and Lynwood campuses, is a timely and
                appropriate response to the changing needs of the state’s economy, and will help create a
                better trained more flexible workforce. . .”47
         CWU’s second program proposal concerns a Bachelor of Applied Science in Industrial
Technology. This program follows the same model as the other, although, and there is some ambiguity
here, it appears to be aimed at a broader spectrum of A.S., A.A.S., and A.A.S.-T graduates, all of whom
would have completed “professional/technical training in Industrial Technology at an associate degree
level.”48 The proposal envisions a similar number of enrollments (22 in the first year; 66 in year three).
Expected program costs also are the same as the other, and it would be offered at the same locations.
        At a general level there are certain conceptual similarities between these and the LWTC
endeavor (e.g., both are aimed at the upper-division needs of students with applied associate degrees,
and they employ a variant of the inverted curriculum form, but the similarity ends there. LWTC’s
program employs a single umbrella core of upper-division management courses that would apply to
students who wish to continue from any technical college’s A.A.S. program. Central’s upper-division
component would be composed of a combination of Safety and Health Management (in the first case)
and Industrial Technology (in the second) professional and general education courses and it would be
directed respectively at Associate degree holders in these fields.
       Distance also is a consideration. Lynwood is the closest CWU education center location to
LWTC, about 16 miles away, but on an always-crowded freeway. Estimated travel time is a half hour on
a good day. SeaTac is 25 miles away in the other direction on the same highway and about a 40-minute
commute. Ellensburg is about 120 miles away, and about a two-hour commute.
        Finally, A.A.S. degree programs in technical areas such as computer network administrator, data
networks, electronics technology, manufacturing systems maintenance technology, computer support
specialist, software development may feed into EWU’s B.S. in Applied Technology, which is offered at
Clark, South Seattle and Bellevue Community Colleges.


46
   Program costs will be revisited in the next section of the present report; an explanation of the nearly fifty percent reduction in FTES costs
between year two and year three does not appear in any of the source data.
47
     HECB , “Bachelor of Applied Science in Safety and Health Management, Central Washington University,” December 2004, pg. 4.
48
     HECB, “Bachelor of Applied Science in Industrial Technology, Central Washington University,” pg. 2.
                                                                                                                                             61
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

          None of these, however, repeat the B.A.T. model represented by the LWTC initiative.




Examples of Best Practices (or Lessons Learned)
       A few examples of B.S.T. programs established in other states are informative. Those examined
include programs underway or established at William Rainey Harper College, Illinois; Brazosport
College, Texas; Midland College, Texas; and Dixie State College, Utah.49
         William Rainey Harper College is implementing a B.A.T. program in a policy context similar to
that of this state. Harper recently completed a 300,000 square foot Health Care facility with space and
equipment for a 21-chair “state of the art” dental hygiene program. One of the Harper Board members
is a dentist who has led the effort to obtain legislative authority for a baccalaureate degree there.
Resistance by the universities in Illinois diminished in recent years because of their growing awareness
of a shortage of graduates in this discipline and the inability of other dental hygiene programs to meet
the need. Harper also has qualified faculty to staff the program.
       Harper is studying the potential for a technology degree in business, since it has qualified faculty
who have the background to staff a business-oriented technology program. In December 2004 the Board
unanimously approved the pursuit of such a bachelor degree because it fits within the existing mission
statement’s emphasis on meeting community needs.
        Vermont Technical College has evolved from its beginning as a two-year teacher prep (normal)
school in 1866 and sequential re-designations as an agriculture school in 1910, technical institute in
1957, community college in 1975, and technical college in 1994. This evolution is of note because the
tradition throughout has remained on a two-year program. The regional demand for baccalaureate
degrees was documented and the State college system responded by authorizing a B.S. in Architectural
Engineering in 1993, offering one of the first in the country. In 1995 VTC offered a B.S. in
Electromechanical Engineering Technology and in 2000 a B.S. in Computer Engineering Technology.
Regional demand was the variable that prompted the establishment of the bachelor degree programs.
        Dalton State College is Georgia’s newest four-year school. In 1963 Dalton was started as a
junior College offering a variety of two year technical and transfer programs. Those programs continue
in operation as the college adapts to provide further career opportunities for program graduates. In 1998
six Baccalaureate Degree Programs were developed to meet employment demands in the region. Both
two-year and four-year programs operate within a revised mission statement and both are both funded
through state and local funding.
       Rogers State University in Oklahoma started as a preparatory school and evolved into a Junior
College offering a variety of vocational and technical programs. In 1998 demand for change became


49
  The material in this section is based on a combination of the interview summaries in the Floten report, op. cit., and telephone
conversations with officials and others at these institutions in December 2004.
                                                                                                                                    62
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

evident through reports of a number of unmet career/employment needs. The Oklahoma Legislature
granted permission for Rogers to create and seek accreditation for its own four-year bachelor’s degrees
while continuing to offer high-quality two-year associate’s degrees. In April 2000, a team from the
North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA) announced it would unanimously recommend
that the NCA Commission on Institutions on Higher Education grant RSU accreditation as a four-year
baccalaureate degree-granting institution. In August 2000, accreditation was given. There are three
bachelor degree programs in operation there, and the institution will plan for new programs as the career
opportunities are identified.
       In 1908 Morrisville State College in New York started as a two-year agriculture school. The
school has since evolved into an institution that offers:
       Nine Bachelor of Technology degrees
       Three Bachelor of Business Administration degrees
       Forty-nine A.A. degrees
       Four certificate programs
        All students are issued a wireless lap top computer when they enter, and this has become a focal
point for teaching, learning, student research, and communication. The College’s mission statement is
informative:
           “The College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville is dedicated to providing access
           to quality, post-secondary education in residential and off-campus settings to all who can
           benefit.
           “This dedication involves the utilization of technology as a means of delivering technology-
           based, academic programs of excellence to diverse student populations within the context of
           a global environment. The college offers innovative programs primarily leading to the
           associate’s degree as well as the baccalaureate degree within the context of its mission of
           student-centered, applied technical education.”
       Macon State College of Georgia has been and is in operation for the purpose of providing
education for careers driven by the information age. The emphasis is on serving students who are in the
“working population.” According to that institution’s website, “Macon State is a College for the New
Century, preparing students to compete in a technologically advanced global economy while developing
important life skills and a firm foundation in the liberal arts. Its mission is focused on professionally
oriented programs that address the workforce needs of the state. Baccalaureate degrees are concentrated
in market-driven disciplines essential to the economic vitality of the region. They include business,
communications, the health sciences, information technology, nursing and public service.”
       MSC offers seven Bachelor degrees in:
       Information Technology
       Business and Information Technology
       Communications & information Technology
                                                                                                           63
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       Health Information Management
       Health Services Administration
       Nursing
       Public Service
       Macon State's signature program, a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, has
experienced explosive growth since its creation in 1997, starting with a charter class of 57 and growing
to more than 700 students today. It is important to note that MSC also provides forty associate degree
programs.
        Maui Community College in Hawaii will be starting it Bachelor of Applied Science in Applied
Business and Information Technology in the spring of 2005. During a telephone interview, Chancellor
Clyde Sakamoto noted, “It will be especially valuable for those who will be involved in business
development, both in Maui County and in the state.” This effort began in 2002 with a study of the work
force market to determine the need for such a program. Since that time, Dr. Sakamoto and some of the
MCC staff have traveled to Great Basin and Dixie Colleges to review their Baccalaureate programs.
They also visited the North Central, Northwestern, and Western Associations to ascertain the climate
and atmosphere for such an endeavor. It soon was determined that funds would be needed to conduct
research, develop programs, and create an infrastructure of support. A tandem effort was developed to 1)
seek funds and grants from state and federal entities, and 2) seek private funds from endowments and
private partners. The effort resulted in the $2.3 million that provided the resources necessary to develop
and sustain the program during the initial stages of implementation. Dr. Sakamoto suggested that this
funding strategy has been one of the most important factors leading to successful program development.
MCC has also secured agreements from Universities in the region to accept its bachelor degree
graduates into their Master degree programs.
       Special attention to faculty concerns occurred throughout the program development process.
The college emphasizes a special responsibility to the County and to the State to implement a top quality
bachelor degree program while providing an outstanding A.A. degree program. Expectations are high,
and people believe they are in the proverbial “fish bowl.”
        Several common themes reside in these experiences. In all cases the process of developing a
baccalaureate program required a minimum of two years; sometimes it was longer before a program was
fully in place. Macon State College is a good example of an institution that completed the process in
two years, operating with a mandate from the Board of Regents. Another is Rogers State University.
Rogers received a mandate from the legislature to become a regional University while maintaining its
two-year associate degree function. Its 22-month transition was funded by the legislature. The result
was the first B.A.T. program in Oklahoma identified as an “Inverted Capstone” program.
       A more elongated time frame by other institutions was necessary to assure that all of the
components were in place and that the accrediting process would run smoothly. The accreditation
processes are somewhat different in each region, but all agree it is important to open communications

                                                                                                           64
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

with the accrediting office as soon as possible. Library and faculty credentials proved to be
accreditation considerations in each case.
         Library requirements have changed overtime because by virtue of technology. Respondents at
these institutions noted that this was another reason to establish close working relationships with
accreditation officials. They also suggested that collaboration with local businesses and industry were
necessary to identify library reference material needs. Close consultation with librarians in accredited
institutions also was recommended. The need to bring the libraries up to the standards often required
additional funds. People at Maui Community College were active in seeking grants for library
resources. At Dalton State College local businesses contributed $1.5 million for resources, equipment,
and faculty. At Rogers State University the legislature proved $4.5 million for a new library. Harper
College is pursuing both avenues for their library improvement funds.
        The issue of faculty and the accrediting process seems fairly straightforward as far as
accreditation is concerned, but the paths traveled to meet the standards varied by type of baccalaureate
offering. For example the B.A.T. requires industry-experienced faculty while a B.S. in Nursing requires
certification, licensure, and advanced degrees. In most cases some existing faculty met the
requirements, but it also was necessary to recruit specialized faculty with terminal degrees.
         Constant communication with existing faculty throughout the process was considered very
important. Some insisted it is essential to have open meetings with faculty on a regular basis during the
transition period. Rogers State University had a different situation with the North Central Association in
dealing with a requirement the faculty have one degree higher than the area they are teaching. The
institution went from eleven percent of the faculty with a terminal degree in 1999 to 60% with an earned
doctorate in 2004. This is not always the case, however, as Vermont Technical College after six years
of operation with a baccalaureate degree program has retained essentially the original faculty using the
same facilities. Communications also are important with students, staff, state agencies, the accrediting
association, and other institutions throughout the process.
        In most situations during the baccalaureate degree development process efforts to secure private
funds for the college foundations while striving to procure grants and endowments were pursued. Such
nontraditional funding amounted to about $1.5 million at Dalton State College and $2.5 million at Maui
Community College. Officials at Morrisville State College borrowed funds to start the program with the
idea that increased enrollment would pay back the loan. The funds were borrowed for a 10-year period,
but the loan will be paid off within three and one-half years.
        Review of the institutional mission was a crucial factor in each case. And responding to
community needs was the driving force behind it. Typically, community surveys identified unmet needs.
Program designs proceeded on that basis. At Vermont Technical College the development of the
Bachelors of Business Technology and Management accorded with mission scope and a desire to
identify a “market niche.” Macon State College changed its mission statement slightly to include as
reference to “professional degrees” in order to meet the broader community needs identified by the
Georgia Board of Regents.

                                                                                                           65
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

         Local partnerships were a prevalent theme at Dixie, Dalton, Maui, and Morrisville. Partnerships
helped with the placement of graduates and the recruitment of faculty when needed. Perhaps most
important, funds were often found to develop and sustain the programs. Partnerships also helped with
respect to equipment and other resources. In some cases funding was necessary to sustain the program
until state FTE funding became available.
         Existing four-year institutions opposed, or at least did not welcome, these change in virtually
every case. Some suggested that LWTC consider a specific strategy for informing all institutions of the
program concept early in the process. It is in this process that the notion of market niche’ can come into
play. This strategy also can be useful to develop articulation agreements should these be necessary. Most
of all, the institutions need to be made aware that new FTE funds will be generated, and these will be
part of a larger pie.
        Every person interviewed recommended that the LWTC Board strongly support the development
of a program that has a well-defined scope of work, which will meet the needs of a specific community
population, to “stay the course,” and to make sure that the graduates are sought in the community. The
both the service are and institutional communities also must know that the existing programs will
continue to maintain the high level of program offering at the associate degree level while providing a
new specific bachelors degree. Constant communication to students, staff, community, partners, State
governing bodies, accrediting agencies, and other institutions is crucial.
Pros and Cons of Different Arrangements
        None of the various models or pathways is perfect for all situations, and some address the
requirements of some situations better than others. Using the four models set forth by Gonzales and
others -- (1) Articulation model; (2) University center model; (3) Certification model; (4) Community
college baccalaureate model -- the more apparent pros and cons of each include the following:
        Articulation Model: This is probably the oldest and most prevalent model for moving
community college graduates from one institution – the community college – into a program in another
– a university. Usually it involves the Associate of Arts or the Associate of Science degree as the
standard lower-division credentials (although, as mentioned, the Associate of Applied Science also is
being increasingly recognized as both a terminal and a transfer degree). In Washington and many other
states considerable inter-institutional efforts have been devoted to the establishment and acceptance of
agreements – “articulation agreements” – that specify the lower division requirements that must be met
in order to transfer to the upper-division institution.
       The pro arguments for this model are that students know what is expected of them if they wish to
continue their studies to a bachelor’s degree. Similarly, the upper-division institution has some idea what
to expect of the arriving transfer student. Another advantage is the impression of order and progress the
model may offer for legislators and educators concerned about a smoothly operating – articulating –
higher education system.
       In one sense, if all other things are equal (the arrangement works as people hope), there are no
categorical con arguments. Articulation is the glue that holds it altogether, and the system works well for
                                                                                                           66
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

some students. The inevitable presence of concerns about breakdowns in articulation processes,
assertions of lost or duplicated lower-division credits, and regular and frequent legislative inquiries into
the subject in every state in which NORED has worked are evidence that all other things are not always
equal. The situation in Washington is better than it is in most other states largely because the process
involves a continuous monitoring component, but even here it works better for some students – A.A. and
A.S. graduates – than it does for others, including technical program graduates, who may not be able to
find and get into an upper-division program because there are none in the area, the timing does not
accommodate their work schedules, or travel and other logistical considerations get in the way. It also
works if universities are able to accommodate increasingly larger cohorts of students, especially when
there may be waiting lists for entrance to majors among their own students. In any case, this model is
established, and it needs to continue and improve, but it cannot meet the needs of all students, especially
during a period of extended population growth.
        University Center Model: The university center model involves the offering of university
programs on community college campuses. The main advantages are that it holds promise for extending
baccalaureate pathways into communities without altering basic institutional missions and it utilizes
existing facilities. The basic requirements for entering and graduating from the program are the province
of the university, which awards the degree. Although these programs may employ members of the
community college faculty, different institutional cultures are involved. And because of this sometimes
they work well; sometimes they do not. Discontinuities can occur if the participating university controls
the programs (i.e. determines which) that are to be offered on the community college campus, the tuition
resources, and the FTEs for state funding purposes.
        Complaints that programs wanted by students in high demand fields are not available through
this medium and, conversely, that the programs that are available are in already over-subscribed fields
are common. Community/technical college complaints about time lost in unsuccessful or unfulfilled
efforts to find and engage university partners are common. Finally, the upper-division programs may not
accommodate a sufficiently wide range of lower-division specializations to meet student needs.
        The situation can be compounded when universities are assigned responsibilities for all of the
university center programs in a specified area or region. The absence of competition and the difficulties
facing the community college seeking other program options can be profound. In these and other cases
wherein the community college is effectively left with little more to do than serve as the caretaker,
essentially responsible for making sure the rooms are available and clean, support for the idea can
dissipate quickly. Some of these problems could be mitigated if the community college receives the FTE
funding directly and contracts with the university – public or private – it believe is best positioned to
offer the desired programs on its campus. The potential for program success rises commensurably when
this feature is in place.
        The Certification Model: The certification model is considered applicable to community
colleges delivering courses via on-line, alternative approaches, and traditional methods. It is not fully
clear, however, how in the absence of bachelor’s program authority this can constitute another
baccalaureate pathway, i.e., how can the college certify upper-division courses, and thereby enhance
                                                                                                            67
                                                                        LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

students’ bachelor program options, if it is not authorized and accredited to offer courses at the upper-
division level. Western Governors’ University, a non-profit online university chartered by the Western
Governors Association and accredited by all four of the nation’s regional accrediting commissions via
the Interregional Accrediting Committee to offer associate, bachelor, and masters programs employs
curricula composed of online courses and credits that are competency based.
        This variant of the model and universities offering their own bachelor degree programs online
and responsible for the maintenance of standards are probably better examples of the certification
model’s potential for increasing baccalaureate pathways than a community or technical college whose
mission is limited to the associate degree. This model might more fully address the situation if the
community/technical college offered indigenous bachelor degrees and online options were available as
part of that.
        The Community/Technical College Baccalaureate Model: If the issues under consideration
are expanded baccalaureate opportunities and responsiveness to the needs of local residents and
employers, the presence of relevant indigenous programs in the community/technical college is clearly
the best mechanism to directly address them. The con case hinges principally on the mission drift
allegation. That concern, however, is probably more firmly routed in the clash of institutional cultures
and clichés about duplication and competition than in terms of the needs of local employers and the
aspirations of students.
         If community/technical college baccalaureate programs are addressing previously unmet needs,
in this case increasing access to baccalaureate opportunities for local residents, and focusing on the
workforce requirements of local employers, and in the process are not detracting from public institutions
with established programs, then it is difficult to understand how a charge of mission drift should apply.
In short, mission drift can hardly be a negative concept if the direction of drift is in accordance with
demonstrable social needs.
        In her paper on baccalaureate pathways, President Floten describes a need to prepare students “to
enter jobs that used to require two-year professional-technical degrees and now require four-year applied
degrees. This new type of degree is not currently offered by universities, and for the most part they are
not prepared or positioned to start offering them.”50
            Her comments on the community college baccalaureate bear repeating here:51
                 “The community college baccalaureate appears to be the most cost-sensitive model – both for
                 the state’s overall investment and costs for students to obtain four-year degrees. Community
                 and technical colleges have existing infrastructures, program development capacity, and
                 faculty and staff who could accommodate the requirements that baccalaureate authority
                 would bring.”




50
     Floten, “Upper Division Enrollment Planning. . .” op. cit. p. 4.
51
     November 10, 2004 Draft, p.19.
                                                                                                                                 68
                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

        The standalone or C/TCB model is the option clearly favored and supported by the evidence
collected for this report. The question that emerges at this point is what would such a program at LWTC
look like. This and associated concerns about costs and accreditation are addressed in the next section.




                                                                                                          69
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study


     Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in Applied Technology
                       Program Feasibility Study


                         The LWTC Bachelor of Applied Technology Program


The LWTC Bachelor of Applied Technology in Technology Management
        Washington’s Technical and Community Colleges are better positioned to address the need for
expanded baccalaureate program opportunities and continued responsiveness to the needs of the
communities and areas they serve in an efficient and cost effective manner than many may realize.
Earlier observations about existing infrastructure, program development capacity, and qualified faculty
and staff describe an enormous and vastly underutilized resource and capacity for an expanded
baccalaureate effort. These institutions’ ability to augment their faculty resources with professionals
from the community, opportunities for internships, and schedules that can accommodate the workdays
of employed adults are important additional considerations.
        Lake Washington Technical College is particularly well suited to help produce well-qualified
bachelor’s degree graduates in high demand technical-management fields. Because of the generally still
perceived terminal nature of their A.A.S. degree and limited available spaces in university upper-
division programs, graduates lack reasonable access to baccalaureate degrees. Moreover, even when
they can transfer to a university, they often encounter a discouraging number of additional credits.
Ironically, many employers report that their best prospects for “growing their own” supervisors and
managers are their technical degree [A.A.S.] graduates, whom they frequently encourage to pursue
bachelor’s degrees.52
       Washington’s technical colleges have provided thousands of graduates, most of whom lack
baccalaureate program access even though they reside in the East Lake Washington area, in proximity to
the home and a branch campus of the University of Washington.53 For their part, officials at the
University have advised the College that such a program is not in their inventory or their plans.
        The LWTC model was developed with these considerations in mind. The model comprises a
single upper-division 'umbrella' program composed mainly of management courses. Associate of
Applied Science graduates from any of the College’s lower-division programs (nursing, engineering
tech, etc., etc.), as well as A.A.S. graduates from other technical colleges, would pursue essentially the


52
  This section employs material that first appeared in the draft paper “A State at Risk: Critical Issues for Washington’s Higher Education,”
(no date) by LWTC President Mike Metke. The program model identified in this paper served both as the hypothetical model that was
validated by the survey respondents during the present study and as the prototype for the program described in this study.
53
  The five technical college presidents have agreed that Lake Washington Technical College is best positioned to provide this access for
their graduates, at least during the transitional phase. Community colleges offering similar terminal degree programs also support LWTC’s
model as a reasonably way to provide baccalaureate access for these technical and professional graduates.
                                                                                                                                         70
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

same general upper-division curriculum, although there also would be an option of internships and
additional upper-division courses in their fields. The program would be offered on a cohort basis,
scheduled on weekends or in the evenings, in accordance with the times favored by respondents to the
employer and community surveys. To the extent possible, it also would entail on-campus and Internet
sites as the learning locations (favored, respectively, by 66% of the employer survey respondents, and
84% of the community resident respondents.)
        It would utilize practicing professionals as adjunct teaching positions to provide much of
the management content, a concept enthusiastically supported by the employer interview respondents,
many of whom indicated they or members of their organizations would welcome opportunities to do so.
Full-time faculty at LWTC would handle some of the substantive upper-division work in their respective
areas and serve as the hiring and program directing authorities.
        The program design is oriented especially to the needs of small or middle-sized local employers,
although it obviously would apply to positions in larger firms as well. Those with whom College
authorities have discussed the program, particularly in the first two groups (small and middle-sized
firms) expressed strong interest, principally because positions in these organization tend not to separate
readily or clearly into distinct management and technical categories. They need people who can function
in both capacities – technical field managers. In this sense the program form does not fit precisely into
either the professional/technical specialization or the management specialization pathways. Rather, it
straddles both.
       The Bachelor of Applied Technology in Technology Management at LWTC would address a
statewide need for baccalaureate access for technically trained college graduates. It would serve
professional/technical graduates from all of the state’s five technical colleges as well as other two-year
graduates holding Applied Science or Applied Technology Degrees. It would prepare these technical
professionals for managerial and supervisory level positions and help address substantial voids in the
local workforce. Students with an A.A.S. or A.A.T. traditionally graduate from a local two-year college
and immediately enter the workforce without subsequent transfer to a university. This is no longer the
most promising path for some, however, as today’s workplace is rapidly changing to require technical
preparation beyond the first two years of college.
        Specifically, technically trained college graduates with an A.A.S. or A.A.T. degree in a technical
field need the opportunity to continue their education to complete a Bachelor of Applied Technology in
Technology Management and become competitive for managerial and supervisory level positions.
        The envisaged B.A.T. in Technology Management will educate, train, and develop successful
supervisors who will be prepared to utilize technology and contribute to a competitive advantage for
their enterprise. Coursework will be balanced between practical training and working with real-life
projects that enhance the educational experiences and employment potential for students. The breadth of
the coursework will enable each graduate to lead and manage by utilizing a wide variety of business,
finance, technology and human resource development skills. Interactions with business leaders will
provide graduates exposure to the real world and an opportunity to network.

                                                                                                            71
                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

         Graduates will be educated in the fundamentals of business management, finance, information
technology, and manufacturing. The curriculum design will provide a broad training experience through
general education courses in a variety of disciplines, core program courses in technology management,
elective courses with specialization options and specialized projects and seminars. While focused on
high demand majors, a significant number of general academic courses will be included in the B.A.T.
degree requirements, ensuring that graduates are competent in oral and written communications,
computational skills, human relations and cultural literacy. A choice of electives will permit students to
tailor their studies toward their own careers and personal goals. In achieving these purposes, the
Bachelor of Applied Technology in Technology Management will prepare students to:
                   Utilize technology from a variety of disciplines to assume managerial level positions;
                   Use entrepreneurial skills to develop and manage resources;
                   Supervise and manage the financial operations of a small business;
                   Apply human relation skills as well as team-building and motivational skills to create
                   high-performing work teams;
                   Use project and quality management strategies to manage specialized technology
                   projects;
                   Apply oral and written communication skills and leverage technology to enhance
                   communications;
                   Manage a business or a business unit within legal and ethical boundaries;
                   Employ creative and critical thinking in problem solving in a service or
                   manufacturing environment;
                   Utilize personal and business interactions within the larger community;
                   Employ sound organizational behavior principles;
                   Use appropriate electronic commerce strategies to increase profitability for the
                   enterprise or business unit; and
                   Exhibit analytical thought, informed judgment, ethical behavior, and an appreciation
                   for diversity.
        The proposed degree aligns directly with Lake Washington Technical College’s Vision “To be
the regional college of choice for workforce education” and addresses its mission “To prepare students
for today’s careers and tomorrow’s opportunities.” By providing a bridge for the technical degree
graduate to attain a higher level of professional knowledge and skill, and by offering those currently in
the workforce an opportunity to seek advancement or a new career, the Bachelor of Applied Technology
in Technology Management relates specifically to the essential purposes of Lake Washington Technical
College.
        The program would require 60 semester hours (equivalent to 90 quarter hours) for graduation
distributed in the manner of the following hypothetical curriculum:



                                                                                                           72
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

       Exemplary Upper-Division Course Requirements for Bachelor of Applied Technology Degree
       Required Major Courses (45 semester hours)
       TMGT        3502    Business and Economics Statistics                      5
       TMGT        3503    Communications for Business Professionals              5
       TMGT        3504    Finance for Managers                                   5
       TMGT        3505    Organizational Culture and Behavior                    5
       TMGT        3507    Business Operations Management                         5
       TMGT        3536    Law and Ethics for Managers                            5
       TMGT        4504    Risk Management in Business                            5
       TMGT        4550    Business Safety and Security                           5
       TMGT        4501    Cost Estimating and Contract Bidding                   5
       Elective Courses (15 semester hours selected from the following list)
       TMGT        4503    Electronic Commerce Systems                            5
       TMGT        4551    Database Administration and Integration                5
       TMGT        4596    CAPSTONE: Project Management                           5
       TMGT       4547     CAPSTONE:
                              Production & Inventory Planning & Control           5
       TMGT       4541     Purchasing and Supply Management                       5
       TMGT       3540     Quality Assurance, Management and Improvement 5
       (Note: From the list of elective courses, students must take either TMGT 4596 or TMGT 4547 in
order to fulfill the CAPSTONE requirement.)
       This is the basic program framework. Remaining considerations concern accreditation (or re-
accreditation as an institution already accredited but which will offer a bachelor’s degree) and costs.
Program implementation hinges on state authorization and on these considerations.
Accreditation
         Accreditation is an important issue, although less so in the short term. Presently Lake
Washington is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities [NWCCU] as an
institution that offers associate degrees. Authorization to offer a bachelor’s degree would comprise a
‘Substantive Change’ and would invoke an accreditation review. According to the NWCCU’s Policy A-
2, which pertains to substantive changes of this sort:
           “ . . A change of such magnitude as to significantly alter an institution’s mission and goals;
           the scope or degree level of its offerings; its autonomy, sponsorship or locus of control over
           it; offering academic programs for credit through contractual relationships with external



                                                                                                            73
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

                organizations; offering programs for credit outside of the NWCCU region; or adding a
                branch campus would constitute a major substantive change.”54 [Emphasis Added.]
        The only pertinent item in this listing as far as LWTC is concerned is the reference to scope of
degree level of offerings. Policy A-2 specifically refers to the Commission’s interest and states that it
relies on its staff to determine if a change is major, minor, or nothing to worry about. Conversations with
Commission staff55 and others familiar with NWCCU policy confirmed expectations that the NWCCU
would consider a new indigenous bachelor’s program at LWTC a substantive change and the appropriate
sections of Policy A-2 would apply.56
            The process begins with development and submission of a prospectus that addresses:
            •
            Mission and goals
            •
            Authorization (to offer the proposed program. In the case of LWTC, a public technical
            college, this implicitly involves legislative authorization, and SBCTC and HECB review)
       • The Curriculum (“Education offerings”)
       • Planning (evidence of need, students to be served, organizational arrangements,
            implementation timetable, etc.)
       • Budget (projections for first three years of operation, revenues and expenditures statement,
            internal reallocations that may be involved, and the budgetary implications of the change for
            the whole institution)
       • Student Services Effects
       • Physical Facilities
       • Library and Information Services
       • Faculty (necessary staff and faculty, qualifications, plans to acquire qualified faculty and
            staff)
       These nine topics are similar in most respects to the nine basic standards required for
accreditation, per se; in effect, a substantive change of this nature restarts the self-study process, i.e., a
comprehensive internal evaluation process.
        The process is described in the Commission’s policy statement. Although it may seem that reams
of data are implicit, Commission staff insist that this is not the case. The questions of interest to them are
whether the substantive change is within the institution mission (in this case the critical elements would
be the necessary state level authorizations; an adjustment in the institution mission statement if needed


54
     NWCCU “Operational Policies Relating to Accreditation,” Policy A-2.
55
   As another matter of policy, the NWCCU will not discuss institutional accreditation issues with people other than official representatives
of the institution at issue. Members of the study team and President Metke met with staff of the NWCCU on September 24, 2004 in the
Commission office to discuss expectations concerning the process and related matters. As expected, they were advised that the
establishment of a bachelor’s program at LWTC would be considered a major substantive change and the appropriate aspects of Policy A-2
would apply.
56
   Policy A-2 also refers to levels of NWCCU oversight. Level I entails “direct Commission oversight of institutional substantive changes,”
which applies to all accredited institutions. The Commission may, however, grant a more general level of oversight, Level II, to
“institutions that maintain internal mechanisms and safeguard and fulfill four specified criteria. Presumably Level II would not evoke the
more extensive ‘re-accreditation’ process of Level I. Although LWTC probably maintains the necessary internal mechanisms and processes
and certainly meets the criteria, the Commission staff state that the bachelor’s program issue would require the Level I process.
                                                                                                                                          74
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

then could follow) and whether the approach and resources are commensurate with the task. Quality is
an important concern, and the focus would include evidence of the general education component,
whether the program is indeed a Bachelor of Technology or merely a “glorified A.A.S.,” and what are
the desired “outcomes.” The essential elements – faculty, facilities, and support services (e.g., library) –
are logical subjects of interest.
         Although the Commission’s itemization of the elements to be addressed in the prospectus is
more general than specific with respect to level of detail, some clues regarding supporting
documentation and examples might reside in the Accreditation Standards themselves (as distinct from
the Operational Policies, of which Policy A-2 is a part), although it seems reasonable to assume that the
review and documentation processes in this case would not need to be as intensive and extensive as the
initial accreditation process (which, in LWTC’s case occurred after it was re-designated from a
vocational-technical institute to a technical college).
       According to the prospectus (now called a “proposal”)57 the review process is composed of the
following procedures:
                     1. “Member and candidate institutions may submit a proposal for substantive change at
                        any time during the year;
                     2. “Following receipt of a prospectus, Commission staff analyze the proposal and send a
                        copy of the analysis with a copy of the prospectus to three members of the
                        Commission for review;
                     3. “On behalf of the Commission, the Commissioner-reviewers consider the impact of
                        the proposed change on existing institutional programs, resources, and services and
                        judge whether it is reasonable to expect that the Commission’s accreditation criteria
                        will continue to be met; and
                     4. “Commissioner reviewers submit their findings to the Executive Director of the
                        Commission.”
        If the three Commissioners approve the “proposal”, the institution may proceed with the change.
If one or more recommends that it be denied, it is denied, in which case the institution may request
consideration by the full Commission at its next meeting.
        If the prospectus is approved, the institution is granted informal candidacy at the new degree
(bachelor) level while it retains its accreditation at the previous degree (associate) level, whereupon it
would be expected to conduct a comprehensive self-study at all degree levels in anticipation of a visit by
an evaluation committee during the academic year following the graduation of the first baccalaureate
class. The substantive change process schedule would key on the timing of the necessary authorizations
to offer the bachelor’s degree and any conditions that might attend. It is addressed again in the
implementation program presented later.
      In a presentation to the Community College Baccalaureate Association in March 2004, NWCCU
Deputy Executive Director Ron Baker asked of those considering such a substantive change in

57
     See the last paragraph on page 112 of the Accreditation Handbook.
                                                                                                                            75
                                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

community colleges, “Can you adequately identify, foster, monitor, and document institutional and
student accomplishments that warrant confidence in the quality, effectiveness, and achievements of your
students, units, programs, and institution at the baccalaureate level?”
         He then stated, “When moving to the baccalaureate level, regional accreditation evaluates an
institution with [respect] to Intentions, Capacity, Achievements, Viability, Stability, Sustainability, and
Integrity.” Presumably this is done by: determining that the change is congruent with the institutional
mission and that it is approved by the state, the governance system, and by the governing board. They
look at the educational program, particularly the nature and scope of the offering, its structure and rigor,
and its general education component. They will be interested in the evidence of need for the change, the
process used in making the change, the clientele to be served, the other internal organizational changes
to accommodate the change, and the timetable for implementation. They will consider the budget,
particularly a three-year projection of revenues and expenditures, the revenues and expenditures
specifically related to the change, the sources of revenue, and the overall financial implications.
        Student services, the institution’s capacity to provide them, and the implications on existing
services also are matters of interest. Suitability of facilities will be a consideration, as will library and
information resources. Faculty qualifications and arrangements for securing any additional necessary
faculty will be factors. And then they will want to look at such internal considerations as institutional
values, culture, and identify and any potential conflict with any of these, along with a few other
potentially related things. Essentially Mr. Baker seemed to be saying that the policy statements
referenced above would be followed closely.58
         The process may be formidable but it is not insurmountable; people at other
community/technical colleges that offer bachelor’s degrees seem to view it as a necessary and even
positive experience.59 No examples of a community college authorized to offer a baccalaureate degree
that failed the accreditation process were found during the study.
Estimated Costs and Other Logistical Considerations
        Projected program costs are a function of the assumptions on which they are based. The
previously quoted observation about existing community and technical college infrastructures, program
development capacity, learning resources, and faculty and staff who could fulfill the requirements that
baccalaureate authority would bring bears repeating here. These features are in place. This is particularly
the case with the envisioned program model. In the case of LWTC, these resources provide a strong base
on which to build, and their presence greatly reduces the magnitude of start-up costs and operating costs.
LWTC would not be undertaking this endeavor from scratch.
        Thus, the first assumption guiding the cost model is that most of the base is in place. Many
existing faculty can teach upper-division courses in their field and can serve as chairs and hiring


58
  Dr. Ronald L. Baker, “Moving to the Baccalaureate Level: Considerations and Implications,” Fourth C/TCBA Conference, March 4,
2004. The material cited here is from a copy of the PowerPoint presentation used at the conference.
59
     See the interview summaries in Jean Floten’s “Upper-Division Enrollment Planning” study, p. 26 et. seq.
                                                                                                                                  76
                                                                  LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

authorities. The program concept also anticipates that they can be augmented with adjunct staff who
work in relevant capacities in local industries or otherwise reside in the community, particularly if the
program is offered in afternoons, evenings, and weekends as most of the survey participants hope.
        A limited number of additional full-time program faculty members will be needed to meet
accreditation interests and for a B.A.T. program coordinator and planner (again, present faculty could
serve as chairs and hiring authorities for the different program fields.) There would be some start-up
costs associated with these people.
        Significantly, two-thirds of the community college baccalaureate institutions listed earlier
operate with one salary scale for both upper- and lower-division faculty. This seems like a reasonable
idea both in terms of cost containment and equity. While some institutions have differentiated workload
requirements for the two levels, most do not. This also seems like a good idea for the same reasons. If
this concept were applied, in effect additional faculty costs would be associated with new full-time hires
required for the program, which are expected to be few, and for contracts for adjunct faculty.
        Full-time faculty salaries at LWTC, according to the state personnel salary detail, are estimated
to average $48,260.00. 60 Assuming a 25% benefits factor, the total would be $60,325.00. This is
somewhat less than the average salaries of faculty in CWU’s new B.A.S. programs. According to the
HECB, the average faculty salary at CWU is $52,832. Again assuming 25 percent for benefits, the figure
would rise to $66,000. In its program proposals to the HECB, CWU stated that one additional FTE
would be required in the first year and grow to two additional faculty members in year three. They also
estimated need for an administrator at .5 FTE and administrative support at .2 FTE. Separate but
identical figures are reported in each of CWU’s two program proposals, so it is assumed that this
staffing complement applies to each of them separately, and identically.
        For purposes of the present estimate, two new program faculty would be added, one the first year
and one the second. The program coordinator-administrator would be one of the full-time faculty
members, probably the first one hired. This suggests a steady-state (third-year) salary and benefit total
for 1.5 faculty and .5 program administrator of $120,470.00.
        It also is expected that an administrative assistant would be needed. The salary estimate for this
position is based on the salary of a randomly selected administrative assistant at LWTC from the OFM
2003 personnel salary detail: $24,300.00. Applying the same assumption respecting benefits, 25%, the
estimate is: $30,375.00.
       For purposes of planning, an additional estimated $50,000 per biennium would be needed for
adjunct faculty.
        Some funding for library resources also will be needed, although the emphasis here would be
less on expanding the in-house collection than on ways to provide access to relevant resources. One
additional library staff members would be needed to make this work. The salary of a library technician

60
   This estimate is based on the average salary for 10 full-time faculty members randomly selected from the institutional roster on OFM’s
state personnel salary detail for 2003.
                                                                                                                                        77
                                                   LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study

at LWTC, again according to the state salary detail, is $27,660.00, or $34,575.00 when benefits are
added. This person would be added in year two. Funding for additional library resources during the
startup biennium is estimated at $80,000 per year, or $160,000 for the biennium. The total estimated
library budget augmentation is estimated at $194,575.00
      LWTC’s physical plant is impressive by any standard. It has sufficient and appropriate space to
accommodate the student cohorts envisioned for this program.
        There also would be a student assistance dimension. In its summary, the SBCTC staff estimated
that the state need grant costs per enrolled FTES for students pursuing the C/TCB option would be
$2138.00. Since it is impossible to know at this point how many of the B.A.T. students, most if not all of
whom are expected to be working adults, would seek or qualify for such assistance, the cost factor is not
represented in the following estimates.
       The cost estimate to this point is as follows:
                                      Year One          Year Two      Year Three
       Faculty/Coordinator            $60,325.00        $60,325.00    $60,325.00
       Other Full-Time Faculty                          $60,325.00    $60,325.00
       Administrative Assistant       $30,375.00        $30,375.00    $30,375.00
       Adjunct Faculty                                  $25,000.00    $25,000.00
       Library
                 Staff                                  $34,575.00    $34,575.00
                 Library Resources    $80,000.00        $80,000.00    $80,000.00
         Total                       $170,700.00    $290,600.00      $290,600.00
       It is important to note that these are estimates; they may or may not represent the maximum
credible accident. They also can be further arranged to provide a more gradual phase-in.
        Some of the cost would be funded with the state FTE subsidy support and tuition starting the
second and subsequent years, as students arrive. The figure of immediate interest for planning purposes,
therefore, is the year one estimate, which generally comprises program start-up costs; subsequent costs
will be gradually offset by tuition and budget funds as students begin to arrive.
        For purposes of planning, operating budget estimates are derived from two sources: CWU’s FTE
cost estimates for its recently approved B.A.S. programs and the FTE cost estimates prepared by
SBCTC staff. The main assumption in both cases is the FTE count. In the case of the LWTC program,
annual program FTE cohorts of 20 are assumed, based on 30 students taking average course loads of ten
hours. Note that on the following chart, “Year One” is the first year students are enrolled.




                                                                                                            78
                                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




                                                 Per FTE Funding Estimates
                                                 Year One            Year Two           Year Three
            CWU estimate                         $6,587.00           $6,587.00          $3,550.0061
            SBCTC estimate:62
            Total Tuition and
            Appropriation63                      $6,417.00           $6,417.00          $9,082.00
            Estimated FTES                            20                  40                 40
            Total CWU Estimate
            Tuition and Appropriation
            (FTE + $4,523 Tuition)    $222,200.00                  $444,400.00 $322,920.00
            Total SBCTC Estimate
            Tuition and Appropriation $128,340.00                 $256,680.00 $363,280.00
       Start up costs and operations for the first and second years are problematic. A separate pilot test
appropriation for this period could and probably should be sought. Consideration also might be given to
partnerships with local industry and philanthropic groups, especially for the first year.
        The case of Maui Community College is instructive. As noted earlier, this institution is in the
process of establishing baccalaureate programs. A tandem effort was developed to seek funds and grants
from state and federal entities, and private funds from endowments and private partners. This
accomplished $2.3 million, which was sufficient to provide the resources necessary to develop and
sustain the program during its initial stages of implementation. Officials there consider this funding
strategy one of the most important factors in their program development process.
      Attention now turns to the final section of this report, which outlines the major steps in an
implementation sequence.




61
  This year three estimate in the CWU proposal may be questionable. It is not clear, for example, why the year three figure would degrease
nearly 50%. Significantly, the SBCTC estimates the year three FTE costs in the CTC baccalaureate would increase about 20%.
62
  Fiscal Comparison of Alternatives for Baccalaureate Degree Growth, Based on most recent legislative appropriations per FTES, Draft,
12/9/04. The figure is for the CTCV baccalaureate alternative.
63
     SBCTC Fiscal Comparison . . . op. cit.
                                                                                                                                        79
                                             LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




Lake Washington Technical College Bachelor in Applied Technology
                  Program Feasibility Study


                                        Conclusions


  The major conclusions of the feasibility study are:
  •   There is strong and sufficient evidence of need and interest in a Bachelor of Applied
      Technology program in Technology Management at LWTC.
  •   This interest is represented in the opinions of community residents, employers, and students,
      faculty, staff, and administrators at LWTC.
  •   A variety of community college baccalaureate program models are in advanced stages of
      development or in operation at institutions in at least ten other states, and the number is
      increasing as other states confront the need for more baccalaureate pathways for students in
      applied science programs.
  •   On the basis of these experiences it is clear that community and technical colleges can
      successfully, efficiently, and effectively operate programs of this type without distorting or
      diverting their established traditions and missions.
  •   Such programs also are the most direct and congruent pathways for many community/
      technical college graduates and for expanding baccalaureate graduation levels among people
      with applied associates degrees.
  •   The program model under consideration – an upper-division “umbrella” curriculum in
      management -- can accommodate the needs of graduates of any of LWTC’s and other
      technical college A.A.S. programs.
  •   There is no evidence to suggest the program would be under enrolled.
  •   Revenues generated by tuition and FTES appropriations will be sufficient to sustain the
      program after the start-up stage is completed and steady state is attained.
  •   Program start-up costs are an important consideration, and partnerships with local
      organizations to help offset some of these costs should be encouraged. Consideration also
      should be given to state funding support for the program during its start-up period, perhaps
      on a pilot test basis.
  •   Accreditation is a consideration, since a substantive change is involved, and this would
      require a review process. LWTC’s present accreditation would apply during the early years
      of operation, and an accreditation visit does not need to occur until a year after the program’s
      first baccalaureate graduating class. Community/technical colleges that have undertaken such
      changes have been successful in meeting accreditation requirements.
  •   The case for such a program is strong, and the main findings of this report are that the B.A.T.
      program described herein is feasible and that it should be developed and inaugurated with all
      deliberate speed.

                                                                                                      80
                                                 LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




        The likely implementation sequence includes the following elements, which are organized into
four stages, each initially involving a calendar year: Authorization; Organization; Operation;
Assessment.
       Authorization: (2005)
       •   Obtain board approval to proceed with the development of a program plan, subject to
           SBCTC and legislative authorization
       •   Conduct meetings with campus faculty and staff to ensure communication and understanding
           and seek support and buy-in
       •   Develop a pilot program prospectus
       •   Seek local partnerships to assist with program start-up
       •   Seek SBCTC authorization to proceed with a legislative request
       •   Seek legislative authorization and start-up funding during the 2005 legislative session
       •   Prepare program proposal for SBCTC approval
       •   Submit proposal to HECB for approval

       Organization: (2006)
       • Hire program coordinator and staff
       • Refine and complete program design
       • Obtain governing board approval of program and proceed with implementation
       • Acquire additional faculty and library staff as needed.
       • Establish classes for year one
       • Advertise and accept student applications

       Operation: (2007)
       • Commence first program year component
       • Review year one experience and develop and implement second program year curriculum
       • Advance year-one cohort to second year
       • Evaluate and revise first year curriculum as needed, admit second cohort of students.
       • At the end of their second year, graduate first cohort of students.

       Assessment: (2008)
       • Prepare and submit accreditation prospectus
       • Prepare self-study in anticipation of accreditation visit
       • Compete program development efforts; consider program established and fully operational
       This report concludes at this point. LWTC has embarked on an exciting initiative, and there is no
reason why it should not continue.

                                                                                                          81
                LWTC Bachelor in Applied Technology Degree Feasibility Study




            Appendix
Letters and Resolutions of Endorsement




                                                                         82

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:10/23/2012
language:English
pages:101