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Basic and Girls Education Bulletin

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									Basic and Girls Education Bulletin                  Welcome to the November issue of CARE-USA
November 2006                                       Basic and Girls Education Bulletin, a monthly brief
                                                    covering issue related to the education sector.
Previous Issues:
 Month     CARE CO            Themes                This month’s issue is:
 Jan:                         ECD
 Feb:      C-Tajikistan       Resources on          1) Co-authored by CARE-Haiti
                              Youth                 Sophie Perez, Education and civil society
 March                        GCE                   coordinator. Care-Haiti
                              Teachers
 April      C-Afghanistan     Gender Equity         2)   Focuses on resources on Education in
                                                         Emergencies
 May        C-Child Labor     Child Labor
            Programs                                Featured Quotes
 June       C-Somalia         Pastoral              “ While education does not cause wars, nor
                              Communities           end them, every education system has the
 July                         Girls Education       potential either to exacerbate or to mitigate
                                                    the conditions that contribute to violent
 Aug.       C-                Quality of primary    conflicts”
            Madagascar        education
                                                    Peter Buckland, Forced Migration Review July
  Sept      C- India          Child labor           2006

 Oct.       C-Peru and        Bi-Lingual            Education saves lives; education sustains life.
            Cambodia          Education             Thus, education is an essential element of
This Issue:                                         response efforts to conflicts or crises.
 Nov.    C- Haiti             Education in
                              Emergencies           Susan Nicolai and Carl Triplehorn, 2003
Upcoming Issues:
 Dec.                         HIV/Aids
We welcome your suggestions, comments, ideas and encourage you to submit any education related
                                                                  th
events happening in your country. Please submit articles by the 15 of each month

We would love to hear back from you: Please respond by sending email to
Kumkum Kashiparekh, Organizational Learning and Knowledge Manager, Basic and Girls’ Education
Unit, CARE USA, Atlanta

                          How did you find this bulletin useful to your work?
                                1) Very Useful 2) Useful 3) Not useful

Did you know that?

    Haiti is the poorest nation in the world outside Africa. Over half of its 8 million
     inhabitants living below the poverty line.
    During the period of political instability and the culmination of months of
     increasing disorder and violence which led to the ousting of ex-President
     Jean-Bertrand Aristide in February 2004, schools were particularly targeted
     and most of them were temporarily closed.
    Children have been the first victims of these last years of constant violence,
     political instability and insecurity.
    For those who have access to education, most of the school years have been
     interrupted. Growing insecurity and kidnappings put the children at risk when
     they go to school. Many teachers have left the country and have been
     replaced by unqualified people, resulting in a significant degradation of the
     quality of education.
    For the most vulnerable children (street children, children in domestic
     services, orphans), their living conditions have dramatically worsened and, in
     Port au Prince and Gonaives, many have been enrolled in armed gangs.

Key Statistics
    GDP per capita of US$ 450 (2005, World Bank Atlas methodology);
    Ranks 153rd out of 177 countries on the human development index;
    78 % of the population live below $2 a day, while 54 % in extreme poverty
      (less than a US$ 1/day);
    Life expectancy is 52 years; Infant mortality rate is 76 out of 1,000
    Nearly half the population is illiterate (approx. 47%);
    Highest incidence of HIV/AIDS outside of Sub-Saharan Africa (5.6 %)
    97 % deforestation.
   Source: CARE-Haiti
In this issue

BGE UPDATE
   1. BGE Unit and PCTFI M&E Sub-Cohort 1 meet in Mali, November 12-16,
      2006
   2. Geeta Menon provide support to CARE-South Sudan team
   3. Updated: Basic and Girls’ Education Unit: Overview for Country Offices
   4. Welcome Max Spencer to the BGE Unit
   5. Shekeira Bryan, Program Assistant for the Patsy Collins Trust Fund, will be
      departing CARE

ANNOUNCEMENTS
   1. Global Action Week 2007 –April 23rd - 29th 2007
      The Big Chain Re-Action- Education is a Human Right
   2. UNESCO announces theme for 2008 GMR: Reaching the Unreached and
      Online consultation (4 - 22 December 2006 ) for the 2008 EFA Global
      Monitoring Report
   3. Training on the INEE Minimum Standards in Haiti, on January 23-24-25,
      2007
   4. USAID’s FY07 Annual Program Statement for the Global Development
      Alliance
   5. Seeking Nominations for Presenters on Active-Learning, Student-Centered
      Pedagogies

COUNTRY OFFICE UPDATE
   1. Yawo Douvon is appointed ACD for DRC
   2. Rouzena Zuazo and her team members -, Oscar Ayala, Samuel Rosales,
      Saúl Arias, Valeria Mamani, Juan Urbano, Ruth Echalar, Jose Luis Valda,
      Ramiro Guaman, Rubén Arteaga were the recipients of the Gold care
      reward for teamwork.

PUBLICATIONS
   1. DATA: The DATA Report 2006 Education

FEATURED HIGHLIGHTS-CARE Haiti
   1. CARE-Haiti Education Program Profile
   2. CARE-Haiti Education Projects
   3. CARE-Haiti Dynamic Education Team

EDUCATION RESOURCES on Education in Emergencies
   1. Resources on Education in Emergencies on The Inter-Agency Network for
      Education in Emergencies (INEE) website
   2. Suggested reading by Dr. Marc Sommers
      a) Children, Education and War: Reaching Education For All (EFA)
          Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict
      b) Education in Emergencies: Critical Questions and Challenges
      c) Islands of education: schooling, civil war and the Southern Sudanese
          (1983-2004)
      d) Co-ordinating Education During Emergencies and Reconstruction:
          Challenges and Responsibilities.
      e) Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo: A Case
          Study (with Peter Buckland).
      f) Youth: Care & Protection of Children in Emergencies: A Field Guide.
      g) The Education Imperative: Supporting Education in Emergencies.
      h) Crossing Lines: "Magnets" and Mobility among Southern Sudanese.
      i) The Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace (YRTEP)
          Program: Final Evaluation of the Office of Transition Initiatives’
          Program in Sierra Leone (with Art Hansen, Julie Nenon, and Joy Wolf).
      j) Young, Male and Pentecostal: Urban Refugees in Dar es Salaam.
   3. Education in Fragile States: Capturing Lessons and Identifying Good
      Practice by Dr Pauline Rose, Centre for International Education, University
      of Sussex and Dr Martin Greeley Institute of Development Studies, Sussex
   4. Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction
      IIEP, 2006
   5. Reshaping the Future Education and Postconflict Reconstruction, A World
      Bank Publication

Additional    Web Resources
            Forced Migration Review (FMR)
            The International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP)
            Journal of Refugee Studies
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
BGE UPDATE

      BGE Unit and PCTFI M&E Sub-Cohort 1 meet in Mali, November 12-16
      BGE team facilitated an M&E meeting in Mali for PCTFI sub-cohort
      countries, as during the PCTFI workshop held in Honduras, participants had
      strongly articulated a need for technical assistance from BGE on research
      and design. The objectives of the Mali meeting were:
      1) Strengthen cohort one sharing and learning processes around M&E
      activities, especially as they relate to baseline development, situation
      analysis, methods for tracking indicators, and empowerment across
      contexts and cultures. 2) Assess progress to date on common indicators
      and data collection triangulation. 3) Create an M&E learning agenda for
      cohort one and determine how M&E will be addressed in the next workshop
      (Cambodia May 2007).
      The meeting covered updates on where each of the COs are at in terms of
      their project, a review of techniques in conducting a situational analysis
      (particularly around empowerment), as well as opportunities for learning
      and exchange of ideas around participatory M&E, as well as triangulation of
      data. Based on the evaluations participants expressed that this meeting
      was an opportunity for clarification and sharing of tools, frameworks and
      concepts of empowerment and triangulation.

      Geeta Menon traveled to Nairobi, supporting the CARE- South Sudan
      team on their proposal development for DFID and USAID. The DFID RFA
      has been around strengthening of Basic Services in South Sudan post the
      Peace Agreement. The USAID proposal was for extending the current
      program for Girls’ Scholarships

      Updated: Basic and Girls’ Education Unit: Overview for Country
      Offices
      The Basic and Girls’ Education unit is pleased to announce an updated
      Overview for Country Offices, which can be found on CARE’s portal. The
      intent of the document is to provide an overview of the technical depth and
      expertise that the CARE USA Basic and Girls’ Education (BGE) unit has to
      offer under three themes that are increasingly common to CARE’s work —
      girls’ education, education in emergencies and crisis settings, and child
      labor and education. This piece also gives an overview of the sector
      strategy and highlights some of BGE’s policy and advocacy work.

      Welcome Max Spencer to the BGE Unit
      The BGE Unit is pleased to announce Max Spencer as our newest Intern.
      He will be supporting John Trew’s portfolio in Child Labor and Education, as
      well as various projects managed by Kumkum Kashiparekh. Max comes to
      us from Georgia State University where he is pursuing a B.A. in African
      American Studies as a McNair Scholar. He also serves as program
      coordinator for True Resolutions, Inc, coordinating curricula and special
      events for African American youth. In addition, he served as a teen peer
      educator for AIDGRWINNET providing HIV/AIDS prevention education, as
      well as a facilitator for the Trinity House Drug Rehabilitation Center.

      Shekeira Bryan, Program Assistant for the Patsy Collins Trust Fund, will be
      departing BGE unit in December. Shekeira will be leaving to pursue her
      Masters degree in International Development at the University of Denver’s
      Graduate School of International Studies in Denver, Colorado. She will
      begin her studies during their Winter Quarter which begins in early January.

   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ANNOUNCEMENTS

      Join Up For Education Rights Now! Global Action Week 2007 April 23-
      29th Start planning now: English | French | Arabic | Spanish
      The Global Action Week Advisory Group recommends the theme for the
      2007 campaign: Education As a Human Right
      A basic education is a right inherent to being human, each child's birthright
      and thus constitutes an end in itself. However, education is also a means to
      an end: it is required to ensure all people can live in a dignified manner and
      participate effectively in society. The Education For All Goals, that were
      reaffirmed at the Dakar World Education Forum in 2000, were unusual in
      recognizing the right to education: … all children, young people and adults
      have the human right to benefit from an education that will meet their basic
learning needs…Ensuring that by 2015 all children…have access to and
complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality' .
Next year, 2007, is a crucial year as it is the mid-point towards the EFA
goals. Time is running out to achieve these. It is an important moment for
demanding more urgent action towards achieving education rights. Rather
than being a distant ideal these rights need to be converted into a reality
now – and the EFA goals gives us a deadline.
As in the past years we encourage country offices to continue participating
in this campaign and BGE unit will keep you posted in these efforts.
Kumkum Kashiparekh

UNESCO announces theme for 2008 GMR: Reaching the Unreached
and Online consultation (4 - 22 December 2006 ) for the 2008 EFA
Global Monitoring Report
The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report (en Français| en Español ) will be
the key global stocktaking report assessing progress towards the
achievement of the six EFA goals. It will be a general and not a themed
report.
The GMR is inviting participation for an on line discussion. The purpose of
the online discussion is to review what governments (national and local), in
partnership with the international community and civil society, are doing to
reach the un-reached children, youth and adults with good quality
education. The consultation includes both formal and non-formal education.
Gender analysis is central to the discussion.
We look forward to contributions which highlight successful policies and
programmes and examine key challenges that countries face. The
consultation will provide useful material for the 2008 EFA Global Monitoring
Report. The online consultation will take place from December 4-22.
Moderator: Dr Mariela Buonomo, Research Officer, EFA Global Monitoring
Report

Training on the INEE Minimum Standards in Haiti
A two and a half days training on the INEE Minimum Standards will be
organized in Haiti on January 23-24-25, 2007. It will be co-organized by
Save the Children and CRS and co-facilitated by two trainers from Save the
Children DC and the INEE Secretariat. The training will gather 25
participants from Save the Children Haiti, CRS Haiti and MoE. Participation
to this training will be somewhat limited because it is linked to Save’s
presentation of its Global Challenge Country Plan for Haiti (2007-2009).
For more information please contact:
Jennifer Hofmann Jennifer.Hofmann@theirc.org

USAID’s FY07 Annual Program Statement for the Global Development
Alliance This is an initiative which involves the development of alliances in
which public and private sectors and NGOs contribute cash, expertise
and/or technology for a specific program that are in turn used to leverage
USAID funding. Sectors covered under this APS include agriculture, anti-
corruption/governance/civil society strengthening, avian influenza, conflict/
relief and humanitarian assistance, disaster assistance, food security,
economic       growth     and     trade     capacity    building,     education,
environment/energy, health, information technology, malaria, and urban
programs.
There are a few things to keep in mind when you read this APS. The GDS
is a funding mechanism which relies on 1) the bidder to bring in some
funding to the project; 2) the mission to enthusiastically endorse the project
by coming up with matching funds for the project. Therefore it is important
to not only find a source of funding from within or outside of CARE but also
to work with the mission and get their commitment for the project by having
them commit to matching funds out of their own pot. Once this happens, the
mission will encourage the bidder to write a full proposal and then send the
full proposal and their endorsement to DC. This process is outlined within
the APS and therefore, it is best if you refer to the APS for further details.
Sarah Bouchie

Seeking Nominations for Presenters on Active-Learning, Student-
Centered Pedagogies
As part of the EQUIP1 Leader Award, EQUIP is organizing a forum on:
Active-Learning, Student-Centered Pedagogies: How Appropriate and How
Feasible for Schooling in “Developing” Countries? The forum will be held on
Friday, 12 January 2007, from 1:30-4 pm at the American Institutes of
Research in Washington, DC.
We are inviting your nominations for people with research and/or project
experience who could make a brief presentation (i.e., 10 minutes)
       summarizing what they and others know about the issues identified in the
       following listed below. We are looking for key individuals (including yourself,
       others in your organization, or others who could be in DC) whose research
       and/or project experience would enable them, with relatively little
       preparation, to inform and provoke discussion about active-learning,
       student-centered pedagogies. After the brief presentations, time will be
       devoted to attendees’ small-group or seminar discussion about the issues.
       BGE unit encourages CO that really has some evidence to bear on this
       topic, and would like to showcase their projects to participate. BGE
       may help in the expenses to travel and be present in DC. Please
       contact Sarah Bouchie


 COUNTRY OFFICE UPDATE

       We are pleased to announce the appointment of Yawo Douvon as the ACD
       for DRC. Yawo has had extensive experience in the education field having
       worked in Togo and most recently in Burundi as Education Sector
       Coordinator. Please join us in extending our congratulations to Yawo.

       Rouzena Zuazo and her team members -, Oscar Ayala, Samuel Rosales,
       Saúl Arias, Valeria Mamani, Juan Urbano, Ruth Echalar, Jose Luis Valda,
       Ramiro Guaman, Rubén Arteaga were the recipients of the Gold care
       reward for teamwork. The reward was presented to Rouzena and her team
       in recognition of their outstanding collaboration that significantly improved
       the quality of education in Potosi and Llallagua They promoted awareness
       of the dangers of child labor to parents, teachers and authorities and
       advocated on their behalf with mining cooperatives. They worked together
       towards a common goal and directed individual accomplishments toward
       organizational objectives, and their actions were noticed! Rouzena
       developed her team in the PETIM program to be leaders, to work as a team
       and to strive and achieve excellence. We are honored to recognize the
       whole team for their many actions that reflected effective teamwork

PUBLICATIONS

      DATA: The DATA Report 2006 Education
       The Africa advocacy group DATA released a new report on primary
       education in sub-Saharan Africa highlighting what the G8 must do to fulfill
       its commitment to helping Africa achieve universal primary education by
       2015. An additional 50 million children will need to be enrolled in primary
       school in Africa in the next five years, the report finds. But development
       assistance to primary education in Africa has fallen far short of the
       challenge. DATA estimates that delivering on the G8’s 2005 commitment to
       ensure every African child has access to and completes a full course of
       primary schooling by 2015 will require that total funding increases to
       approximately $5b per year by 2010.


FEATURED HIGHLIGHTS:

   CARE-Haiti Education Program Profile
      CARE began working in Haiti in 1954, providing relief assistance to people
      affected by Hurricane Hazel. Today CARE work in Haiti reflects an
      integrated approach to programming and implements activities in some of
      the most vulnerable regions including The Northwest and Artibonite
      Departments. The region is also characterized by low educational levels,
      poorly trained teachers, high numbers of over-age children in classes, and
      dropout. In 2000, only 3% of teachers had formal training and less than
      30% of students completed primary school with a primary school diploma –
      the Certificat d'Etudes Primaires.
      In this unsettled social, economic and political climate, changes are slow.
      Nevertheless, interventions for an improved education system and activities
      at the grass-root level promoting an active and participative citizenship are
      critical for rebuilding a new society and assuring long term development in
      Haiti.

   CARE-Haiti Education Projects and Civil society
   1. Increasing the Quality of Education (component of a DAP funded by
      USAID, 2001-2007/ complementary private funds)
      CARE-HAITI has been implementing an Education Program in the
      Northwest and Artibonite Departments of Haiti for the last eight years. The
      program aims at supporting schools in improving the quality of education for
      the students, provides hot meals and promotes the involvement of parents
      and the wider community in the daily life of the school.
      Key to the Education Program has been the development of groups within
      the schools, which are now commonly called ADPEP (Association des
      Directeurs, Professeurs. Elèves et Parents). These groups of school
      directors, teachers, students and parents were initially formed to improve
      the management of the school canteens, but have been progressively
      developed into fledgling civil society organizations which tackle much
      broader issues linked to the quality of life in the school and the quality of
      education provided to the students.
      In some schools, in order to help them improve the quality and relevance of
      education, the ADPEPs also promoted the creation of other school-based
      groups such as the Quality Circles which are structures of mutual
      assistance and support between teachers working at the same grade level.
      An external evaluation of this community participation process and of the
      ADPEPs took place in 2001. The main conclusions of this study indicated
      that the ADPEPs had promoted noticeable improvements in the physical
      and sanitary environment of the schools, as well as quality of life in the
      schools. Furthermore, evidence suggested that participation in the
      association was in itself educational, in that participants had learned to
      exchange ideas, share differences and seek compromise to achieve
      progress for the common good of the group. Participation was seen as an
      active learning of democratic modes of functioning, which is larger than the
      strict limits of the school, and the academic results of the children. During
      the first two years of the project, through intensive training, in-class
      observations, awareness-raising campaigns and capacity-building activities,
      significant progress was noticed among the teaching
      teams and the community participants
      But the main success of the project has undoubtedly been its capacity to
      create a new dynamic around education within the communities. This is
      reflected in the number of special occasions organized to celebrate
      education with the support of the wider community and through evidence of
      increasing parental presence in the every-day-life of the schools.
      KEY PROGRESS Made
     o 100% of the teachers using the official curriculum
     o 100% of the school directors fulfilling their administrative responsibilities.
     o 100% of the parents associations with internal laws.

2.    Psychosocial interventions in emergency and for vulnerable children
      (Emergency intervention in Gonaives in 2004 funded by CIDA/
      Psychosocial project funded by DFID and complementary private funds)
      For Haitians, 2004 was a year of crisis that began with the ouster of a
      president and intensified with the arrival of Hurricane Jeanne in September.
      CARE emergency relief aid began fewer than 48 hours after Hurricane
      Jeanne withdrew from northern Haiti and lasted roughly until June 2005.
      About 80% of the schools were destroyed. But, CARE supported the
      Ministry of Education in its efforts of coordination with local NGOs and
      actors, and a majority of school opened again in November to welcome the
      children.
      Thanks to a project funded by the local Canadian cooperation, about 11,
      000 school kits were distributed and the project started an innovative
      psychosocial support project for more than 5,000 children with the
      partnership of Clowns without Borders: ‘’Never again a child without a
      smile’’.

3.    Psychosocial support to children in domestic services:
      There is a long and widespread practice of child domestic service in Haiti. It
      is based upon the cultural premise that children are considered as workers
      and contributors to the family’s economy, as expressed in the Creole
      proverb ’’Pitit se richès’’ - children represent wealth.
      The most common manifestation of this is the situation of the ‘’Restavèk’’
      translated literally from the Creole as ‘’Stay with’’. The restavèk is a child in
      domestic service who lives with and works for another family, normally
      placed there by poor parents from rural areas who cannot provide for their
      needs and are forced to place their children with wealthier urban families.
      Due to the scarcity of rural schools, there is no alternative to this work for
      many children in rural Haiti. There is an implicit understanding that this
      “placement” should entail a minimal level of wellbeing for the child, who in
      return for their domestic work will be fed, sheltered, clothed and educated.
      But the reality for many is hard work, no schooling and abuse. The exact
      number of children in domestic service in Haiti is unknown, although recent
      studies estimate that there could be as many as 400,000.
        All the studies confirm the appalling conditions which are the norm for most
        of these children; their heavy work load, their exposure to physical and
        emotional abuse, regular beatings and sexual abuse and the associated
        psychological and emotional trauma. These children are deprived of the
        most basic economic and civil rights: the right to a family, to education, to
        health care, their rights to be children who can rest and play.
        In 2005, thanks to a previous DFID granted project, CARE-Haiti
        investigated further the factors which define and characterize the problems
        of children in domestic service, started to raise awareness in host
        communities in order to challenge the practice and to look at practical
        suggestions which can give real alternatives. The study took place in
        Gonaives and Gros Morne where the most progressive ADPEPs could be
        found to discuss this very sensitive cultural issue.
        The project facilitated the creation of a community network (local
        authorities, police, families, parents’associations) to support the children
        and offer them better conditions of living. Through the reinforcement of a
        local youth club, the project provided psychosocial activities to
        approximately 350 children. The psychosocial support, based on recreative
        and cultural activities, focused on themes like self-esteem, tolerance,
        conflict resolution and sexual education.
        The project also worked with local artisans and vocational schools to
        provide vocational training to the oldest children.

   4.   A pilot initiative of Youth Parliament
         (US State Department, 2005-2006)
        In May 2005, CARE-HAITI received a funding from the State Department to
        support community-based civil society organizations in the Northwest and
        Artibonite departments who are engaging in knowledge-building on civic
        education, citizen’s rights and local government engagement.
        13738 community members benefited from training on democracy and good
        governance, intensive awareness-raising campaigns on the registration
        process, on active citizenship and on women’s participation in democracy
        took place, 10 small community projects funded and a pilot initiative of
        youth parliament was launched.
        In March 2006, in the commune of Bassin Bleu, the students of five schools
        elected 96 students’ representatives (53 boys and 44 girls) who became the
        96 first child deputies in Haiti. The creation of the parliament followed the
        same electoral process as described in the Haitian Constitution for the
        national Parliament. Some students were candidates and prepared their
        electoral campaign, while others worked on the electoral law, and on the
        logistics of the process (elaboration of the electoral cards, etc). The
        president of the youth parliament is a 12-year girl.
        The Parliament was inaugurated in April. During the ceremony, the children
        took an oath and started to work. Their objective is to improve the
        conditions of life for the children of Bassin Bleu, with a particular focus on
        the most vulnerable children. They are currently working on the project of a
        law against corporal punishment. The document will then be sent to the
        National Parliament.

        CARE-Haiti Dynamic Education Team
        Sophie PEREZ, Sector Coordinator: perez@pap.care.org
        Wilner Termilus, Education PM: wilnercahar@yahoo.fr
        Jean J Francoeur, Civil Society PM: jjfrancoeur@yahoo.fr

   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

RESOURCES RELATED TO Education in Emergencies

        The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)
        The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) is a global,
        open network of non-governmental organizations, UN agencies, donors,
        practitioners, researchers and individuals from affected populations working
        together within a humanitarian and development framework to ensure the
        right to education in emergencies and post-crisis reconstruction.
        One of INEE’s key goals is to ensure and encourage the documentation,
        cataloguing and dissemination of all relevant materials on education in
        emergencies, including field resources, evaluations and baseline data.
        INEE’s website, and in particular the Resources page, are regularly updated
        with new good practices guides, training resources, advocacy tools and
        expert reports, and thus provide a comprehensive resource for practioners,
        academics, policymakers, donors, and governments. In addition, the INEE
        listserv allows members to exchange information and new resources and
        tools on education in emergencies and early reconstruction
SUGGESTED READINGS by Dr. Marc Sommers
      Dr. Marc Sommers, a recipient of the 2003 Margaret Mead Award, has
      worked on issues ranging from humanitarian coordination and civilian-
      military relations to the impact of war on children and youths. A research
      fellow at Boston University's African Studies Center, Sommers received his
      Ph.D. in anthropology from Boston University in 1994. Since 1995, he has
      been a research fellow at the Boston University’s African Studies Center, a
      Youth at Risk Specialist for CARE USA, and an international consultant
      on humanitarian and postwar concerns, for a wide range of agencies,
      including Oxfam America, UNESCO, the UN Office of Humanitarian Affairs,
      the U.S. Department of Defense, and the Women's Commission for
      Refugee Women and Children. His research has been supported by the
      Ford, Guggenheim, Mellon, and Rotary foundations.
      a. Children, Education and War: Reaching Education For All (EFA)
           Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict
           "How can countries affected by conflict arrive at EFA objectives? an
           emergency education expert answered : "The short answer is: "They
           can't. " Far more could be done to support education in countries
           suffering from conflict. The most logical starting point lies in supporting
           emergency education where it exists and dramatically expanding
           access to education where it doesn't. Yet, most primary-school-age
           children in war-affected areas are not in school and have no realistic
           hope of enrolling in one. In addition, education for and efforts to engage
           with youths, remain limited.

         b.   Education in Emergencies: Critical Questions and Challenges
              Time and again, communities devise some sort of schooling for their
              children as soon as the disruptions of warfare or other or other
              humanitarian disasters begin to subside. This initial education response
              can begin quickly but usually provides only rudimentary educational
              instruction and structure. National and especially international agencies
              may arrive soon after this to support and dramatically expand such
              efforts. During the transitioning of the provision of education by
              communities to national and international agencies, significant
              challenges confront communities, agencies, and governments. Ten
              important challenges, and a selected list of resources for beginning to
              address them, are provided in this document.

         c.   Islands of education: schooling, civil war and the Southern Sudanese
              (1983-2004)
              War, isolation and instability have dominated southern Sudan since
              1955…..These events have left Southern Sudanese as one of the most
              undereducated populations in the world. The overwhelming majority of
              southern Sudanese and youth have had little access to education of
              any kind. Schooling has largely consisted of island-like entities
              surrounded by oceans of educational emptiness. This is the first study
              to analyze and describe the harrowing educational reality that Southern
              Sudanese people have faced during the 21 years of civil war.

         d.   Co-ordinating Education During Emergencies and Reconstruction:
              Challenges and Responsibilities. Paris: International Institute for
              Educational Planning, UNESCO.
              In this book, the co-ordination, or lack of co-ordination, of education
              during both emergencies and the early reconstruction period is
              examined. What constitutes effective and poor co-ordination is also
              analyzed, with suggestions for enhancing co-ordination of education in
              emergency and post-conflict settings. This includes the need to
              recognize that co-ordinate education systems are unlikely to be
              achieved unless education authorities are willing to decline aid that
              does not help fulfill the objectives of their agreed and announced plans

         e.   Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo: A Case
              Study (with Peter Buckland). Paris: International Institute for
              Educational Planning, UNESCO, and Washington, DC: The World
              Bank.
              A case study, the objective being able to identify lessons that might be
              learned from the planning and management of education in Kosovo
              from June 1999 until the present, focusing on social and political issues

         f.   Youth: Care & Protection of Children in Emergencies: A Field Guide.
              Washington, DC: Children in Crisis Unit, Save the Children.
     Years of experience have shown that youth tend to fall between the
     cracks during emergencies: while refugee children may be underserved
     in many crises, adolescents and youth are often forgotten completely.
     ’Youth‘covers both adolescents (with rights under the CRC) as well as
     young adults, crossing convenient categories and too easily ignored.
     These young people — who are no longer children requiring full
     protection from their families, and yet are not recognized as adults with
     full social responsibility — are an important part of any refugee
     population and key to social rehabilitation. Communities may see
     young people as a threat to their own security, while humanitarian
     agencies too easily dismiss adolescents and young adults as too
     difficult to approach. Save the Children is committed to ensuring that
     youth do indeed have a voice in their own future, and providing them
     with the skills they need to realize their own hopes and dream.
     This Field Guide to Youth Programs in Emergencies provides lessons
     learned in this area to date, and is a complement to more specific
     guides in this series such as Child Soldiers and Education.

g.   The Education Imperative: Supporting Education in Emergencies.
     Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development, and New
     York: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.
     The Education Imperative, 2003, documents how much has been
     done since 1995 to bolster international capacity and coordination to
     provide quality education programs as part of a humanitarian response.
     At the same time, it illustrates that more children than ever have not
     been reached. The intention of this document is also to We intend this
     publication to deepen the world’s commitment to education in
     emergencies and to stimulate dialogue on how best to proceed.

h.   Crossing Lines: "Magnets" and Mobility among Southern Sudanese.
     Washington, DC: Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity
     and Creative Associates International.
     A final report of two assessment trips, examining the impact and
     broader implications of a new teacher training center in the Kakuma
     refugee camps, Kenya.

i.   Youth Reintegration and Education for Peace Program (YRTEP).Final
     Evaluation of the Office of Transition Initiatives’ Program in Sierra
     Leone: (with Art Hansen, Julie Nenon, and Joy Wolf). Marc Sommers
     and Cynthia Prather, eds. Washington, DC: Basic Education and Policy
     Support (BEPS) Activity, Creative Associates International.
     The purpose of the evaluation was to assess whether OTI had
     achieved its country program goals of positively affecting the Sierra
     Leone peace process and supporting reconciliation and reintegration.
     Particular attention was paid to two activities: the Diamond
     Management Program (DMP); and the Youth Reintegration and
     Education for Peace Program (YRTEP). The focus was on OTI’s
     experience following the Lome Peace Accord, which was signed in July
     1999.

j.   Young, Male and Pentecostal: Urban Refugees in Dar es Salaam,
     Tanzania." Journal of Refugee Studies 14(4): 347-370.
     African youth in cities, often overlooked by national governments, civil
     society members and international actors, comprise one of the keys to
     lasting peace in post-war Africa. This paper connects African refugees
     to two demographic trends that are reshaping the continent:
     urbanization and Pentecostalism. Drawing on research on refugees,
     urban migration and religion in Africa, the author argues that young,
     male refugee youth are surfacing as prominent contributors to dramatic
     change across Africa. The case of Burundi refugees in Dar es Salaam
     is used both to illuminate these issues and to consider the impact of
     fear, sub-ethnic rivalry and genocidal violence on refugee youth, the
     mechanics of hiding, state opposition to urban migration and urban
     youth culture. The author concludes that understanding and
     recognizing the dynamic role of refugee and other alienated, mobile
     urban youth as catalysts for transformation is an essential step in the
     development of peaceful, civil, and truly inclusive post-war African
     societies

Education in Fragile States: Capturing Lessons and Identifying Good
Practice by Dr Pauline Rose, Centre for International Education, University
of Sussex and Dr Martin Greeley Institute of Development Studies, Sussex
This paper examines development assistance in the four environments:
       a) Deterioration (Conflict/risk of conflict; Declining capacity and/or will)
       b) Arrested development (Lack of will; Moderate or high capacity) c)
       c) Post-conflict transition (Risk of conflict; Low capacity; High or low will)
       d) Early recovery (May be post-conflict or not; High will but low capacity),
       can enhance access to quality basic education for the poor and vulnerable,
       at the same time improving governance and thereby mitigating the risks of
       fragility, and increasing the effectiveness of future aid.

       Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction
       IIEP, 2006
       The Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction is
       addressed primarily to staff of ministries of education, including national,
       provincial and district level planners and managers, in countries affected by
       conflict or natural disasters, or hosting refugees from a neighboring state.
       This is the first time that
       detailed guidance on education in emergencies and reconstruction has
       been prepared specifically from this perspective. The Guidebook focuses to
       a considerable extent on ensuring access to quality schooling at primary
       and secondary levels during emergencies. However, attention is also paid
       to early childhood development, vocational education, post-primary and
       higher education and Nonformal education.

       Reshaping the Future Education and Postconflict Reconstruction, A World
       Bank Publication
       The relationship between education systems and conflict presents
       policymakers with a conundrum. Schools are almost always complicit
       in conflict. They reproduce the skills, values, attitudes, and social relations
       of dominant groups in society; accordingly, they are usually a
       contributory factor in conflict. Simultaneously reconstructing and reforming
       education is increasingly viewed as a critical element in the
       strategy to reduce the risk of conflict or relapse into conflict. The central
       message of this paper, therefore, is that conflict presents not only
       challenges for reconstruction but also significant opportunities for reform
       of education systems. The challenge of simultaneous reform and
       reconstruction at a time of constrained human, financial, and institutional
       resources and considerable urgency calls for particular attention to
       priorities and sequencing of interventions. Short-term immediate responses
       need to be conceptualized within a framework that provides for more
       substantial systemic reform as the new political vision emerges and system
       capacity is built.

Additional WEB RESOURCES

      Forced Migration Review (FMR) the leading practical journal on refugee
       and displacement issues is the in-house journal of the Refugee Studies
       Centre, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford. FMR is distributed to
       relief and development NGOs, human rights agencies, Red Cross/Crescent
       offices, UNHCR, OCHA, UNDP, UNICEF and other UN agencies, bilateral
       donors, refugee camps, research institutes, foreign and interior ministries
       and university, national and public libraries.
       It is published in English, Arabic, Spanish and French. FMR provides a
       practice-oriented forum for debate on issues facing refugees and internally
       displaced people in order to improve policy and practice and to involve
       refugees and IDPs in programme design and implementation. FMR:
      provides space for the voices of displaced people to be heard
      publishes concise jargon-free articles by practitioners, researchers and
       displaced people which share information, experience and policy
       recommendations
      is disseminated globally: FMR is distributed without charge to over 11,000
       organizations’ and individuals in 177 countries.
      provides full-text online versions of articles in all language editions
      encourages networking and information exchange in the field of forced
       migration by providing news of publications, Internet resources and
       conferences
      promotes wider public knowledge of, and respect for, the UN Refugee
       Convention and the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement

      The International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) -- was created by
       UNESCO in 1963 in Paris, France. One of the focus areas is Education in
       emergencies and reconstruction and special programmes have recently
       been launched to assist governments confronted with emergency situations.
                         Other essential elements of IIEP programmes are networking activities and
                         communication of results and ideas - mainly through publications

                         Journal of Refugee Studies
                          Journal of Refugee Studies provides a forum for exploration of the complex
                          problems of forced migration and national, regional and international
                          responses. The Journal covers all categories of forcibly displaced people.
                          Contributions that develop theoretical understandings of forced migration, or
                          advance knowledge of concepts, policies and practice are welcomed from
                          both academics and practitioners. Journal of Refugee Studies is a
                          multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal, and is published in association with
                          the Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford.
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