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Anat-Rafaeli-artifacts-March-2004

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					   Artifacts and Organizations




        Professor Anat Rafaeli
Industrial Engineering and Management
                   Technion
                   ISRAEL


         (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   1
      What is an organization?
         (Rafaeli, 1996)
Formal Definition:
A set of contracts
                                      Actually
                         ==> A set of people
                       ==> A set of emotions
                       ==> A set of artifacts
                       (not always physical,
                       not always conscious)
            (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   2
(c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   3
Organizations are full
 of artifacts (dress,
    logos, service
  stations, queues)
              (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   4
•




    (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   5
(c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   6
(c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   7
Theoretical Background

             Multiple disciplines view
             physical artifacts VERY
             differently

Independent bodies of literature:

Marketing … Organization Behavior … Design
Art, …Engineering …Human Factors

             (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   8
         Marketing,
    Organizational Behavior
Symbolism (Schein)




 How is artifact
 interpreted? Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net
            (c)                                        9
  Art, Design, Architecture

Aesthetics, reactions
    of the senses,

How is it perceived?


            (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   10
    Engineering, Human Factors

  Instrumentality,
    functionality,
       usability:


How well does it work?

            (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   11
Managerial Problem:

Artifacts can have Different
Implications for Different People


  Danger of
   Artifact
  Myopia !

           (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   12
                           Artifact Errors in Organizations




  Miss Whitney cancel the memo requiring that
personal appearance should reflect our corporate
                 (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   13
                       culture
     “The Tale of the Green Colored Busses”
         Rafaeli and Vilnai-Yavetz (2004)




A study of sensemaking of a key organizational artifact

                  (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   14
                         Context
 “At the end of 1999 The Company decided to paint its
  buses green, as an indication of adopting “green” values
  …..Toward this end The Company spent 7.5 Million
  NIS (2 Million Dollars), more than half on advertising.
  …[but] the color was not tested with focus groups or
  surveys …[or] from a safety standpoint.

(National Comptroller http://www.mevaker.gov.il, 2002)


                  (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   15
                       Study

Sensemaking and Perceptions by Multiple
             Stakeholders


                                1. Employees (managers,
                                   drivers)
                                2. Users (passengers)
                                3. Experts (engineers,
                                   technicians, designers,
                                   marketing, PR)
                                4. General media
           (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   16
            For Who is Artifact Relevant?


    Constituents
               Other
         Bus driver
         driver s       General
         s              public                                           Organization and
Environmentalists                  Other                                  management
              Passengers
                                 Companies

                    Pedestrian
                    s




                                     Artifact
                            (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net                      17
What about Artifact is Relevant?
Formal organizational intentions

                   A focus on symbolism:
                   “We wanted to change and improve
                   our image …Our intent was to
                   convey commitment to quality of life
                   and quality of service. Green
                   represents environmental
                   friendliness….” (spokesperson)


                (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   18
         Management Intentions: Marketing Foundations


                                Image              Issue


Constituents
   General
   Public                                                      Management
Passengers




                                    Artifact
                                     Symbolism

                  (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net        19
        Artifact Error I:
Artifact Symbolizes More than
            Intended
  “Israel’s colors are blue and white,
  not green which Arabs tend to like”




    “Green symbolizes hospitals
    and illness”
             (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   20
Data:
“Green is for
garbage trucks”




  “Green represents
  a certain sports
  team”

                  (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   21
 Artifact Error II:
Artifact is not only a symbol!
Is it Functional?
   “Green blends in with the environment and cannot be
   seen. A traffic hazard (passenger).
    “Green heats the bus. Makes it up to 4 degrees hotter,
   which will cause energy waste in the summer.”
   (engineer)
   “Green does not stand out at night (designer).
                    (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   22
Artifact Error II: Artifact is More than a Symbol


Is it Aesthetic?
   “Green is ugly and unnecessary. Parts
   should be white or in different shades of
   green.” (designer)

    “Dark green is ugly, creates a feeling of
      suffocation.”       (passenger)


                   (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   23
   Everyone Recognizes THREE dimensions!

1. Experts have a deep understanding of a specific
   dimension, but may overlook other dimensions
2. Experts and non-experts differed in terminology
                 and content focus

                               BUT
           3. Experts AND non-experts
            refer to three dimensions




               (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   24
Expertise of engineer evident in safety concerns
“The color is dangerous… dark green is not
visible. An important element for safety is
visibility and for visibility contrast is
important, a difference between object and
background. When it's dark and you pass
through a junction and a large black object 12
meters long passes [it's a problem].”
        Passenger:
        “I can’t see the green bus. It is
        dangerous!
               (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   25
Expertise of designer evident in aesthetic concerns


“In the colorful vividness of our country, to
 impose one consistent color on a bus, on a
 complex such as a bus, on such a big
 complex such as a bus, and such a green, it
 is simply inappropriate. Hideous!”

          Engineer: The green bus is really
          ugly!
                (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   26
        Conclusions so far …
• Artifacts have three aspects
  (instrumentality, aesthetics, symbolism)
• Experts focus on one aspect.
• People in general recognize all dimensions.


                                  Sensemaking

              (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   27
      Positive Artifact Impact?
      • Promoting Organizational Goals


On Customers …                         On employees …
• Branding (Identifying)               • Identifying
• Creating Legitimacy and              • Creating Legitimacy and
  Trust                                  Trust
• Defining Responsibility              • Defining Responsibility
• Defining Interaction                 • Defining Interaction


                 (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net        28
               Artifacts and Trust:
              Food from a stranger?
• A stranger hands out food on the street
• 469 casual pedestrians on a major street in Haifa and Herzlia.




                     (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   29
                     Study 1: Food from a stranger
                                Results
     %
         100

         80       23.1%

                                                    55.3%              N = 469
         60                                                                complied

         40                                                                Refused

         20

          0
                   Without logo
                  Without logo                         With logo
                                                        With logo


      2 51.12,
       (1)=         p=.000

   Significantly more people comply in presence of a logo
                          (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net              30
Logo
(Artifact)
does NOT
have to be
recognized to
elicit trust!




           (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   31
Artifact Induces Compliance Mostly With High Risk!

                                   Compliance Rate

                     100                88.2
                                                      85.8
                      80

           % of       60                                                    high risk
                                               55.3
         compliers     40                                                   low risk
                                 23.1
                       20
                                                                 low risk
                        0
                                                             high risk
                             without
                                         with logo
                              logo




        High Risk condition: 
                               2
                                          (1)=51.12,            p=.000
        Low Risk     condition:     2 (1)=0.295, N.S
                        (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net                      32
Defining
Responsibility:
Poster and
boarding card
identifies time as
under customer
responsibility!


              (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   33
Defining
Responsibility:
Uniforms
identify
employee
responsibility


                 (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   34
Shaping Employee Behavior
Employees are more service                            oriented
                when
  IN UNIFORM (Smock and Name Tag)
                    than when
          OUT OF UNIFORM



         (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net          35
Attracting Customers
 Aesthetic versus Unaesthetic Employee Appearance
      Affects Customer Tendency to Interact!




               (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   36
Producing the right mood




           (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   37
                                                                                                                   PI – Anat Rafaeli



Queue Structure as Artifact
Service stations
                                            To what extent
                                            do you feel
                                            Irritated?                                                        To what extent
                                                                    Service stations
                                             To a great                                                       do you feel
                                            extent                                                            Irritated?
                                                                                                               To a great
                                                                                                              extent




             Please answer the question      To a little
                                            extent

                                                                                                               To a little
                                                                                 Please answer the question   extent




          People are Significantly More Irritated and Less Satisfied in
          a Multiple Queue than a Single Queue EVEN IF it takes the
                             same amount of time
                                          (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net                                         38
                                                                                                                   PI – Anat Rafaeli



Queue Structure as Implicit Contract
Service stations
                                            To what extent
                                            do you feel
                                            Irritated?                                                        To what extent
                                                                    Service stations
                                             To a great                                                       do you feel
                                            extent                                                            Irritated?
                                                                                                               To a great
                                                                                                              extent




             Please answer the question      To a little
                                            extent

                                                                                                               To a little
                                                                                 Please answer the question   extent




            People are Significantly More Irritated and Less Satisfied
             when an Interference occurs in a Single Queue than in a
            Multiple Queue EVEN IF it takes the same amount of time
                                          (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net                                         39
    Artifacts and Organizational Issues

Two routes of reactions to artifacts ….


                                  a. Artifact as target –
                                     Reactions to the artifact itself


                                 b. Organization as target –
                                    Artifact as trigger



                  (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   40
                  Artifact as Trigger

Issue: “Greenwash”

They found it easier to paint their buses green, and
claim they are green. About 190 people die every year
from those buses. They pollute and make so much noise
you can’t hear yourself think.
Issue: Safety
Maybe the new green color will remind bus drivers to
stop being wild on the road and to pass only when the
light is green
 Issue: Customer Respect
 “Green or black”? - “Company accepts religious pressure?”
                  (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   41
(c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   42
                    Artifact as Trigger


Issue: Customer service
“Green or spitting”? - “Yarok O Yorek?”


Issue: Employee – management relations
I have no idea about the green color. The company did not bother to
involve us in any of the decisions. They don’t care about us, about
what we think, we are worthless, just members. What are members
anyway?


                   (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   43
                      Artifacts and Organizational Issues


                                    Organization Issues
                             Custom al image
                                er            “Greenwash”
                             Service
                          Wild
                        driving      Employees
                                          -
                                    Managemen
            Constituents             t relations
               Other
         Bus driver
         driver s    General
         s           public                               Organization
Environmentalists
              Passengers


                    Pedestrian
                    s                    Artifact
                                 Aesthetic Symbolism
                                 s
                                     Instrumentalit
                                 (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   44
                                     y
             Artifacts and Identity:
            Microsoft’s Media Player




More than 50,000,000 skins downloaded from the internet.


                 (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   45
(c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   46
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(c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net
                                                            f it            in
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                                                                                                                           Ratings of Default and the 2 choices




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47
                                             Default

                                             Choice 2
                                             Choice 1
Predicting Satisfaction with an Artifact
                                                 Independent Variable


      DV                 Adj. R2       Usability Aesthetics         Symbolism


      Satisfying            .68           .56**           .38**       .23**
      Experience


      Pleasant              .58           .43**           .43**        .22*
      Experience

   * p < .01, ** p<.001
   Table 3: Adjusted R2 and standardized regression coefficients of three skin aspects
   regressed on satisfying experience and pleasant experience.


                       (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net                        48
 Emotion Connects Artifact and Organization



…through the three dimensions (85% of the time)

 Symbolism:
  “I am… happy to travel with a company that has
 the positive intentions the green bus represents”.

 Instrumentality:
 I am angry! The green does not stand out at night,
 and they know it. They don’t care about the
 passengers!”
               (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   49
  Artifacts as Emotional Events:
Talk About Artifact involves Emotion
    toward Organizational Issues.

 Issue: Greenwash Hypocrisy
 “ I am furious. They are hypocritical. With a green
    bus they say, ‘Hey, look, I am a good, warm, and
    caring body for the environment.”’ But they are
    the bad guy that pollutes the environment!”
                 (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   50
Emotion everywhere …. toward …

            Artifact and Organization …

Artifacts as ‘Emotional Episodes”
   “I HATE the green bus!”
       “What a hideous color. The Green bus is
       disgusting. Makes me sick. “
   “I HATE the company:
       “The company is a large, fat, corrupt
       monopoly trying to emphasize positive
       things. It is trying to be acceptable to the
       public by trying to present itself as a
                                                      51
       Green company.- http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net
                (c) Anat Rafaeli
                                 “
Artifacts and Emotion are IN Big Time




           (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   52
        Rafaeli and Vilnai-Yavetz (2004):
    Planning Artifacts to Avoid Artifact Errors

Three Dimensions to all Artifacts

  Instrumentalit
  y

  Aesthetics                             Sensemaking
                                             and
                                           Emotion
  Symbolism

                   (c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   53
(c) Anat Rafaeli - http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net   54

				
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