Beaver Lake (NC pg 734). – Location. Beaver lake doesn’t readily occur in this area, they are
distributed primarily throughout the east side of the Miss River Valley. Most all of the points
illustrated as Beaver Lake on pg 734 are actually Pike County points. Pike County are often
mistaken for Beaver lake (and a few other types). Suggestion: remove from this section of
Benton (NC pg 735) –Location reads “ Mississippi River into TN & KY”. I agree that
description is somewhat correct, but that’s not this North Central area. They are found primarily
EAST of the Missippippi River valley. This should not be included in the NC area of the guide.
Suggestion: remove from this section of guide.
Brewerton Side & Corner Notch (NC pg 735) - The Brewerton series of points do not occur
here. They are found in the northeast, and into the upper Ohio River Valley. They were called
other names further south (Upper Valley & Damron). Suggestion: drop from this region.
Calf Creek (NC pg 738) – Description. May want to include how the stems are parallel to
expanding and the base can be straight, convex or concave. Blade can be serrated. The
Cossattot River is considered to be the predecessor of the Calf Creek Point.
Hazel Clovis (NC pg 741) – Information additon . May want to add in the description that it’s
similar to the Ross County type of Clovis, but has a longer “waist”.
Cobbs Triangular / Stanfield (NC pg 741) – Considerations. The more rounded base Cobbs
would fall under the Stanfield type. Stanfield is a variant of Cobbs, but is made from a more
ovate preform and has a rounded base. They are found at the same sites, same age, etc.
HOWEVER, the Stanfield knife has a wider distribution range and occurs further to the west
than the typical “Cobbs Triangular” does. Stanfield are found in OK, KS area, Cobbs aren’t.
Collins (pg 742) – Additional Info. The Claiborne and the Clifton are two other types of Collins
Cossattot River (pg 743) – Not a single one of the examples shown is a Cossatot River point.
Description: It states “illinois, MO, into OK. It should read “throughout the Ozarks and into
Texas”. I.D. Key reads: “ Basal notching”…when it should read “lobed base”.
Dalton-Breckenridge (pg745) – considerations. It may be confusing to title it as a Dalton
Breckenride, when it’s known by more collectors as simply “Breckenridge”. . Also, for
location, it says “Midwestern States” – this is erroneous. It’s primarily found in the Ozarks, not
all midwestern states. For ID Key, you may want to use that it is long, slender and has shallow
side notches that give it a short fishtailed base.
Dalton-Hemphill (NC pg. 750) – Considerations, name revision. The name “Hemphill”
variety of Dalton is in error. Not only is the name already taken by the early archaic side-notched
Hemphill type, it has another name. Collectors often refer to these as fishtail daltons, but it’s
true full name is the Vian Creek fishtail Dalton. The “Vian Creek Fishtail Dalton” was
published by Greg Perino in “Select knives, points and preforms of the North American Indians”
(pg 236). In short, it’s often referred to as just the Vian Creek. They were named for a place in
Oklahoma, where Vian Creek runs into Kerr Lake. They ofen are very large and are found
through mainly the Ozarks region of OK, MO, KS, and AR. Even though many collectors
recognize the name Hemphill Dalton more, the large error really should be corrected.
Suggestion: Rename Dalton – Hemphill to “Vian Creek”.
Dalton – Sloan (NC pg 751) – Description inaccuracy. The description reads “ This point is
usually serrated…” and ID Key reads: “ serrations”. This is innacurate. While some Sloan are
serrated, the vast majority are not. Another Inaccuracy: reads “ fishtail base”. Sloan do not
typically have a fishtail base. They simply are slightly recurved or just convex. They are not
fishtail (like Vian Creek or other dalton variants). You may also want to revise it to mention that
the flaking is often transverse, parallel or oblique-parallel. Often confused for the Allen points
found further west and on the high plains. The fine, “scooped” flakes induced by extreme
pressure that is found on many examples is referred to as “hollow ground flaking”.
Delhi (pg 752) – Location renovation. Location states “Louisianna into Missouri”. In fact,
they are also found in Alabama, Illinois and even in eastern TX. For this region though, you do
at least want to include Illinois. Maybe “LA into MO & Ill, and surrounding areas” or
Dickson (pg 752) – Age & description considerations. It’s a small change really, but they do
have them older than they actually are. Change age to 2000-1600 b.p. I just have to say
WOOOOOHOOO!!! Friggin Overstreet in this issue FINALLY didn’t associate them with
Adena! Also, add in description: “Some examples can have beveled blades or slightly ground
stems”. They are rare, but they are found sometimes in direct context with other Dicksons. You
may also want to mention the associated with Waubesa. They are found together and are made
by the same people. The Dickson has a long truncated stem with a straight or concave basal
edge, while the waubesa has a long more rounded stem.
Eden (pg 756) – Age. A common misconception is that the Eden are a paleo point. However,
they have only been found in early archaic context. They should be considered a western
equivalent of the eastern Hardin point (for the most part). Greg Perino gives a date of 8800 B.P.
for the Eden, but postulates 10,000 for the Eden Eared. I cannot find a valid date on either that is
older than 9500 years old. I.D. Key: reads “weak shoulders” I would probably add “Weak
shoulders, median ridge, parallel flaking”
Etley (pg 761) – Description. Reads “Many Wadlow points were found there which is the
perform for this type”. Not all Wadlow blades are performs. The Wadlow type is often with
with heavy use, showing that it was a finished & utilized form. I would change the description to
read that Wadlow “looking” points are the perform for this type. Description – reads “shoulders
usually expand but have a tendency to point inward towards the base”. I would omit this. The
barbs do not curve inwards to point towards the base, most flow outward, similar to Mehlville.
They are well-barbed knives. ID Key could read: Size, recurved blade, short and wide stem.
Evans (pg 762) – Location. Reads “ Midwestern to Southeastern States”. The primary
distribution range is northern LA and southern AR, and some in MI. I suggest “Northern
Louisianna, Southern Arkansas and surrounding areas”. Other similar forms occur elsewhere in
many different time periods, but they aren’t Evans.
Gary (pg 765) - Age.
Gibson (pg 766) – Description. May want to add in the description that they are Hopewell and
part of the Snyders Cluster of points. I.D. Key addition – Rounded base, notch placement.
Goshen (pg 767) - Considerations. The Goshen and plainview appear to be the same type of
point. Frison (who named Goshen at Mill Iron site) named the type simply because the dates are
older than other plainview points. Frison called them Goshen-Plainview because of the
possibility that they are the same point but with a long time continuum. Vance Haynes believes
they also are the same point type and that the name Goshen should be dropped and Jeb Taylor is
very tentative about the association as well (projectile points of the high plains). It is impossible
to tell the difference between many samples of Goshen and Plainview, hence the designation
Goshen-Plainview by Taylor & Frison. Again, we fall back on the collector familiarity with a
name (Goshen) . Suggestion: at least mention (concisely) the relationship with Plainview and
possibility that they could be in fact the same point.
Grand (pg 769) – Location. Reads “Oklahoma, Kansas”. Should read “OK, KS, AR, MO” – Or
“Ozarks region”. Description: add that it is a Hopewell culture point and is part of the Snyders
Hardin (pg 773) – Description. Reads “believed to have evolved from the Scottsbluff type”.
This is error. The Hardin was contemporaneous with the Scottsbluff, one seems to be an eastern
tradition and the other western (Cody). Greg Perino stated (personal communication) that there
have been sites in eastern Illinois where Hardin points have been found that date older than
Scottsbluff. Suggestion: omit that one line and possibly include more information.
Haskell Arrow point (pg 777) – Location. Reads “ Midwestern States”. Should read “Ozarks
region down to Texas”.
Hatten Knife (pg 777) Location. Reads” Oklahoma into Wisconsin”. The Hatten knife is
associated with Morse Knives, and possible Red Ochre, neither of which occur in Oklahoma.
The location should read “North Missouri & Illinois into Wisconsin”.
Hayes (pg 777) Location. Reads “ A texas/ ark type left or traded on possible Cahokia visits”.
Should read “4 corners area of TX, OK, AR, LA”.
Helton (pg 779) - Invalid type. Helton was mistaken twice. First, Matanzas points were
mistakenly called “Helton” in one publication, then later Ferry points were mistakenly called
Helton. “Helton” was already named the Ferry point. Suggestion: Drop the name Helton.
Hopewell (pg 786) – considerations. “Hopewell” isn’t a true point type, it is a culture. It’s a
common term for anything that we know belongs to those people, but we just aren’t sure what
exact name to give it. You may want to vaguely mention that in the description.
Huffaker (pg 788) – location. Reads “Midwestern states”. The Huffaker is primarily found in
the Ozarks region down into Texas. They are commonly mistaken for Cahokia points that are
found in Eastern Mo and Illinois.
Jacks Reef (pg 788) – doesn’t occur here. None of the images shown are of Jacks Reed Corner
notch. They are all apple creek and late Hopewell types. Jacks Reef Corner Notch does not
occur with any frequency in this region.
Lerma (pg 793) – Description. There are two types of Lerma points. One is much earlier and
was found associate with Mammoth remains in Mexico. However, the majority of the lerma
points are much later with dates around 4000-3000 years old. You may want to make some sort
of mention of this in the description. For some reason, people (erroneously) associate Lerma
Mehlville (pg 797) description. Reads” …and droop inwards on some examples”. This is
untrue, one of the identifying traits of the Mehlville point type is the outward flaring barbs. You
also may want to make mention that they differ from the Etley in that they have narrow slightly
contracting stems, while Etley points have wider parallel to expanded stems. They are typically
mistaken for Etley and Smith points.
Motley (pg 800) – Doesn’t occur in this area. Motley are a more southern and eastern point
type, they are not found in this area. The Cupp looks almost identical and are found in the NC
area. Almost every single example shown for this area is a cupp point type.
Nebo Hill (pg 802) – Age. This is a late-archaic or early woodland point and should read 4500-
3500 b.p. instead of 7500-6000 b.p. Shippee (1948) erroneously put an early archaic date on
these points, but archaeologists believe it is a late variant of the Sedalia Complex (Perino).
North (pg 804) – Description. It’s important to put in the description (or I.D. Key) that the
widest part of the north is near the base, that way they aren’t as easily confused with Adena or
Red Ochre blades / performs.
Paleo Knife (pg 806) – commentary. Unless found in direct context, it’s often impossible to
differentiate a paleo period knife from some others. Fine flaking (parallel or otherwise) does not
in itself identify a paleo piece. If you do leave the generic “paleo knife” designation, you may
wish to consider adding more information to avoid incorrect typology and assumptions.
Pike County (pg 808) – Additional information. Pike county are often confused with other
points. To help alleviate this, you may wish to add to description that they have a fishtailed base
and small ears that kick out to the side.
Pine Tree (pg 809) – Location. For location, you may want to put that they are typically found
east of the Mississippi River. It’s really debatable if they should even be included in this region
of the publication. The only state in this region that they can be found is Illinois and even that is
a rarity. They are found in abundance more easternly and south.
Ramey Knife (pg 813) - Dates. It reads “Mid-Archaic, 5000-4000 b.p.”. It should read 1100-
700 B.P. They are a Mississippian knife and are Cahokia related.
Red Ochre (pg 814)- Dates – Reads “ mid to late archaic, 5000-3000 b.p. Should read Late
Archaic to Early Woodland, 3000 to 2400 b.p. Description – reads “similar to Wadlow” is in
error. I would suggest leaving this off, wadlow often have recurved blades.
Redstone (pg 815) I.D. Key – reads “baton or billet fluted, edgework on the hafting area. Very
Rare”. None of these things really help in identification of the point. Some of that information
should be in description instead of I.D. Key. Suggestion: widest at the base, lengthy flutes
Rice Lobed (pg 815) – considerations. Perhaps add I.D. key : Lobed base, heavily beveled after
Rice Side Notch (pg 815) – I.D. Key – Reads “ basal form”. Suggest: shallow side notches,
Scallorn (pg 820) – considerations - The Scallorn point may or may not occur up to Missouri,
it’s debatable. There is no proof that they do, as there are many other point styles that look just
like them in the area. Sequoyah point variants in Oklahoma can look just like Scallorn. In
southwest Missouri, the Sorter’s Bluff point is almost always mistaken for Scallorn. The same
goes for the Current River arrow point in SE Missouri. You may want to include at least a
disclaimer of some of this information in the description for accuracy purposes.
Sedalia (pg 825) – Description. Reads “…evolved from Nebo Hill”, is erroneous. The Nebo
Hill may in fact be in the later part of the Sedalia Complex. I would omit that part of the
Smith (pg 827) – Age. Reads “middle archaic 7000-4000 bp”. Should read Late Archaic –
4000- 3000 B.P. Description states “may appear to be basally notched..”. They ARE basally
notched, the barbs are often lost when they have been resharpened several times. The last
sentence of description should be revised to state this.
Standlee (pg 831) – Additional information – The Standlee is often confused for the Dickson
points, but they usually will have a shorter, ground stem. They are early archaic and share a may
have a relationship with the Searcy point type. They were earlier called the Rice contracting
stemmed point, while the searcy was called “Rice contracting stem serrated”. Many Standlee are
used and resharpened only at the top 1/3rd of the blade. This gives a pentagonal appearace after
they have been resharpened. This led to the erroneous naming of the “Afton Stemmed” point,
which in actuality is just a resharpened Standlee. I.D. Key reads: “ Long contracting stem”, this
is in error because not all of the stems are long. There are two varities of Standlee, one of them
having a very short, well ground, usually concave base.
Tennessee River (pg 836) – Note- reads “ a beveled edge would place your point under the cobs
triangular……..”. is confusing, because Stanfield is a variety of the Cobbs Triangular. I would
omit the last line.
Turkeytail- Fulton (pg 840) – Description. Reads “made by Adena Culture…found in Benton
Caches, etc”. I believe the description is confusing Turkeytail Fulton with Tupelo “Turkeytail”
points (which are Benton). Turkeytail have been found overlapped with the earlier Benton as
well as the later Adena. They most likely morphed from one (Tupelo Turkeytail/Benton) and
into the later (Harrison Turkeytail) Adena. Fulton points are Red Ochre culture, dating in the
3200-2500 B.P. range.
Turkeytail Hebron (pg 841) – Description - Reads “ made by adena culture”. These are made
by the Red Ochre culture and found wherever red ochre are found. However, they have been
found overlapped with the earlier Benton as well as the later Adena. They most likely morphed
from one (Tupelo Turkeytail/Benton) and into the later (Harrison Turkeytail) Location: reads”
around great lakes to new York, etc”. Should read from Kentucky to New York.
Washita (pg 843) – Description. Reads “….with a concave base”. This is untrue. There are
three varieties of Washita. The Peno variety has a concave base. The Garvin variety has a
straight base, the notches are up high on the blade and that gives the appearance of a large,
squarish base. The third variety is Chaffee. The Chaffee is a very slender and long variety that
can have concave or straight edge. There also is a “northern” variety that is found from northern
Kansas upward, but its validity is debatable as it may just be a variety of the Desert side notch
series of points. You could add a generic I.D. Key of “ small, triangular with side notches.”
Waubesa (pg 844) – Description considerations. The Waubesa point seems to be a variant of
the Dickson point and they are found generally wherever the Hopewell Dickson is. The
differences between the two is that the Waubesa has a more parallel stem that is round. Waubesa
has a wide stem that is parallel sided. Like all Hopewell points, good material is often used and
the flaking is of pretty good quality. I.D. Key: Reads “ Basal form pointed or near pointed”. A
more accurate description would be “Base is often parallel sided and rounded, sometimes
Wheeler Excurvate (pg 844). Invalid for this region. None of the wheeler points are found in
this region. McKean (such as the piece pictured) and other concave based forms are commonly
mistaken for them.