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					                        Geology 150
Everything you wanted to know about your Earth and its
   oceans. (Probably more than you wanted to know.)
               Instructor:     Eric Hovanitz
               Office:         SC-217
               Phone:          714-628-4747
               E-mail:         hovanitz_eric@sccollege.edu
               Web page:       http://www.hovanitz.com
               Office hours:   Monday: 08:00-08:30 and 11:50-13:20
                               Tuesday: 08:00-08:30 and 13:15-13:20
                               Wednesday: 08:00-08:30and 11:50-12:50
                               Thursday: 08:00-08:30 and 11:50-12:50
               Class:          TTh 10:15 to 11:40
               Room:           SC-103
               Text:           Oceanography - An Invitation to Marine Science




SCC Oceanography 150
                 Priority Textbook




SCC Oceanography 150
              Why are you here?




                  Jean Morrison - Gold

Do you have to be here? No.
Are you here to be successful? Yes. My goal is to help you achieve this goal.
          My advisor: Jean Morrison.
          56 pound gold nugget from Australia (King of the West; second
                     largest in world.)
            Your Professor
Bachelor’s and Master’s degree from Cal State
     University, Los Angeles.
Ph.D. from University of Southern California
Worked through college as a roofer. In four
years (mostly summers) put on 21 roofs.
Plumber and electrician.
Ceramist.
Dated rocks (= no kids?)
Computer programmer.
Easily bored. Really enjoy teaching.
Your Professor
          Exams and Grades
Quizzes (12; 10 points each)   100 points
Exams (3; 100 points each)     200 points
Final Exam (1; 100 points)     100 points
Total points possible          400 points


I drop your lowest three (3) quizzes and lowest
exam but not the final exam. There are no make-
up or late exams. The date of the exam will not
be changed so you can determine your appoint-
ments and vacations based on the schedule.
               Grading Continued
Your grade may be modified by up to 5% based
on class participation. Positive class participation
includes answering questions in class, coming to
office hours, and bringing interesting geology or
oceanography articles into class. Detrimental
class participation includes talking out-of-turn in
class, coming to class late, passing notes, cell
phone use (even ringing), or anything that is
disruptive to the class.
               Exams and Quizzes
Exams may consist of a combination of true/false,
multiple choice, matching, fill-in the blank, short
answer and essay questions. There is something for
everyone, no matter what your leaning style is. Please
bring a pencil and scantron 882-ES to exams.

Quizzes will take about 5 minutes and can be given
anytime after the beginning of class. Quizzes are true-
false and multiple choice. Bring a pencil and a scantron
815-E to class for quizzes.
         Attendance and Cheating
School policy states that you may be
dropped for more than 3 absences.

Cheating is not tolerated. A cheating report
will be made to the dean of students among
other penalties. You will likely receive an
“F” in this class and you may be suspended.
                  Class Etiquette
This is a college class. Please act like the college
students that you are. No talking in class, no cell
phones in class (at anytime before or after class
too), no passing notes, or other disruptive
behavior. Turn-off cell phones before entering
class. Please don’t turn them back on until you
are through the door on your way out after class.
       Accommodations for Disabilities

Students with verifiable disabilities who want to request
academic accommodations are responsible for notifying
their instructor and Disabled Student Programs and
Services (DSPS) as early as possible in the semester.
                                              Magnetite
Notice at least one week before accommodation is
required. To arrange for accommodations, contact DSPS
at (714) 628-4260, (714) 639-9742 (TTD for students who
are deaf) or stop by the DSPS Center in E-105. DO NOT
wait until exam day to inform me of your needs since
that is too late for me to help you. Before an exam, you
must send me an e-mail reminder of your exam location.
                      Tentative Class Schedule
On the last page of the syllabus. This is
tentative, except for the exam dates.

Please read the material before coming to
class. It makes understanding lecture much
easier.
       A Successful College Career

The following are a few simple suggestions to guide students in
the beginning of their college career. They are not meant to be
all-inclusive, and not all of these ideas will work for everyone.
Most should be obvious, but it will ease the conscience of your
instructor if you take a few minutes to read them over. These
suggestions for achieving your college education are based solely
on the college experience of the author and several of his friends
and relatives, any resemblance to reality is strictly coincidental.
   Economic Value of College
          Education

Education      Income
No H.S.         23,000
H.S.            30,400
A.A.            38,200
B.A.            52,200
M.A.            62,300
Professional   109,600
Ph.D.           89,400
                  Go To Class
The importance of this is often underestimated by
  beginning students. Your college instructor WILL
  NOT hound you about attending class, and you will
  probably NOT be counted off for absences like you
  were in high school. HOWEVER, regardless of what
  your instructor says, his lecture will ALWAYS be
  emphasized more than “the book”, and undoubtedly
  your grade will reflect your attendance.
            Go To Class (continued)
Be MENTALLY as well as physically present. Try and
   understand as much of the material being presented
   as possible WHILE IN CLASS. A fatal mistake is to
   rely too heavily on “the book”. Approach lecture as
   if this is the first and last time you will ever hear this
   material. Don’t converse, sleep, daydream, flirt,
   meditate or do your homework while the teacher is
   lecturing, YOUR INSTRUCTOR WILL NOTICE!
           Go To Class (continued)
Many students believe, incorrectly, that attendance is
   unnecessary and a waste of time. They are wrong.
   Most exam and quiz material is taken from lecture. If
   you didn’t attend class you won’t know the material.
   If you attend 70% of the classes and know 100% of
   the material from those classes you attend you will
   earn 70% in the class; a C-. You will NOT be able to
   make up all the material from the book like you did
   in high school. I will not give you an individual
   lecture if you miss a class. Ask a fellow student for
   class notes.
Class handouts will only be passed out one time. If you
   miss a class and a handout, ask a fellow student to
   copy the handout.
                   Take Notes


Taking good notes is a
SKILL that is developed
with experience and
practice.
Different approaches
work for different
people.
You are unlikely to pass
this class without taking
notes.
             Participate in Class
Make sure your instructor has a face to go with
  your name in the roll-book. Regardless of
  what the instructor tells you, class
  participation counts (even if it is only in the
  instructor’s sub-conscious). Don’t be afraid to
  ask questions, even if you think the answer is
  obvious to everyone else (it probably isn’t).
  However, if the instructor has just explained
  something in copious detail and you still don’t
  understand, save the question for after class. It
  is a good idea to try and see the instructor at
  least once outside of class during the term.
            Read the Directions
In my opinion, this is the single most common mistake
   college students make. It is also probably the most
   frustrating. Read ALL the instructions FIRST, before
   starting any lab work, homework, quiz or exam. You
   WILL save yourself a LOT of time and aggravation
   somewhere down the road. You may also save
   yourself a lot of those precious points on a
   homework assignment or lab project. Don’t
   underestimate the disasters that can occur to yourself
   (especially in oceanography) or your grade simply
   from not carefully following directions.

Do NOT assume you know what is being asked of you
  before reading the directions.
           Do the Assigned Work
Several successful college graduates I know live by the
   motto: “DO EVERYTHING THEY TELL YOU TO
   DO, NO MATTER HOW STUPID IT IS”.
One thing I have discovered is that it is almost always
   better to have turned in an imperfect but complete
   assignment ON TIME than to have a perfect,
   partially completed one sitting in the back seat of
   your car.
             Use the BOOK!
Invest the money in yourself and purchase the
   textbook for the course. If you have a lousy
   instructor, “the book” may be your only hope
   for getting anything out of the class. PUT
   YOUR NAME IN THE BOOK! I can’t believe
   how many people leave their $200 textbooks
   lying around the classroom.
Different people use “the book” in different ways.
   Ideally, “the book” should be read BEFORE
   the lecture material on the subject is presented.
A copy of the text is available for your use in the
   library.
                    Study for Tests
Do not to wait until the night before
  the test to begin studying—you’ll
  regret it. Don’t study while
  watching TV, listening to anything
  but classical music at low volume,
  or lying on the couch with your
  girl/boyfriend.
Assemble your paper, pencil,
  calculator, notes, books, munchies
  and go to the bathroom BEFORE
  you start to study.
                    Study for Tests
Everyone has their own system for
  studying. The system that works
  for many people involves putting
  all relevant pieces of information
  of flash-cards. Students with a
  good AUDITORY memory
  benefit from saying or explaining
  things out-loud to themselves.
  Others, like myself, would write
  out the correct answers which
  imprinted the information in my
  brain.
             Study for Tests (continued)
If possible, try to form a study group
    with your fellow students. You
    will all benefit. If one of your
    study group is a slacker, ditch
    them because they will slow you
    down. You don’t need to be nice
    to slackers.
Use the STAR Center in B-203 for
  help with study groups and extra
  credit.
               Study for Tests (continued)
I post possible exam questions on the web.
    Use them. They are for you! (Don’t
    answer the possible questions by
    guessing! I think I know the answer to
    this one.) Use your lecture PowerPoints,
    my class outline, and your textbook to
    answer the questions. IF you can’t still
    can’t determine what the correct answer
    is, please, please, please come to my
    office and I will go over the material
    with you. If, however, I find out you
    haven’t tried to answer the questions
    using your notes, book and outline, I’ll
    suggest you do these first.
                  Studying
You probably suspected SCC isn’t high school. You
attend class much less but are still expected to learn
more material per week than you did in High
School.
How is this so?
You are expected to study two to three hours
outside of class for every hour you spend in class.
This is part of a college education. Learning on
your own. You will be expected to do this for any
job that requires a college education.
           Reading in the Sciences
What is different about reading for science class?
   Lots of facts and details.
      The point isn’t to memorize lots of facts, that
      would be pointless and dull, but to be able to
      use those facts to come to make a scientific
      argument (theory.)
             For example, we know that everything
      else being equal, an increase in CO2 content in
      earth’s atmosphere will cause global
      warming. (Is everything else equal?)
  Reading in the Sciences (continued)


Lots of new vocabulary.
     Scientific vocabulary is not designed to
     make science difficult or hard. It is
     simply an easy way for scientists to
     express a long definition as a single
     word or phrase.
     A College Education

“One of the few things a person
  is willing to pay for and not
  get.”

              - William Lowe Bryan
    Value of College Education

“Perhaps the most valuable result of all
  education is the ability to make
  yourself do the thing you have to do,
  when it ought to be done, whether you
  like or not; it is the first lesson that
  ought to be learned [but] probably the
  last lesson that is learned thoroughly.”
                            -T.H. Huxley
            Insanity

Insanity: doing the same thing
  over and over again and
  expecting different results.

              -Albert Einstein
  Student’s Greatest Challenge

The reason most students do
 not finish college is that
 they don’t want to (enough.)
Yes, don’t want to put in the
 work and effort necessary to
 complete college.
        Student Challenge
Do not rationalize excuses. Like:
 It’s too hard.
 I have to work too much.
 I don’t see how this affects my
 life.
 Lack of Preparation Challenge

You must be able to read tenth
grade English.
You must be able to write tenth
grade English.
You must be able to do simple
arithmetic.
   Lack of Preparation Challenge

 Most California Community
 College students cannot read,
 write at a tenth grade level or
 do simple arithmetic.
You need to be able to do these
 things before taking this class.
Earthrise over the Moon
Dickson and Irene at Searles Lake
         Earth is an Ocean World
Earth appears blue from space. Why?
    Earth’s Surface Covered by Water
One ocean: Historically divided into many geo-
     graphic oceans, seas, and gulfs for
     convenience.

     Not truly seperated physically or chemically.
          Mixing takes place.

     Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Antarctic,
     Mediterranean, Red, Gulf of California, Gulf
     of Mexico.
              Ocean Definition
Vast body of saline water that occupies
depressions in earth’s surface.

     Saline: contains salts.
          Oceans at Human Scale
Unbelievably large surface.

     Average depth: 3796 meters (12,451 ft).
     1.37 billion km3 (329 million mi3).
     Average depth (land eroded): 2,686 m.
     Average land elevation: 840 m.

Planetary scale:

     0.02% of earth’s mass.
     0.13% of earth’s volume.
     More water in earth’s interior than oceans.
               Marine Science
Several subcategories study earth’s oceans.

     Marine geologists: focus on the rocks and
     geologic processes in ocean basins.

     Physical oceanographers: study ocean waves,
     currents and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

     Chemical oceanographers: study ocean’s
     dissolved solids and gases.
   Marine Science continued
Climate specialists: study the oceans role in
Earth’s climate and climate change.

Marine biologists: work with the nature and
distribution of marine organisms.

Marine engineer’s: design and build marine
structures. Oil platforms, ships, harbors,
breakwaters, etc.

All these disciplines work together.
        The Scientific Method
        (Theory and Society NOT how
      a scientist performs an experiment)
Science is based on the assumption that nature
  behaves in a consistent and predictable
  manner and the same physical laws operate
  everywhere.

Ideally the scientific method should produce
  something useful that benefits humans. We
  can make predictions about what will occur.
 The development of scientific
         knowledge
You can break
human laws (and
most of us have)
but you haven’t
broken the laws
of the universe.
  Step 1
The collection of scientific facts through
  observation and measurement
  (experimentation).

"Everyone has seen a falling apple. Isaac Newton
  wondered why?"
 Step 2
The development of a hypotheses, which are ideas or
  educated guesses, that can explain the observation
  (from step 1) and be tested by observation,
  experiment and/or measurement.

   "Falling is caused by the mutual attraction of matter
   for itself.” In other words, gravity.

   Can we devise a test of gravity? Yes. Hold your little
   brother at a height of 1 meter and release him. Is he
   attracted to the earth by “falling” towards earth’s
   surface? (Or does earth fall upward to meet your
   brother? Or both?)
                         Step 2b
An example of an untestable explanation for an observation.

We know that there used to be large scaly creatures (commonly
   called “dinosaurs” that once inhabited earth. Fossils of these
   creatures suddenly vanish from the rock record 65 million
   years ago. One idea for the extinction of the dinosaurs was
   that the flowering plants had evolved possibly producing
   clouds of toxic pollen such that the dinosaurs died out from
   severe allergic reactions caused by these pollens.

Is this idea testable? No. Until the development of a time machine
     this idea cannot be tested.
                        Step 2c
Is the hypothesis repeatable?

Can the observations or experiments be repeated by
   another person to verify the accuracy of the hypothesis.

This is where religion and science don’t always agree.
   Is a miracle repeatable?

The greatest early scientific organization is the the Royal
  Society of England.
                          Nullius in Verba.
                          On no man's word.
                          (Or trust no man.)
                          Motto of the Royal Society
 Step 3
Test the hypothesis.

The hypothesis is tested through observation,
   experiment and/or measurement. A single well
   designed observation, experiment and/or
   measurement may invalidate the hypothesis and
   prove it to be incorrect.
Aristotle believed that a ten kilogram (kg) weight would
   fall ten times faster than a one kg weight. Galileo
   proved that they fall at the same rate. But a feather
   does fall slower than a one kg weight! This disproves
   gravity? Why?
 Step 3b
Air friction around the tips of the feather slow the
   feather’s fall. A scientist must account for all
   variables. Air resistance (friction) was not
   recognized at the time of this experiment.


Demonstrated by
Apollo 15 astronaut.
Step 4
 With considerable testing by observation,
 experiment and/or measurement the hypothesis
 becomes a theory. In other words there is
 considerable evidence that the hypothesis is correct
 and there are no credible observations that it is
 incorrect.

 Probably the best early gravity experiment was
 performed with two identical lead weights suspended
 from a rod.

 Compare and contrast our societies definition of
 theory with the scientists. You may commonly hear:
 “Evolution is just a theory”, implying that it is simply
 a guess (hypothesis) with no evidence. Is this true?
Step 5
 With considerable testing by observation,
 experiment and/or measurement the theory can be
 advanced to a law.

 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Fg = G m1m2
                                        r2

 There have been literally billions of observations of
 gravity.
 Is this all?

 No!

 See your handout about the “Allias Effect”.
Allias Effect
Pendule de Foucault, Paris
Foucault Pendulum
Foucault Pendulum Data
Foucault Pendulum Data
         Origin of the Universe
           Earth, a small, rocky planet, orbits the
              . . . the sun, a medium sized star,
. . one of billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy, . . one of
             billions of galaxies in the universe.
          Origin of the Universe
Size of the Universe: Luminosity

 Brightness of pulsating stars – cepheid variables – was used
 to determine distance from Earth
     – Brighter stars = closer to Earth
     – Dimmer stars = farther from Earth

 Repeated measurements determined cepheid variables were
 moving away from Earth
     – Interpretation  the universe is expanding
         Origin of the Universe
Size of the Universe: Doppler Effect
 Doppler Effect: The apparent change in the
 frequency of sound waves or light waves due to
 the motion of a source relative to an observer
  – Example: change in frequency (pitch) of a siren
    from passing police car
              Origin of the Universe
   Doppler Effect Example: The change in
   frequency (pitch) of a siren from passing police car

No change in          Higher frequency     Lower frequency
frequency for sound   when sound waves     when sound waves
waves when police     are compressed for   are stretched out for
siren and observer    objects moving       objects moving away
are stationary        toward an observer   from an observer
             Origin of the Universe
 Size of the Universe: Doppler Effect

  Light on Earth is a form of solar radiation and occurs at specific
  wavelengths from 380-750 nanometers
                                                             • The color of
                                                               light from
                                                               distant stars
                                                               is stretched
                                                               (“shifted”)
                                                               toward
                                                               wavelengths
                                                               at the red
                                                               end of the
                                                               spectrum

Shorter wavelength                   Longer wavelength
          Origin of the Universe
Size of the Universe: Doppler Effect
Astronomers use the degree of “red shift” to
determine the distance to far away galaxies
  • more than 13 billion light years (distance) from Earth
     Origin of the Universe
The Big Bang Theory
• Reversing the expansion of the universe
  suggests the universe began with an
  episode of rapid expansion from a much
  more compact form
• The almost instantaneous period of rapid
  expansion is known as the Big Bang
• Within hours of the Big Bang, simple
  elements (hydrogen, helium) formed as
  subatomic particles combined
   − Hydrogen – 1 proton + 1 electron
   − Helium – 2 protons + 2 neutrons + 2 electrons
         Stars and Planets
• Just 3 elements – hydrogen, oxygen,
  carbon - make up 90% of the human body
  (by weight)
   – Five more – nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus,
     potassium, sulfur – make up 9% more
   – Small amounts of many other elements needed
     for life

• Hydrogen formed soon after the Big Bang
• Other elements and complex compounds
  formed during the life cycle of stars
          Stars and Planets
• Gravity pulled together irregular clouds of
  gas and dust generated from the Big Bang
  to form galaxies (systems of stars)




                                          Stars and
                                          galaxies in a
                                          small section of
                                          the universe.
                                          Image taken by
                                          Hubble space
                                          telescope
                         Stars and Planets
                                               • Gas and dust material
                                                 clumped together to
                                                 form millions of stars
                                                 (ongoing process)
                                                  − Very high temperatures
                                                    and pressures in the
                                                    interiors of stars fuses
                                                    hydrogen atoms
                                                    together – nuclear
                                                    fusion – to form helium
                                                  − Some stars burn out
                                                    when hydrogen is used
False color image from NASA Spitzer Space           up. Others can fuse
telescope showing cool gas and dust that are        elements up to iron
incubators for new stars.
                                                    (Fe)
                         Stars and Planets
                                          • Giant stars collapse over
                                            multiple stages, initially
                                            forming red supergiant
                                            stars
                                             − Collapse forms increasingly
                                               complex elements (e.g.,
                                               carbon  oxygen)

                                          • Final stage is a massive
                                            explosion – supernova –
                                            that fuses elements together
                                            forming elements heavier
Kepler’s supernova. Astronomer Kepler
noted the appearance of a new star (the
                                            than iron and blasts them
supernova) on October 9, 1604.              through the universe
               Stars and Planets

• When stars form they are surrounded by a
  rotating disk of cosmic debris
• Gravity pulls debris together to form planets that
  revolve in a consistent direction around star
   − Heavier, rocky planets closer to star
   − Lighter, gas-rich planets farther from star

• Potentially thousands or millions of extra-solar
  planets revolve around other stars
                     Our Solar System

                                • Solar system - sun and
                                  surrounding planets
                                • Sun = 99.8% of total mass
        Sunspots – dark spots     of the solar system
          on surface of sun
                                   − Sun 150,000,000 km from
                                     Earth




Solar
flare
             Our Solar System

• The solar wind is a stream of charged particles
  emitted from sun’s magnetic field (1,600,000 km/hr)
• The solar wind affects an volume of space known
  as the heliosphere
• Earth’s magnetic field deflects the solar wind
           Our Solar System

Aurora from Earth    • Interactions of solar wind
                       with Earth’s magnetic
                       field generates aurora in
                       the upper atmosphere of
                       polar regions
                     • Occasional solar
                       eruptions can disrupt
Aurora from space
                       Earth’s magnetic field to
                       produce electrical
                       blackouts
                        − Satellites in greater
                          danger from solar flares
                          than features on surface
Our Solar System


              Eight Planets
              • 4 terrestrial planets
                (Mercury, Venus,
                Earth, Mars)
              • Jovian planets
                (Jupiter, Saturn,
                Uranus, Neptune)
               Our Solar System

What about Pluto?
• Improved technology resulted in recent discoveries
  of several distant objects that were similar size or
  larger than Pluto
• International Astronomical Union (IAU) could either
   1. Consider the new objects as new planets
                                OR
   2. Classify the new objects – and Pluto – as a new group of
      objects

• IAU chose option #2
                       Pluto
What about Pluto?
• IAU adopted a new definition of the term planet:
  A planet is an object that orbits a star and is
  massive enough (~400 km radius) for gravity to pull
  its material into an approximately spherical shape.
  A planet would have cleared the neighborhood
  around its orbit.
• Pluto does not meet the last part of the definition
  and was considered a founding member of a new
  class of objects - dwarf planets
                   Our Solar System
Terrestrial Planets
• Composed of rocks
• Divided into compositional layers
  − Crust – composed of lighter
    elements (e.g., silicon, oxygen)
  − Mantle
  − Core – composed of heavier
    elements (e.g., iron, nickel) found in
    metallic meteorites




                                             The Good Earth, Chapter 2: Earth in Space
                Our Solar System

Jovian Planets
• Large, gas giants
• Much of the volume of the
  planets is a thick atmosphere
  overlying oceans of liquid gases
• Characterized by many moons                       Jupiter and four of
                                                    its largest moons.
  and ring systems


                           Saturn’s ring system.
                           The gravitational pull
                           of the moon’s keep
                           the ring systems in
                           place.
The Unique Composition of Earth

               Earth shares many
               features with other
               planets, so what
               makes it so special?

               • Liquid water
               • Gravity and a
                 protective atmosphere
               • Life-sustaining gases
               • A strong magnetic field
The Unique Composition of Earth
                   Earth’s size is sufficient
                   to produce enough
                   gravity to hold a thick
                   atmosphere of gases
                   in place

                    Atmosphere protects
                      us from:
                    • Incoming small
                      asteroids/comets
                    • Harmful solar radiation
                      (x-rays, UV)
The Unique Composition of Earth

   Earth’s biosphere has altered the
   composition of the atmosphere to add
   oxygen and extract toxic carbon dioxide


Atmosphere composition effects temperature:
− Higher carbon dioxide content on Venus produces
  temperatures of 464oC
The Unique Composition of Earth

  Composition of Earth’s atmosphere just
  right to absorb enough heat to keep
  average temperature of 15oC

   Greenhouse effect:
   − Water vapor, carbon dioxide (0.038%)
     gases absorb heat
   − Without greenhouse effect, temperatures
     would be -18oC
The Unique Composition of Earth

  Earth’s magnetic field protects Earth
  from harmful solar wind that would strip
  away atmosphere
  Magnetic field due to molten rocks in
  the outer core and relatively rapid
  planetary rotation:
   − Smaller planets or slowly rotating planets
     have lost heat and have weak magnetic
     fields
                     Earth’s Moon
Four theories for Moon formation:
      Fission: Rapid spin spun moon from Pacific Ocean.
             Improbable.
      Capture: Moon formed elsewhere in solar system but
            was gravitationally captured. Improbable.
      Condensation: Moon condensed close to earth in solar
           nebula formation. Improbable.
      Giant Impactor: Mars-sized body (Theia) impacted
             Earth 50 million years after initial formation. Best
             accounts for Earth-Moon characteristics.
Earth’s Moon

				
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