Docstoc
EXCLUSIVE OFFER FOR DOCSTOC USERS
Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure

Document Sample
Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Powered By Docstoc
					          Bowen Abbot Point
Accommodation and Community
         Infrastructure Study
                                      Final Report


                Whitsunday Regional Council and
         Department of Infrastructure and Planning

                                        April 2010
                                                                   This Report has been prepared for:


                                                        Whitsunday Regional Council and

                                        Department of Infrastructure and Planning


Disclaimer
The material published in this report is distributed by the Queensland Government and Whitsunday
Regional Council as an information source only.

The Queensland Government and the Whitsunday Regional Council make no statements,
representations, or warranties about the accuracy, completeness or reliability of, and you should not
rely on, any information contained in this report. You should make your own inquiries and obtain
advice specific to your particular circumstances.

The Queensland Government and the Whitsunday Regional Council disclaim all responsibility and all
liability (including without limitation, liability in negligence) for all expenses, losses (including direct
and indirect losses), damages and costs you may incur as a result of the information in this report
being inaccurate or incomplete in any way, and for any reason.


                                                                        This report has been prepared by:




                                                                 SGS Economics and Planning Pty Ltd
                                                                                          ACN 007 437 729


                                                                              Level 9, 269 Wickham Street
                                                                                       BRISBANE QLD 4006


                                                                                       P: + 61 7 3024 9026
                                                                                       F: + 61 7 3124 9031


                                                                                  E: sgsbne@sgsep.com.au
                                                                                  W:    www.sgsep.com.au



                                       Offices in Brisbane, Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney


Disclaimer
This report has been prepared by SGS Economics and Planning Pty Ltd, on behalf of the Queensland
Government and the Whitsunday Regional Council. Any representation, statement, opinion or advice
expressed or implied in this publication is made in good faith. SGS Economics and Planning is not
liable to any person or entity for any damage or loss that has or may occur in relation to that person
or entity taking or not taking action in respect of any representation, statement, opinion or advice
referred to above.
                                                                                           Table of Contents


Executive Summary .................................................................... i

Purpose and Objectives ........................................................................................................i
Summary of Issues Impacting on the Provision of Accommodation and Community Infrastructure . ii
Groups Requiring Accommodation and Community Infrastructure............................................. iv
Recommended Principles ..................................................................................................... v
Demand Estimates for Accommodation Needs in the Bowen Region ......................................... viii
Current and Likely Future Supply of Accommodation ............................................................... x
Future Requirements for Accommodation and Potential of Existing Land to Fill Gaps..................... x
Existing Community Infrastructure ..................................................................................... xii
Recommended Community Infrastructure Provision...............................................................xiii
Community Infrastructure Gaps ........................................................................................ xvii
Recommended Responses to Address the Accommodation & Community Infrastructure Gaps .... xviii
Conclusion .................................................................................................................... xxiii


1       Introduction ....................................................................... 1

1.1     Purpose and Objectives .............................................................................................. 1
1.2     Study Area ............................................................................................................... 1
1.3     Project Method .......................................................................................................... 4
1.4     Structure of this Report .............................................................................................. 6


2       Demo grap hic Contex t ........................................................... 7

2.1     Population ................................................................................................................ 7
2.2     Economy and Employment .......................................................................................... 7
2.3     Housing and Accommodation ...................................................................................... 9
2.4     Summary of Demographics ....................................................................................... 17


3       Stra tegic Context an d Planning Po licy .................................. 18

3.1     Northern Economic Triangle ...................................................................................... 18
3.2     Abbot Point State Development Area .......................................................................... 18
3.3     Potential Major Projects ............................................................................................ 19
3.4     Summary of Strategic Context................................................................................... 21
3.5     Planning Context ..................................................................................................... 22
3.6     Key Challenges Noted through Consultation................................................................. 27
3.7     Summary of Key Issues and Challenges ...................................................................... 30


4       Backg round R esear ch a nd Re comme nded Planning Pr incip le s .. 33

4.1     Background Research ............................................................................................... 34
4.2     State Development Areas and the Demand for Temporary Accommodation ...................... 40
4.3     Recommendations for Worker Accommodation ............................................................. 41
4.4     General Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Principles .................................. 43
4.5     Summary of Accommodation Planning Recommendations for Bowen Abbot Point .............. 50




Final Report
                                                                                         Table of Contents

5      Accommodation Supply Analysis .......................................... 52

5.1    Supply of Accommodation for Residents and Operational Workers................................... 52
5.2    Supply of Accommodation for Temporary Construction Workers ..................................... 53
5.3    Supply of Accommodation for Tourists and Seasonal Workers ........................................ 54
5.4    Supply of Land for Residential Purposes ...................................................................... 55
5.5    Accommodation Supply Summary .............................................................................. 65


6      A ccommoda tion Dema nd Ana ly sis ......................................... 67

6.1    Demand for Residential Accommodation ..................................................................... 67
6.2    Demand for Construction Worker Accommodation ........................................................ 71
6.3    Demand for Tourist Accommodation ........................................................................... 73
6.4    Demand for Seasonal Worker Accommodation ............................................................. 75
6.5    Accommodation Demand Summary ............................................................................ 76


7      Gap Analysis and Land Capacity Analysis .............................. 78

7.1    Gap Analysis ........................................................................................................... 78
7.2    Land Capacity and Yield Analysis ............................................................................... 84
7.3    Summary of Accommodation Requirements & Ability for Existing Area to Meet Needs ........ 88


8      Pot e nt i al Re spo nse s & R e com m e nd a t io ns t o A d d r e ss t he
       Accommodation Gaps .......................................................... 91

8.1    Process for Addressing the Gaps ................................................................................ 91
8.2    Possible Solutions & Recommendations for Fulfilling Gaps in Temporary Workers’
       Accommodation ...................................................................................................... 97
8.3    Possible Solutions & Recommendations for Fulfilling Residents and Permanent Resident
       Operational Worker Accommodation Requirements ....................................................... 99
8.4    Possible Solutions & Recommendations for Fulfilling Tourists and Seasonal Worker
       Accommodation Needs ........................................................................................... 103
8.5    Other Recommendations that would benefit the long term sustainability of Bowen .......... 104


9      Community Inf rastructu re Supply Analysis ......................... 106

9.1    Guidelines Plans & Policies ...................................................................................... 106
9.2    Investment in Infrastructure ................................................................................... 106
9.3    Funding for Facilities .............................................................................................. 107
9.4    Funding for Services .............................................................................................. 107
9.5    Funding for Networks and Events ............................................................................. 107


10     Existing Supply of Community Infrastructure ...................... 108

10.1 Summary Analysis of the Hierarchy of Provision in the Study Area ................................ 108
10.2 Summary Analysis of Types and Capacity of Community Infrastructure by Location......... 109


11     Community Infrastructure Need Analysis ............................ 115




Final Report
                                                                                         Table of Contents

11.1 Existing Community Infrastructure Needs.................................................................. 115
11.2 Future Community Infrastructure Needs ................................................................... 115


12      Pot entia l Re sponse s and Re comm enda tio ns to Add re ss C ommuni ty
        Infrastructure Gaps ................ .......................................... 132

12.1 Gaps in Community Infrastructure Provision .............................................................. 132
12.2 Future Requirements.............................................................................................. 133
12.3 Responding to the Needs of Non-Resident (Visiting) Populations ................................... 136
12.4 Strategy Areas ...................................................................................................... 136


13      Co nclusion ....................................................................... 148

Appendix A – PIFU Demographic Report .................................... 156

Appendix B – Planning Context ................................................ 157

Housing System Roles and Responsibilities ........................................................................ 157
Federal and State Frameworks and Strategies .................................................................... 158
Queensland Government Sustainable Resource Communities Policy ....................................... 158
A Sustainable Future Framework for Queensland Mining Towns ............................................. 159
Whitsunday Hinterland & Mackay Regional Plan .................................................................. 159
Whitsunday Regional Council/Bowen Planning Scheme ........................................................ 164
Housing Needs Assessment for the Bowen - Collinsville Region ............................................. 164


Appendix C – Ba ckground Research .......................................... 166

Key Issues from Research ............................................................................................... 166
Planning for Temporary Accommodation ............................................................................ 167
Whitsunday Regional Council Community Consultation Summary .......................................... 170


App end ix D – A ccommoda tion A udit .......................................... 172

Append ix E – Constraints Mapping ............................................ 173

Appendix F – Profile of Affordable Housing Levers ..................... 209

Housing Market Efficiency ....................................................... 209

Housing Finance............................................................................................................. 209
Planning and Infrastructure ............................................................................................. 213
Land Supply .................................................................................................................. 215
Other Housing Market Efficiency ....................................................................................... 217


Affordable Hous ing Ma rket Efficiency ....................................... 219

Supply Side Subsidies ................ ............................................. 220




Final Report
                                                                                             Table of Contents

Tax Based Subsidies ....................................................................................................... 220
Other Subsidies and Transfers.......................................................................................... 224


Demand Side Subs i dies ........................................................... 229

Taxation concessions / incentives for low-moderate income homebuyers. ............................... 229
Taxation concessions / incentives for low-moderate income renters. ...................................... 232


Fund Raising Regula tory or Ta x Measures ................................. 234

Mandated Use or Management of Funds ............................................................................ 234
Development Related Contributions .................................................................................. 235
Other Contributions or Levies ........................................................................................... 238


Ethical Investment and Benevolence ........................................ 239

References ............................................................................ 242


List of Tables


Table 1.       Summary of Accommodation Demand, Bowen, 2009-2015 ....................................... ix
Table 2.       Summary of Accommodation Supply, Bowen, 2009 - 2015 ...................................... 10
Table 3.       Summary of Maximum Accommodation Shortfall and Corresponding Land Requirements11
Table 4.       Summary of Available Land Area and Development Yields ....................................... xii
Table 5.       Recommended Local Community Infrastructure Provision........................................xiv
Table 6.       Recommended District Community Infrastructure Provision .....................................xvi
Table 7.       Housing Types, 2006 ........................................................................................... 9
Table 8.       Overview of Worker Accommodation Providers ...................................................... 38
Table 9.       Estimates of Accommodation Supply for Residents and Operational Workers (2008 – 2015)
               ...................................................................................................................... 52
Table 10. Construction Worker Accommodation Status and Summary ..................................... 53
Table 11. Accommodation Supply for Construction Workers .................................................. 54
Table 12. Supply of Accommodation for Tourists and Seasonal Workers .................................. 54
Table 13. New Land Estates.............................................................................................. 58
Table 14. New Residential Developments............................................................................ 59
Table 15. Unallocated State Land Recommended for Urban Residential Use ............................. 62
Table 16. Summary of Accommodation Supply, 2009 - 2015 ................................................. 65
Table 17. Resident Population and Dwelling Projections for Bowen, 2009-2015 ........................ 70
Table 18. Non-resident Construction Worker Dwelling Projections for Bowen, 2009-2015........... 71
Table 19. Tourist Population and Rooms/Beds Projections for Bowen, 2009 - 2015 ................... 74
Table 20. Seasonal Worker Projections for Bowen Shire from 2009 to 2015 ............................. 75
Table 21. Dwelling Projections for each Demand Scenario Bowen, 2009-2015 .......................... 77
Table 22. Accommodation Supply Summary, 2009-2015 ...................................................... 78
Table 23. Accommodation Demand Summary Scenario A, 2009-2015 ..................................... 78
Table 24. Accommodation Demand Summary Scenario D, 2009-2015 .................................... 78
Table 25. Gap Analysis Results for Dwelling/accommodation Units ......................................... 80
Table 26. Accommodation and Land Requirements............................................................... 84




Final Report
                                                                                   Table of Contents

Table 27. Available Land Area and Dwelling Yields ............................................................... 85
Table 28. Community infrastructure types, by location (Bowen District) ................................ 113
Table 29. Likely future need for local level infrastructure (2011, 2016) ................................. 117
Table 30. Likely future need for district level infrastructure (2011, 2016) .............................. 126
Table 31. Social Infrastructure Goals ............................................................................... 161
Table 32. Settlement Pattern Goals ................................................................................. 162
Table 33. Temporary Accommodation Audit for Bowen ....................................................... 172


List of Figures


Figure 1. Map of Bowen and Urban Centre/Localities - Study Area 1 and 2 ................................ 3
Figure 2. Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study Method ................................... 4
Figure 3. Employment by Industry, Bowen and Queensland, 2006 ........................................... 8
Figure 4. Dwelling Density – Dwellings per Hectare ............................................................. 11
Figure 5. House Sales Prices for Bowen and other Towns/Cities, 2002-2008 ............................ 13
Figure 6. House Sales Data for Bowen, Merinda & Collinsville Localities, 2002-2008 ................. 14
Figure 7. Land Sales Data for Bowen and other Towns/Cities, 2002-2008 ............................... 15
Figure 8. Land Sales Data for Bowen, Merinda & Collinsville Localities, 2002-2008 ................... 16
Figure 9. Bowen Shire Planning Scheme Map – Bowen and Merinda ....................................... 56
Figure 10.        Bowen Shire Planning Scheme – Collinsville .................................................... 57
Figure 11.        Urban Residential Unallocated State Land....................................................... 61
Figure 12.        Population change: PIFU Scenario comparisons ............................................... 69
Figure 13.        Population change: PIFU Scenario and SGS adopted comparisons ...................... 70
Figure 14.        Non-resident construction labour force........................................................... 73
Figure 15.        Land Capacity Analysis Summary – All Constraints, Bowen and Merinda ............. 86
Figure 16.        Land Capacity Analysis Summary – All Constraints, Collinsville .......................... 87
Figure 17.        Community Infrastructure Priorities (Bowen District)...................................... 137
Figure 18.        Airport and Seaport Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda ............................. 175
Figure 19.        Airport and Seaport Constraints, Collinsville ................................................. 176
Figure 20.        Good Quality Agricultural Land Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda .............. 178
Figure 21.        Good Quality Agricultural Land Constraints, Collinsville................................... 179
Figure 22.        Industrial Zoned Land Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda.......................... 181
Figure 23.        Industrial Zoned Land Constraints, Collinsville .............................................. 182
Figure 24.        Special Purpose Zoned Land Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda ................. 183
Figure 25.        Special Purpose Zoned Land Constraints, Collinsville ...................................... 184
Figure 26.        Tourism Residential Zone Land Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda ............. 185
Figure 27.        Tourism Residential Zone Land Constraints, Collinsville .................................. 186
Figure 28.        Non-Sub dividable Residential Lots, Bowen and Merinda ................................. 187
Figure 29.        Non-Sub dividable Residential Lots, Collinsville ............................................. 188
Figure 30.        Heritage Areas Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda ................................... 190
Figure 31.        Heritage Areas Constraints, Collinsville ........................................................ 191
Figure 32.        State Public Housing Land Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda .................... 192
Figure 33.        State Public Housing Land Constraints, Collinsville ......................................... 193
Figure 34.        Acid Sulphate Soil Constraints, Bowen and Merinda ....................................... 195
Figure 35.        Acid Sulphate Soil Constraints, Collinsville .................................................... 196
Figure 36.        Flooding Constraints, Bowen and Merinda .................................................... 197
Figure 37.        Flooding Constraints, Collinsville ................................................................. 198




Final Report
                                                                                 Table of Contents

Figure 38.     Vegetation Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda ......................................... 199
Figure 39.     Vegetation Constraints, Collinsville .............................................................. 200
Figure 40.     Business Zone, Bowen Town and Merinda .................................................... 202
Figure 41.     Business Zone, Collinsville ......................................................................... 203
Figure 42.     Strata Title Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda ........................................ 204
Figure 43.     Strata Title Constraints, Collinsville ............................................................. 205
Figure 44.     Road and Rail Constraints, Bowen Town and Merinda ..................................... 207
Figure 45.     Road and Rail Corridor Constraints, Collinsville.............................................. 208




Final Report
                                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Executive Summary
In May 2009, SGS Economics and Planning Pty Ltd                                          Expansion of the Abbot Point port facilities
(SGS) was commissioned to complete the Bowen                                             (including a Multi-Cargo Facility);
Abbot   Point      Accommodation             and         Community                       Goonyella     to    Abbot    Point     Expansion
Infrastructure Study.             The Bowen Abbot Point                                  (Missing Link) rail project (Q-Rail);
Accommodation           and     Community           Infrastructure                       Water for Bowen project (SunWater);
Study   is   a    collaborative          effort     between       the                    132 KVA Collinsville to Bowen power line
Department of Infrastructure and Planning (DIP)                                          project (PowerLink); and
and Whitsunday Regional Council (WRC). SGS was                                           Export of coal from the Galilee Basin
commissioned        to    build      upon         previous     work                      (Waratah Coal and Hancock Prospecting)
completed by several consultants. This report also                                       to Abbot Point.
incorporates       key        elements       of      a     separate
Community        Infrastructure          Report     prepared       by      Managing the impacts of these projects on existing
Anita Egginton.         It is intended that the separate                   industries and communities is an important part of
Community Infrastructure Report will be a valuable                         ensuring the success of these projects and their
resource for detailed implementation of community                          contribution to economic prosperity at the local,
infrastructure recommendations.                                            state and national level.


                                                                           It should be noted that the inclusion of any project
Purpose and Objectives
                                                                           in this document does not imply State Government
                                                                           or Council support for the project, nor does it imply
The purpose of the study was to determine the                              any commitment to them proceeding. Furthermore,
accommodation           and     community           infrastructure         the State Government or Council is not bound to
needs within       the Bowen             Abbot Point        Region,        fulfil    any    of   the   community      infrastructure    or
associated       with     large     scale         industrial      and      accommodation requirements as nominated in this
infrastructure development. The study area is the                          report.
pre-amalgamated local government area (LGA) of
the former Bowen Shire, and specifically the urban                         The purpose of the accommodation and community
localities of Bowen, Merinda, and Collinsville. The                        infrastructure study is to address these areas of
Bowen Abbot Point Region is within the strategic                           significant potential impact and ensure solutions
location of the Northern Economic Triangle and                             can be found that are acceptable to stakeholders.
includes the Abbot Point State Development Area
(SDA). The need for the study arose due to the                             The objectives of the study were to:
potential for a number of large scale industrial and                                1.   Identify      the     accommodation           and
infrastructure projects to be developed over the                                         community infrastructure needs of major
short, medium and long-term in the Bowen Abbot                                           project workers as well as all groups
Point area, and particularly in the SDA. The                                             within the community;
projects being considered in this study include:                                    2.   Identify      any     issues     relating      to
                                                                                         accommodation         and       meeting       the
         Abbot      Point       Coal      Terminal        stage    3                     accommodation needs of existing and
         expansion (X50);                                                                new     residents    (both     temporary      and
         Abbot      Point       Coal      Terminal        stage    4                     permanent);
         expansion (X110);                                                          3.   Identify existing and future community
         Proposed Chalco Alumina Refinery within                                         infrastructure      needs      using     existing
         the SDA;




Final Report                      P. i
                                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




             knowledge of supply & need, as well as                          be done without impacting on other groups
             agreed population growth scenarios;                             within the community, and in a manner which
        4.   Identification of gaps in current & future                      continues to sustain the community should the
             supply    and        identify     approaches       to           population      decline     (e.g.     following        major
             providing community infrastructure needs                        project’s     construction      phases).                  The
             and service provision for large scale                           significant     and    time      specific        population
             industrial projects;                                            increases (and decreases) expected from the
        5.   Identify lead agency responsibility for                         construction workers required in the region are
             detailed planning and delivery of facilities                    expected to result in an increase and decrease
             and services                                                    of    some    additional     40%          from   the     base
        6.   Provide broad principles for planning for                       population at any one time in the region (even
             these     needs       as      well     as    specific           accounting for the fly in fly out phenomenon.
             recommendations for the Bowen Abbot                             This large change in population will be a
             Point study area; and,                                          significant issue for the region and all impacts
        7.   Suggest      potential        solutions      to   be            will need to be considered carefully.                 Housing
             considered      in    the     resolution     of   the           solutions to account for these sharp increases
             identified accommodation and community                          and     decreases         cannot      only       rely       on
             infrastructure issues.                                          accommodation         within    the        existing     urban
                                                                             footprint, but must include land that is able to
                                                                             be commissioned and decommissioned at short
Summary of Issues
                                                                             notice without negatively impacting on the
Impacting on the Provision                                                   existing community.            Throughout the study
of Accommodation and                                                         process, areas that were considered suitable
Community Infrastructure                                                     for hosting workers accommodation while still
                                                                             adding value to the existing community have

The following issues were identified as having a                             been identified.

significant impact upon the accommodation and
community infrastructure situation in the study                              Infrastructure will be required to support

area.                                                                        growth – Given the potential for significant
                                                                             growth in population, urban and community

    Population growth impacts from major                                     infrastructure     provision       will     be   a     critical

    infrastructure           projects         and    industrial              component of ensuring a sustainable and

    expansion – will add to the existing pressures                           economically prosperous future. Assessments

    placed on the region for accommodation and                               of the urban infrastructure currently in place in

    infrastructure provision.             Due to the size and                the Bowen Region indicate that these systems

    timing of the major projects proposed in the                             are already at capacity, particularly the water

    region, population growth is not likely to                               and    sewerage       networks.             In   terms      of

    increase in a consistent and predictable way                             community infrastructure there are current

    over the next 5-10 years. The region is likely                           needs for health services and facilities and

    to see significant increases and decreases in                            aged care.       Additional community and hard

    population due to the commencement and                                   infrastructure will be required if additional

    cessation of the construction requirements of                            population is to be accommodated.                         Key

    major projects and operating staff associated                            requirements of this study and potential future

    with these developments.                 Additional resident             investigations will be to find cost effective

    and non-resident workers and their families                              solutions that are acceptable and in line with

    need to be adequately housed, and provided                               Council’s standards.        Ensuring that costs are

    with community infrastructure. This needs to                             attributed fairly and equitably amongst the




Final Report                      P. ii
                                                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




    beneficiaries        likely      to       gain        from     the           PIA should be assessed to determine the
    development          occurring           is     also      a    key           augmentation            required       to      the     existing
    consideration.                                                               infrastructure should the expected additional
                                                                                 population within the community result.                        A
    Identification of land use requirements                                      related requirement will be that the Planning
    for social infrastructure and services – In                                  Scheme is adequately updated to ensure that
    addition to “hard” infrastructure, provision                                 the development assessment processes include
    needs      to   be     made        for        the     social   and           appropriate        ‘tests’       and        ‘social      impact
    community            infrastructure              to       support            assessments’        such        that     future        workers’
    population increase arising from major projects                              accommodation include appropriate levels of
    and industrial expansion.               These facilities and                 amenity,          facilities,          and        community
    services could be provided at a basic level to                               infrastructure.          Changes         to    the     planning
    provide essential infrastructure or may be                                   scheme will take some time to implement and
    provided at a higher level to make the study                                 therefore consideration should be given to
    area an attractive place to live and invest.                                 possible interim measures.


    Priority Infrastructure Planning using a                                     Good quality agricultural land should be
    Regulated              Infrastructure                   Charges              protected - The good quality agricultural land
    Schedule (PIPRICS) should be reviewed                                        within the Bowen Region is significant, not just
    to ensure that the Priority Infrastructure                                   for   the      region,    but    for     Queensland           and
    Area (PIA) can appropriately service the                                     Australia. The soils within the area are some
    expected growth for the next 10 to 15                                        of the richest and most diverse in Queensland,
    years – Council have a draft PIPRICS in place,                               and     cannot     be    replicated         elsewhere.         In
    which demarcates a PIA. The PIA is an area                                   addition, given the drought in other growing
    that shows where growth can be serviced with                                 areas     of    Australia,      such     as     Victoria,     the
    regards to water, sewerage, storm water,                                     importance of the land in the Bowen Region
    transport and community infrastructure over                                  becomes even more significant.                    The Bowen
    the next 10 to 15 years.                  The investigations                 District Growers Association has indicated that
    completed as part of the study have shown                                    they have had enquiries from several growers
    that there will be land required external to the                             in Victoria interested in learning more about
    currently demarcated PIA. This is particularly                               the Bowen region.             Therefore the agricultural
    the     case     for     the       temporary             workers’            sectors     remain       an    important        part    of    the
    accommodation           areas,           expected         to    be           economy for the region, for Queensland and
    necessary       to     ensure          that      projects      can           also for Australia and therefore must be
    adequately house the expected number of                                      protected.           The        expansion         of     urban
    construction workers that are likely to flow to                              development         should         not        encroach       into
    the region for certain periods.                     These areas              productive agricultural areas that have long
    should be included in the PIA if they are                                    term sustainable potential for agriculture.
    appropriately zoned (i.e. for urban purposes).
    This will also required the development of
    plans for infrastructure that will adequately
    service these areas.            It should be noted that
    the approval of development outside of the PIA                               Challenges                    associated                     with
    is allowed, and can be conditioned to pay the                                accommodating seasonal workers – The
    cost of additional trunk infrastructure required                             agricultural industry is currently the largest
    (under an infrastructure cost assessment).                                   employer in Bowen, employing approximately
    Also, infrastructure systems within the existing                             22 per cent of the resident population.                        In




Final Report                      P. iii
                                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




    addition to these employees, there are a large                            housing and rental accommodation in the
    number of workers who come to Bowen as                                    region is a pressing issue for many sectors of
    temporary workers during the picking season.                              the    community,          particularly    for   seasonal
    The need to accommodate seasonal workers is                               workers, low income and other disadvantaged
    an existing and ongoing accommodation issue                               sectors.     There is a need for better use of
    that will only be exacerbated by the expected                             existing urban land to provide a diversity of
    influx of major project workers. The seasonal                             housing types such that pricing options can
    workers are often international backpackers                               better     match     the    workforce      mix   of    both
    undertaking the work to gain an extension on                              residents and non-residents.              This presents a
    their visa or skilled migrants brought in from                            significant challenge for the region, and while
    overseas specifically to undertake this work.                             some solutions are posed within the report,
    Alternatively, they may be workers that travel                            frequent monitoring and assessment will be
    up and down the coast following the harvesting                            required to ensure that these sectors are being
    and picking seasons for different crops. The                              adequately housed into the future.
    accommodation needs of these workers tend
    to      be         affordable,          communal         living
                                                                          Groups Requiring
    arrangements            such    as     backpacker      hostels
    (which       are    particularly       popular),      camping,
                                                                          Accommodation and
    cabins,        caravans          and         shared      rental       Community Infrastructure
    accommodation.            Anecdotal information from
    real estate agents indicates that in some share                       The accommodation needs of people in the Bowen
    accommodation situations, it is not uncommon                          area and those that may be attracted to the region
    for up to 15 people to share one house, in a                          for work within the major projects are expected to
    bid to minimise housing costs.                     From the           vary depending on a range of factors. Factors such
    Consultant Team’s perspective this type of                            as employment type, desired tenure of dwellings,
    solution is not considered desirable.                        The      household      and   family      structure,     income     and
    backpacker hostels act as a link between                              accommodation preferences will all impact on the
    workers and employers by organising work for                          accommodation        and       community        infrastructure
    backpackers and transportation to the farms.                          needs of the existing and future population.               This
    Given        the     nature       of     the     work,       the      report has identified the following three distinct
    accommodation requirements of these workers                           groups for analysing demand for accommodation
    is   very          seasonal.      During        consultation,         and community infrastructure:
    proprietors        of   hostels        and   caravan     parks
    advised that during picking season they are                                1. Residents and operational workers - It
    almost constantly at capacity but in the off-                                   is   assumed         that   operational       workers
    season they usually close for up to 3 months                                    brought into the area will be integrated
    due to lack of demand.                  The seasonality of                      with the existing residential community
    demand        limits     the     financial     feasibility    of                and that both residents and long term
    increasing the numbers of rooms or attracting                                   operational workers will generally prefer
    new entrants into the market. The community                                     separate houses, semi-detached dwellings,
    facilities needs of this group must also be                                     flats and houses or flats attached to a
    considered especially in terms of attracting                                    shop/office.     Affordable         housing     (both
    these workers to the area.                                                      rental and for purchase) will also be
                                                                                    important      to      a    proportion     of    this
    Provision of a diverse range of housing                                         population.      It is further assumed that
    options for both residents and the non-                                         while some of the operational workers will
    resident population – Access to affordable                                      be sourced from the resident population,




Final Report                       P. iv
                                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




         others will be attracted to the region.                         and recommendations for Bowen/Abbot Point were
         Both residents and operational workers                          developed by the Consultant Team.                       The following
         will be expected to have the greatest                           recommendations for the supply of accommodation
         demand for a broad range of community                           and    community          infrastructure        in     Bowen       were
         facilities;                                                     suggested:


     2. Construction workers - It is assumed                             Accommodation
         that, apart from a portion drawn from the
         local residential community, the majority                             Accommodation provision in Bowen should
         of these workers will be attracted from                               ensure       that      permanent          and         temporary
         elsewhere           and      require      short        term           residents (including tourists, seasonal workers,
         accommodation.                   Many         can        be           construction workers, operational workers and
         accommodated in single person quarters                                residents) have access to the full range of
         (SPQ) accommodation (termed temporary                                 community services as outlined in Chapter 11.
         workers’ accommodation throughout the
         report). However consideration should be                              Temporary workers’ accommodation should be
         given to the provision of housing for                                 located      in   close     proximity       to     the     Bowen
         couples and families within this group. It                            locality.    This will ensure that good outcomes
         is important that adequate community                                  for         economic             prosperity,             amenity
         facilities are provided for this group, either                        considerations and the potential for community
         as part of workers “camps” or nearby                                  cohesion occur.
         communities.          The        duration       of     peak
         demand for accommodation for this group                               The         location        of       temporary             worker
         is quite short and precedes the sharp rise                            accommodation               will       need           additional
         in demand for longer term residents.                                  infrastructure         to    adequately            service     it,
                                                                               regardless of its location, given that Bowen
     3. Tourists and seasonal workers - The                                    locality is already at capacity. This should
         tourists      and         seasonal       workers        are           include at least water reticulation, sewerage,
         assumed        to     prefer        similar    types      of          power,        telecommunications,                 roads,     and
         accommodation             which      includes        motels,          community facilities.              Locations that can be
         caravan parks, backpacker hostels, holiday                            more         efficiently         serviced         should       be
         apartments and cabins. Seasonal workers                               encouraged, as well as consideration of the
         are assumed to take up the vast majority                              ability to make use of new infrastructure
         of this group as tourism, although on the                             following the closure of temporary uses.
         increase, is still evolving in the Bowen
         Region.       It is important to note that this                       Given       the   importance         of     the     agricultural
         group         has         similar       demands          for          industry to the region, Queensland and the
         accommodation to that of construction                                 rest of Australia, good quality agricultural land
         workers.       The opportunities for tourism                          must be maintained wherever it is considered
         growth should be explored as part of a                                viable over the longer term.
         further study.
                                                                               The uncertainty of the progress and timing of
                                                                               the    major      projects         requires       that   flexible
Recommended Principles
                                                                               solutions are determined. This should include
                                                                               that a number of sites are earmarked and
Significant    research       and     policy     reviews        were           development            ready         to        host        worker
conducted and a number of high level principles                                accommodation in advance of the projects




Final Report                       P. v
                                                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




    occurring. The lands that are identified should                                small or interspersed within the existing urban
    also be able to be reused for other purposes                                   fabric.
    once        their     need             to     host          workers
    accommodation             has      expired.               That     is,         Residential         workers             accommodation         is
    temporary       workers’          accommodation              should            incompatible with the industrial and major
    also   be     developed           in    a    way      that       could         project intentions of the SDA. The inclusion of
    accommodate seasonal workers, tourists and                                     residential areas may be a health hazard and
    aged/retirees         once         the        need         for    the          may also limit the economic potential of the
    construction         population              has         dissipated.           SDA, which is contrary to the State’s overall
    Therefore land for workers camps must be                                       intent of SDAs.           Even in the early stages of
    considered          as         part          of       the        long          development of the SDA, allowance of workers
    term urban area, and their suitability must be                                 accommodation             in      the     SDA     would      set
    assessed on this basis.                                                        unwanted precedents and is therefore not
                                                                                   recommended.
    Operational workers and population associated
    with natural increase and migration should be                                  The location of workers accommodation in
    accommodated within the existing residential                                   Collinsville for the SDA is not suitable due to
    and future residential areas.                                                  the large distance (85kms) between the SDA
                                                                                   and         Collinsville.            However,            worker
    Temporary worker accommodation in the area                                     accommodation             in     Collinsville     should     be
    set new (higher) standards for accommodation                                   considered for any major project in close
    provision.      Aside from the social benefits to                              proximity to Collinsville.
    workers      and     communities,                 higher     quality
    worker       accommodation                  can     be      justified          The location of worker accommodation for the
    economically given the longevity of the State                                  SDA outside the Merinda township may be
    Development Area (SDA) and the anticipated                                     considered              for        temporary          workers
    ongoing need for worker accommodation.                              A          accommodation provided a number of key
    high   standard           of    housing,           facilities     and          issues      are    satisfactorily        addressed.        These
    amenity will also provide for potential reuse for                              include:
    other residential needs. Some examples of the                                  a.    good        quality        agricultural     land      that
    good outcomes (and examples of the bad                                               surrounds Merinda is not unnecessarily
    outcomes for context) that can occur should be                                       impacted;
    communicated              early        with        the      existing           b.    access       to    essential       services    can     be
    community           and        community            stakeholders.                    achieved           (i.e.      community,           social,
    Examples of various types and quality of                                             recreational, health, etc);
    workers camps are detailed in this report.                                     c.    potential social impacts on Merinda are
                                                                                         acceptable;
    The    worker        accommodation                 should        have          d.    land use conflicts do not result (e.g. health
    regard to, and be compatible with adjacent                                           hazards       associated          with   pesticide    and
    land uses.      Thus, it is likely that the worker                                   herbicide application and use, noise and
    accommodation will need to be proximate to,                                          light spill); and
    but not directly within existing townships. The                                e.    potential flooding impacts are addressed.
    exception to this would be where the amenity
    of the workers accommodation within the                                    Community Infrastructure
    existing townships was on a par with the
    surrounding         residential             environment           and                Any     and       all    planning,       provision    and
    where the scale of the accommodation was                                             production of community infrastructure in




Final Report                        P. vi
                                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        the Bowen District contributes to the                                       infrastructure planning and provision must
        achievement of the following broad level                                    be achieved.
        outcomes:
        a.     well     serviced          communities             with              Any planning for upgraded and/or new
               affordable,         efficient,            safe      and              community        infrastructure          will    consider
               sustainable development are created                                  investment principles relating to:
               and maintained;                                                      a.    service quality
        b.     areas and places of special aesthetic,                               b.    value for money
               architectural,             cultural,         historic,               c.    prioritization
               scientific,         social          or       spiritual               d.    flexibility
               significance         are        conserved            or              e.    fit with legislation and policy
               enhanced; and                                                        f.    timeliness
        c.     integrated networks of pleasant and                                  g.    service system capacity (to deliver).
               safe     public      areas          for     aesthetic
               enjoyment and cultural, recreational                                 Growth pressures on social infrastructure
               or social interaction are provided.                                  must be cognisant of effects on affordable
                                                                                    housing options, health and other social
        It      is     important            that         community                  services,      community         safety,        recreation
        infrastructure be planned and integrated                                    and    sport,       arts,    culture      and     cultural
        with         physical,       environmental                 and              heritage,        employment              and      training
        economic planning and that it be sensitive                                  opportunities.
        to local, cultural and heritage issues.
                                                                                    It is necessary to mitigate the social,
        Community            infrastructure             should      be              physical and economic effects of any rapid
        designed        and        provided         so      that    it              introduction        of   large      numbers        and/or
        progresses with the community as the                                        proportions of non-resident workforces on
        community grows, changes and evolves.                                       host communities, including the need to
        This     includes        catering      for        temporary                 protect against distortions in local service
        increases in population and leaving a                                       provision and community life.
        lasting legacy from major projects.
                                                                                    The provision of community infrastructure
        Major          project            advocates,             State              must be a standard that not only services
        Government, Council and the community                                       the community but acts as a regional
        need to work together to ensure the best                                    drawcard to attract, support and retain
        possible          community                 infrastructure                  workforces and their families to build
        outcomes.                                                                   sustainable      regional        communities.         This
                                                                                    provision may have to be pre-emptive to
        Community            infrastructure              must       be              create the necessary shift and broadening
        planned to meet the needs of a diverse                                      in the population profile required in the
        range of residents, non-resident workers,                                   Bowen District.
        seasonal          workers,            and           tourists,
        recognising social, cultural, economic, and                                 Community infrastructure should provide:
        physical differences and interests.                                         a.    Focal points of community interaction,
                                                                                          and   contribute        to    development         of
        An     improved       integration          between         the                    centres,
        former Whitsunday and Bowen Shire areas                                     b.    Places     that       build    a    community's
        in      terms         of      future             community                        identity




Final Report                     P. vii
                                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        c.     Places and resources where residents                    projects proceed. The employment estimates and
               can meet, organise and carry out                        major project scenarios were developed by PIFU in
               activities                                              agreement with WRC and DIP. The four scenarios
        d.     Places       that          strengthen           the     were:
               relationships       of     the    community,                A.   All projects will proceed according to
               building     responsible       self-supportive                   current advice from proponents;
               and safe communities                                        B.   Chalco alumina refinery and Multi-Cargo
        e.     Places and resources for delivering                              Facility   delayed   by   12   months,   other
               community services, including office                             projects proceed as advised;
               space for the staff and volunteers who                      C.   Chalco alumina refinery and Multi-Cargo
               provide services.                                                Facility delayed by 12 months, X110 not
                                                                                proceeding, other     projects proceed as
        It is a priority to maximise the utilisation                            advised; and
        of     existing     community           infrastructure             D.   Chalco alumina refinery and Multi-Cargo
        through upgrading and encouraging multi-                                Facility not proceeding, other projects
        use of facilities, co-locating compatible                               proceed as advised.
        activities and services, and partnering to
        deliver services and programs.                                 The estimated demand levels for each of the
                                                                       groups under each scenario are provided in Section
        Public-private partnerships or initiatives                     6 and shown in Table 1. Only the figures for
        are      utilised    to        plan     and     provide        construction and operational workers vary under
        infrastructure where possible.                                 each scenario.       For residents and operational
                                                                       workers the demand figure refers to dwellings, for
        Both core and multi-agency investment in                       construction workers it relates to single person
        human services will be required to achieve                     quarters (SPQs) and for tourists and seasonal
        new infrastructure.                                            workers it relates to accommodation units such as
                                                                       motel rooms, caravan sites, cabins or hostel beds.
These principles were utilised to determine the
recommendations         noted     in    the   study.      It    is
recommended that these principles be included in
higher order policy documents within the region,
such as the planning scheme and regional plan.


                                                                       Scenario A yields the highest level of demand as it
Demand Estimates for
                                                                       assumes all major projects considered in this
Accommodation Needs in the                                             report proceed as planned. Under this scenario the
Bowen Region                                                           demand from construction workers peaks at 5,250
                                                                       in 2011 and operational workers peak at 1,580 in
The level of demand for accommodation for the                          2013.
first two groups (residents – including long term
operational workers – and construction workers)
will be influenced by the number and scale of
major projects that proceed.              Given the relative
level of uncertainty that surrounds some projects,
four development scenarios were used to project
the potential demand.           These scenarios involve
different employment numbers depending on which




Final Report                    P. viii
                                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




The   demand   from   seasonal    workers   is    quite      sources and demand findings can be found in
significant, starting at 2,000 in 2009 and rising to         Section 6 of this report.
2,531 by 2015. Further information about data




T ab l e 1 .        Summar y of Accommodation De mand, Bowen, 2009-2015


 Scenario A                       2009      2010          2011      2012         2013        2014       2015

 Residents                         5,734         6,078     6,169      6,262       6,470       7,490      7,548

 Construction Workers               725          3,435     5,250      4,675         450             0          0

 Tourists                           710           716       721         727         733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers                  2,000         2,080     2,163      2,250       2,340       2,433      2,531

 Scenario A Total                  9,169     12,309       14,303     13,914       9,993      10,666     10,831

 Scenario B                       2009      2010          2011      2012         2013        2014       2015

 Residents                         5,734         6,078     6,169      6,262       6,359       6,448      7,474

 Construction Workers               725          1,643     3,100      4,025       3,900        500             0

 Tourists                           710           716       721         727         733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers                  2,000         2,080     2,163      2,250       2,340       2,433      2,531

 Scenario B Total                  9,169     10,517       12,153     13,264      13,331      10,124     10,757

 Scenario C                       2009      2010          2011      2012         2013        2014       2015

 Residents                         5,734         5,915     5,972      6,033       6,095       6,448      7,225

 Construction Workers               725          1,143     1,855      4,025       3,850        500             0

 Tourists                           710           716       721         727         733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers                  2,000         2,080     2,163      2,250       2,340       2,433      2,531

 Scenario C Total                  9,169         9,854    10,712     13,035      13,018      10,124     10,508

 Scenario D                       2009      2010          2011      2012         2013        2014       2015

 Residents                         5,734         5,915     5,972      6,033       6,095       6,150      6,177

 Construction Workers               725          1,623     1,485        725              0          0          0

 Tourists                           710           716       721         727         733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers                  2,000         2,080     2,163      2,250       2,340       2,433      2,531

 Scenario D Total                  9,169     10,334       10,342      9,735       9,168       9,326      9,460
Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from SGS and PIFU.




Final Report              P. ix
                                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




                                                                  dwellings, flats and houses or flats attached to a
Current and Likely Future
                                                                  shop/office will be matched with demand from
Supply of Accommodation
                                                                  residents and operational workers and the supply
                                                                  of motel rooms, caravan sites, cabins or hostel
The    current     and     likely   future     supply     of      beds will be matched with the demand from
accommodation for Bowen investigates the current                  tourists       and     seasonal    workers.            Construction
provision of accommodation for each of the groups                 workers        are     assumed      to    require        temporary
discussed above, and provides estimates of how                    workers’ accommodation. However it is noted that
the supply will change between 2009 and 2015                      some construction workers will come from the
(given all available information at 2009).                        resident workforce and some will relocate to the
                                                                  area.    Construction          workers     may        also   occupy
The supply is based on recent building approval                   dwelling in the towns on short term rental if they
rates, known residential projects, and planned                    are available. A summary of the estimated supply
workers camps. It does not take into account likely               of accommodation in Bowen is shown in Table 2.
market responses to higher demand, nor likely (but
at this stage unknown) accommodation specifically                 The figures in Table 2 are dwellings except for
associated with major projects.                                   tourist and seasonal workers which are motel or
                                                                  equivalent accommodation units. Further
The supply side data is grouped according to the                  information about data sources and supply findings
types of accommodation required so that the                       can be found in Section 5 of this report.
supply can be matched with the demand groups.
Therefore       separate     houses,     semi-detached


T ab l e 2 .             Su mma r y o f Acco mmo da tion Sup ply, Bow en , 200 9 - 20 15

 Accommodation Supply for:                                2009    2010        2012           2013          2014          2015
 Residents & Op Workers                                   5,709   5,824          6,055       6,170         6,286         6,401
 Construction Workers                                     530     1,350          1,350       1,350         1,350         1,350
 Tourist & Seasonal Workers                               1,654   1,654          1,654       1,654         1,654         1,654
Source: SGS Economics and Planning


                                                                  requirements in order to fill the accommodation
                                                                  gaps. These are presented in Table 3.
Future Requirements for
Accommodation and                                                 Table      3     below      shows        that     at     maximum
Potential of Existing Land to                                     requirements, 1896 houses or units will be required
Fill Gaps                                                         for future residents. Accommodation for up to
                                                                  3,132      single      person     quarters      for    construction

The gap analysis presented in Section 7 analyses                  workers        and     1,584    accommodation            units   for

the difference between the supply and demand of                   seasonal workers could be required. Based on the

accommodation for each group under the four                       development densities provided in the table, this

scenarios.     The maximum need for each category                 translates into a possible maximum of 316 hectares

of accommodation is calculated and shown in the                   needed to meet the accommodation gaps (based

gap analysis summary table in section 7. These                    on housing at the lowest densities in the table).

maximum        need    figures   have   been     used     to      This is a maximum; if the projects noted in this

determine        the     accommodation       and        land      report      do       not   proceed        as     expected,       the
                                                                  requirement for additional land is likely to be less.




Final Report                 P. x
                                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 3 .     S u mma r y of M a xi mu m A c c o mmod a ti on Shor t fa l l an d C or r es p o nd in g
L and R equ ire me n ts

                                                                Maximum need         Area required
 Houses/Units                                                     Dwellings                 (Ha)
 all @ 8 dwellings/ ha                                              1896*                   237
                                                                          *
 or all @ 12 dwellings/ ha                                          1896                    158
                                                                          *
 or all @ 25 dwellings/ ha                                          1896                     76
 Workers Camps                                                     Workers
 6 camps at 500 per camp and 5 ha each                               3132+                   30
                                                                          +
 or 6 camps at 500 per camp and 10 ha each                          3132                     60
 Seasonal workers, tourists                                         Units

 25% in motels, 30 units per motel - 14
 motels at 3 motels/ha                                                400                    4.4
 plus 75% in caravan parks, hostels, 80
 units per site – 15 sites at 3 sites/ha                            1229                     5.0
                                                                          ^
 Total seasonal accommodation                                       1629                    9.4
Source: SGS Economics and Planning
* based on 1204 for Scenario A plus 692 dwellings under business as usual
+ highly unlikely to need this capacity as some will go to residential dwellings and some short term peak can be
met in seasonal accommodation.
^ assumes all overcrowding controlled and additional accommodation capacity can be viable


To assess the potential of the existing land to fill
the accommodation gaps SGS conducted a land                        In summary, it is likely that there is adequate
capacity and yield analysis which is discussed                     land to meet the residential, seasonal workers
further in Section 7. The results are presented in                 and tourist accommodation needs.        However
Table 4 and indicate that there are approximately                  further land, outside of current residential
300 hectares of constraint-free land available in the              type zoning, and the urban localities, will be
Bowen locality, however 210.3 hectares of this is                  required to house the temporary construction
zoned park residential, and the future use of this                 workers likely to locate within the region.
land needs to carefully considered as it may be                    Temporary workers’ accommodation should
more suitable for higher density use.           The results        be located in close proximity to the Bowen
of   the   land     capacity   and     yield   analysis   are      locality   to   ensure    good    outcomes    for
discussed      in    further   detail     in    Section    7.      economic prosperity, amenity considerations
                                                                   and             community              cohesion.




Final Report                   P. xi
                                                  Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 4 .          S u mma r y of A v a il ab le L and Ar ea and Development Yields

Level of Constraint                                         Land Area (ha)                                    Possible Dwellings
                                   Zoning       Bowen     Merinda        Collinsville     Total              Bowen            Total
 Land Free of Constraints               R1         55.6       -                  28.9           84.5            667.4         1,014.3
                                        R2         33.5       -                   3.2           36.7            837.3          917.8
                                        PR        210.3       -                   -            210.3            420.5          420.5
                                       Total     299.4        -                 32.1         331.5           1,925.3       2,352.7
 Partially Constrained                  R1         84.9      11.2                25.5          121.6          1,019.2         1,459.4
                                        R2        131.6       -                   -            131.6          3,290.2         3,290.2
                                        PR        181.8      14.5                 -            196.3            363.6          392.7
                                       Total     398.3       25.7               25.5         449.6           4,673.0       5,142.3
 Fully Constrained                      R1        133.5           2.3            71.5          207.2
                                        R2        127.1           1.2             -            128.3
                                        PR         23.6      13.4                 -             37.0
                                       Total     284.2       16.9               71.5         372.6
 Total Residential                      R1        274.0      13.5               125.9          413.4
                                        R2        292.2           1.2             3.2          296.6
                                        PR        415.7      28.0                 -            443.7
                                       Total     981.9       42.7             129.1      1,153.7

Source: SGS Economics and Planning


                                                                        community events, 13 networks, and a number of
Existing Community
                                                                        important places/ landscapes.
Infrastructure
                                                                        There is little evidence to date that community
The majority of the existing infrastructure in the                      infrastructure in the Bowen service area has been
study area is, or has been, funded by federal and                       greatly enhanced by companies who employ or
state government agencies, and is supported by                          provide accommodation and other support to non-
the not for profit (and voluntary) sector. An                           resident workforces, apart from some activity by
exception to this is a number of commercially                           Ports Corp.
operated medical and allied health and aged care
services.                                                               Apart from some emergency or unplanned usage of
                                                                        health and medical services and use of everyday
Two distinct service catchments are obvious – the                       convenience (retail and hospitality) services, non-
primary catchment is the Bowen urban centre, and                        resident workforces are considered to have limited
the secondary catchment is the Collinsville town                        interaction     with    existing     infrastructure    in     the
centre and surrounds.                                                   Bowen and Collinsville service areas at this point in
                                                                        time.
There are fewer regional, sub-regional and district
level community services and facilities than local                      There is some anecdotal evidence that new workers
level services and facilities in the Bowen and                          who     come    to     town    and    live   in   commercial
Collinsville service areas, and the predominant                         accommodation with others, and with their families
service types are sport and recreation, and health.                     are more likely to make use of infrastructure and
                                                                        more likely to engage in every day community
In the Bowen service area, there are around 150                         events than those who live in discrete SPQs or
different services and facilities that have been                        accommodation villages.
identified     and    listed      in      the   Community
Infrastructure Inventory, as well as more than 60




Final Report                   P. xii
                                                      Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




In the Collinsville service area, there are around 50                 note is the potential variation in recommendations
services and facilities identified, with four networks                which are directly influenced by the actual size of
and four key annual events. A summary analysis of                     the non-resident (workforce) populations that come
the services and facilities indicates that:                           to the area between 2010 and 2014.
            The majority are local level services
            14+ are sport and recreation clubs                        The conditions under which these workers are
                                                                      employed and also accommodated while in the
The main pressure on existing services identified                     district will directly influence the recommended
by local service providers and community leaders                      community infrastructure provision.
relates to aged care and health services and
facilities which are already considered to be over                    The   recommendation    for   local   level   facilities
capacity.                                                             required to meet likely future demand include the
                                                                      following.
It     would        appear    that      minimal      community
infrastructure has been provided by companies who
employ      or      provide   accommodation          and    other
support        to    non-resident       workforces     in    the
Collinsville area. That which does exist includes a
Morris Corp common kitchen/dining facility which is
located in the middle of the residential area in
Collinsville where small, dispersed clusters of single
person quarters have been developed; and a
community            sponsorship         (benefit)     program
established by the Sonoma mine.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that many workers
are actually encouraged by their employers to live
in other areas, which from a local community
perspective reduces the likelihood that benefits
from non-resident populations will be transferred to
the local community and economy.
Site    assessments           of    existing   facilities    and
infrastructure indicate that there is a significant
amount of under and poorly utilised land and
ageing facilities in both Bowen and Collinsville
service areas. Although there is some clustering
and shared use of services and facilities, this is
limited, and service users are required to travel
some distance between sites.



Recommended Community
Infrastructure Provision

A range of likely future recommendations for
community infrastructure have been identified at
the local level and the district level, including
universal and targeted infrastructure. Of particular




Final Report                       P. xiii
                                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 5 .            Rec ommend ed L oca l Co mmun ity In fr as truc tur e Pro visio n

By 2011                                                  By 2016/2021
Targeted infrastructure that meets the needs of          Local tourism infrastructure strategy that provides a
construction workers, staying in accommodation           plan for improvement of public and community
villages includes:                                       infrastructure
         Meeting room/s
         Welcome/ orientation to community program
         delivered by existing service provider
         Health and medical services
         Gym and other recreation facilities
         Local transport service
         Laundry and catering services
         IT and communications services.


Targeted infrastructure that meets the needs of
seasonal workers, including:
         Welcome/ orientation to community program
         delivered by existing service provider
         Community health information and support
         initiative
         Safe public places
         IT and communications services.


Additional program funds for non-resident groups         Upgrade Collinsville Community Association to a
given to existing service providers.                     Neighbourhood Centre (1,000 m2)


Upgrade current Bowen (WRC) library facility to 700      Multi-use meeting room, that caters for up to 100
m2 including meeting room and exhibition area            persons
                                                                   Link to proposed performing arts space
                                                                   Link to existing civic facilities (e.g. library),
                                                                   with potential growth in floor area of these
                                                                   facilities


Better use and promotion of sports facilities.


Expansion of cycle/bike pathway program.                 Day services for people with a disability.


5 additional aged care – nursing home beds in both       10 additional aged care nursing home beds in Bowen
Bowen and in Collinsville.                               by 2021 (high, low, and dementia care).


10 additional aged care – hostel (retirement village)    15 additional aged care – hostel (retirement village)
beds in Collinsville.                                    beds in Bowen.




Transform Collinsville/Scottville kindergarten into a    Additional primary school places, including out of
family centre                                            school hours care.




Final Report                 P. xiv
                                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




By 2011                                                       By 2016/2021
           Include child care services, play group, and
           other family focused activities.


Child care (1,000 m2) in Collinsville                         Additional child care facility/ spaces in Bowen (2,000
           Occasional/ family day care                        m2) by 2021.
           Link to transformed kindergarten (Family
           Centre).


The Girudala Health Scoping Study has recommended
that a joint collaborative planning effort occur
involving public and private medical and allied health
agencies, in order to develop a Health Business Plan
for the District. This would include providing
leadership around priorities that include:
           GP recruitment and retention
           Health promotion activities and knowledge
           Transport and roads
           Emergency health management
           Securing allied health worker positions
           Other employment and training initiatives
           (includes targeting partners of construction
           and operational workforces who come to
           town)


Minimum additional medical services for resident and
non-resident populations required immediately
include:
           1 GP and 1 Dentist in Bowen (ongoing
           services)
           Between 0.25 and 2 additional GP services to
           cover range of construction workforce
           populations predicted (time limited)
           0.5 (FTE) Dentists in Collinsville.




Final Report                 P. xv
                                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




The recommendation for district level facilities required to meet likely future demand include the following.


T ab l e 6 .         Rec ommend ed D is trict Co mmun ity In fr as truc tur e Pro vis ion

By 2011                                                   By 2016/2021
Youth focused facilities and services, catering to non-   Upgrade and expand the Cooinda Family Centre
resident and resident populations, including:             premises and program, to include services for new
         Gym and other indoor recreation                  families, and resources for young people and their
         Internet and satellite TV                        families.
         Safe places to drink/ not drink and socialize
         Community education initiatives
         Cultural activities
         Employment and training initiatives, linked to
         existing and emerging business and industry
         opportunities.


TAFE work skills program.                                 Improved utilization of and improved programming at
                                                          TAFE.


Targeted facility/ space for Australian South Sea         Expand Girudala’s premises, and locate and design
Islander (ASSI) people in the District.                   with a view to maximizing access and celebration of
                                                          local Indigenous culture, and maximizing physical
                                                          connection to and integration with other key
                                                          community services and facilities (including
                                                          commercial services).


Local transport initiatives, including those servicing:   Fund another information and support worker at the
         Seasonal workers                                 Neighbourhood Centre.
         Construction workers
         Aged care facility residents.


Accommodation village initiatives including:              Expand the Collinsville library by 350 m2
         Artist in residence program
         Communiqués/newsletters
         Community Relations Policy and Plan,
         including local spend/employ initiatives,
         engagement strategies, emergency response
         plans, medical and health program,
         community benefit fund etc
         Community Impact Plan/s.




Final Report               P. xvi
                                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




By 2011                                                             By 2016/2021
Existing community services (e.g. Bowen                             Performing Arts Space in Bowen
Neighbourhood Centre/ Cooinda Family Centre,                                 Multipurpose facility inclusive of key interests
Collinsville Community Association) to be funded to                          Connected to other key civic spaces and
provide outreach information and support, family                             facilities.
support, and crisis support services to non-resident
and new populations.


Libraries to provide specialist services to non-resident            Sub-regional art gallery in Bowen (by 2021).
populations.                                                                 Integrated with performing arts space and
                                                                             existing cultural facilities.


Upgrade Bowen Community Health Centre to service                    Provide additional respite services for Bowen and
specific resident and non-resident populations.                     Collinsville residents.


                                                                    Upgrade Hospital services to include:
                                                                             Visiting specialists
                                                                             Additional nursing/ administrative resources
                                                                             required to provide care for patients not able
                                                                             to access tertiary institutions
                                                                             Increased capacity of emergency and acute
                                                                             care services in both Bowen and Collinsville.




                                                                       Generally speaking, there are recognised gaps in:
Community Infrastructure
                                                                                 local and district level medical and allied
Gaps                                                                             health services
                                                                                 local and district level aged care services
There are a number of obvious gaps in the                                        and facilities
provision of community infrastructure in the Bowen                               targeted services and facilities to cater for
District that are created by existing supply and                                 the needs of a range of non-resident
demand     issues,     as      well      by   likely     future                  populations, including workers associated
requirements identified in the previous section on                               with mining, industrial and infrastructure
‘need’   for   different    population        groups,       using                development activities, seasonal workers,
different growth scenarios.                                                      and tourists
                                                                                 local and district level family oriented
These    ‘gaps’   involve      universal      and      targeted                  services and facilities (including child care
infrastructure    (including    services,      facilities    and                 centres, and child/young person friendly
networks), at the local and district levels, and are                             public domains)
more or less pronounced when considering the                                     district     level   community     leadership
maximum and minimum growth potentials for the                                    processes        (groups)   that   are   well
resident and non-resident populations between                                    coordinated and inclusive of a diverse
2009 and 2016.                                                                   range of age and interest groups
                                                                                 district level employment and training
                                                                                 programs that up-skill local people for
                                                                                 future employment in emerging industries




Final Report                   P. xvii
                                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




            district level cultural facilities and (other)                services in the District (e.g. schools, medical
            tourism infrastructure that create social                     services).
            and economic benefits
            funding      for     local     and      district   level      Currently there are no standards for service or
            individual    and         family   support     services       plans for provision of services and facilities in place
            (including domestic and family violence                       in the District apart from reports and studies that
            support and crisis support)                                   outline discrete agency intentions (that are not
            targeted services and facilities that cater                   generally    resolved   into      any   type     of     publicly
            for the needs of (other) specific interest                    available plan). Given the policy position and
            groups, including young people, Australian                    aspirations of government, and experience from
            South Sea Islander (ASSI) people, and                         other communities, this in itself is a gap in the
            Indigenous people                                             system.
            maximise      benefits        received      from    and
            provided to tourism development.                              Greater resolution and integration of community
                                                                          leadership groups involved in planning, delivering
These gaps in provision are very likely to become                         and/or managing community services and facilities
more     pronounced            with     the    increasing      aged       is required to address this and other issues – for
population, as well as with demands placed on                             example, Girudala Community Cooperative recently
services and facilities by non-resident (FIFO/DIDO,                       funded a health services scoping study which
seasonal workers and tourists) and new in-coming                          recommended integrated leadership around health
populations. There will be peaks and troughs in                           planning and provision in the District, and better
demand that relate directly to the influx and                             connection by this leadership group with key
outflow of construction workers associated with                           development activities occurring in the District.
major projects in and around the district.

                                                                          Recommended Responses to
According to state government agencies in the
region it is unlikely that the supply factors are
                                                                          Address the Accommodation
going to reverse themselves quickly – for example,                        & Community Infrastructure
current policy positions support the centralization                       Gaps
of maternal health services, specialist services, and
high care health services to tertiary centres like                        Accommodation
Townsville and Mackay; as well as there being an                          The    recommended       responses      differ        for   each
overall reduction in budgets due to the economic                          accommodation group and are provided in detail in
downturn, and this will add to the pressure on                            Section 8.       This includes the identification of
existing services, and increase the need for people                       potential      sites    for        temporary           workers’
to travel to access services or move from the                             accommodation.                A    summary        of        these
District.                                                                 recommendations is provided below.


Unless there is a pre-emptive approach taken to                           Recommendations           pertaining             to           the
improve the provision of health, education, retail,                       accommodation needs of temporary workers are
and social/recreation facilities and services, that                       summarised below.        It is noted that due to the
happens in time with an increase in the availability,                     pressing     timing of the        likely onset of major
diversity and quality of housing (for different                           projects,    these     recommendations           should       be
household and income types), it will continue to be                       implemented in the immediate term:
difficult to attract and retain a younger population
and/or      professionals       required       to   manage      key       1.    Adopt the Higher Order and Bowen Specific
                                                                                Planning Principles recommended in this report




Final Report                      P. xviii
                                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




     and include these in an overall Permanent and                      3.   Should the investigations in 2. exclude any
     Temporary Residential Needs and Solutions                               sites identified in this process, reconvene
     Strategy.        This would be led by Council and                       stakeholders to assess any other potential
     DIP. The Strategy should have regard to:                                sites.
           a)    Residential use in the SDA will limit
                 the potential of the SDA to develop.                   4.   Develop planning scheme amendments (and
           b)    Worker accommodation should be at                           interim measures) dedicated to ensuring that
                 a safe distance from the SDA, in a                          temporary            workers’     accommodation            is
                 location that would maximise the                            developed at acceptable standards.
                 benefit to the existing Town areas,
                 and provide workers with access to                     5.   Host discussions with potential providers of
                 services and facilities.                                    temporary workers’ accommodation to ensure
           c)    Worker         accommodation          in     other          that     the    standards       align    with     Council’s
                 locations         should       also         respect         requirements.          These discussions should also
                 constraints arising from conflicts with                     explore innovative and sustainable solutions
                 adjacent uses and the potential for                         (including future reuse of housing, facilities
                 social impacts.                                             and infrastructure).
           d)    Further        accommodation          within     or
                 adjacent to the township of Bowen                      6.   Commence a communication and consultation
                 would be desirable given expected                           strategy to ensure that the Bowen Community
                 demand for construction workers on                          are clear about the likely housing solutions for
                 a longer term basis.                                        the region. Ensure that good examples of the
           e)    The            location        of           worker          types of developments that would be required
                 accommodation             adjacent      to     the          within         the      community           are      clearly
                 Bowen township is most desirable as                         communicated.
                 it     ensures     efficient    provision        of
                 infrastructure and services, promotes                  7.   Update the Draft PIPRICS to ensure that the
                 community cohesion and provides                             sites that are suitable for hosting temporary
                 more flexibility in the use of the                          workers’ accommodation are included in the
                 worker      accommodation             for    other          Priority Infrastructure Area (PIA) where they
                 future uses.                                                are on urban zoned land, and that appropriate
           f)    Ensuring that a component of the                            plans for trunk infrastructure are in place. Any
                 worker population can be located                            areas intended to be serviced should also be
                 within     the     existing     town        centre          appropriated          zoned     under    the        planning
                 allows some workers to bring their                          scheme.
                 partners or families with them, and
                 assist    in     longer    term     community          8.   Develop a Social Impact Assessment policy
                 sustainability.                                             within     Council        to    ensure       that     social
                                                                             infrastructure and housing impacts associated
2.   Complete the proposed investigations for the                            major projects are adequately accounted for.
     sites identified as having potential for fulfilling
     the        needs      of        temporary           workers’       Recommendations            regarding    ensuring       that   the
     accommodation.             Other sites proposed by                 residential          and          operational          workers
     Council, the State Government, or commercial                       accommodation needs are met include:
     interests, may be further assessed also.
                                                                        1.   Complete             broad      financial         feasibility
                                                                             assessments to determine the likelihood of the




Final Report                      P. xix
                                                      Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




     market responding to the future demand for                       2.   Complete an Economic Development Strategy
     permanent accommodation within the region,                            for the region, which would consider the
     i.e.   under   current     market        conditions   and             holistic range of issues to best maximise the
     planning controls, is it feasible for the private                     economic     potential     of   the     region.      An
     development market to provide the required                            investment     prospectus          should     also    be
     housing;                                                              developed as a part of this Strategy to best
                                                                           attract developers to the range of development
2.   If the market feasibility indicates a non-viable                      opportunities in the region.          One of the key
     result for some development types within the                          focus areas of the Economic Development
     region, review the planning requirements for                          Strategy should be in determining how best to
     these development types;                                              facilitate tourism, particularly in the off-peak
                                                                           ‘picking’ seasons. Ensure that discussions with
3.   As part of the recommended Permanent and                              motel providers, backpacker operators and
     Temporary Residential Needs and Solutions                             potential developers occur in a bid to maximise
     Strategy, focus on how affordability can be                           the potential for further supply of this type of
     maintained and enhanced;                                              accommodation within the region.


4.   Commence discussions with the Whitsunday                         3.   Explore the potential to use some components
     Housing    Company,        or    any     other    relevant            of the temporary workers’ accommodation as
     community        housing        providers,       regarding            sites to host seasonal workers.
     affordable housing opportunities;
                                                                      Other actions that would benefit the region and
5.   Engage with the community to ensure that                         its ability to adequately house all elements of its
     there is a clear understanding of the likely                     population and visitors include:
     development outcomes within the region with
     the onset of the expected major projects;                        1.   Completion of a flooding study;


6.   Update the PIPRICS and ensure that adequate                      2.   Updating the Good Quality Agricultural Land
     infrastructure solutions are present or can be                        Information Base for the Bowen Region, and
     feasibly provided. Explore options for funding                        establish a framework to quantify the viable
     infrastructure    through        user    pays     systems             and   sustainable        holding      sizes   for    the
     coupled with those entities that are likely to                        predominate agricultural systems in the Bowen
     benefit from the additional development being                         region;
     attracted to the region.
                                                                      3.   Completing       an        Accommodation             and
Given the above and preceding discussions, the                             Community      Infrastructure         Implementation
following recommendations for fulfilling seasonal                          Strategy;
workers      and    tourism      accommodation           needs
include:                                                              4.   Completing a Retail and Commercial Needs
                                                                           Study;
1.   Conduct, as a matter of priority, further                        5.   Developing    and     Implementing       an    Ongoing
     investigations regarding the appropriateness                          Land and Development Monitoring Process.
     and ability of the existing zoned land to
     accommodate       the    needs      of    the    identified      Community Infrastructure
     seasonal workers and tourist accommodation.                      There are a number of community infrastructure
                                                                      strategies recommended which are detailed in




Final Report                  P. xx
                                                      Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Section 12.       A summary of these strategies is                                     Other        employment            and     training
provided below.                                                                        initiatives          (includes           targeting
                                                                                       partners        of        construction          and
Strategy One – Community Infrastructure that                                           operational workforces who come to
supports Learning & Local Enterprise                                                   town).


    1.   Improve opportunities for local people to                        2.   Respond         to    pressures        created         by    a
         gain skills required to gain employment in                            disproportionately older and less wealthy
         emerging industries.                                                  population who want to age in place,
                                                                               including:
    2.   Implement local business arrangements                                         Additional         aged      care       beds    and
         that actively support and promote the                                         associated nursing supports in both
         development of local businesses to service                                    Bowen        and     Collinsville       (dementia,
         the growth that will occur over the next 5-                                   high and low care)
         10 years.                                                                     Additional retirement village (hostel)
                                                                                       beds in Collinsville
    3.   Improve the quality and capacity of the                                       Respite services
         learning and education environment to                                         Day     services       for    people       with      a
         keep young people and families in the                                         disability.
         District and cater for influxes of new
         resident and non-resident families.                              3.   Upgrade emergency services and facilities
                                                                               to enable them to respond to the demands
    4.   Maximise learning and earning                                         of resident and non-resident populations
         opportunities created by the production                               with     particular        reference       to    managing
         and/or improvement of cultural and                                    peak demand periods (construction).
         tourism infrastructure.
                                                                          4.   Council to facilitate an increase in the
    5.   Ensure        learning     about    local    initiatives              supply of adaptive housing that allows
         and/or experiences is not lost.                                       older     people      to     ‘age     in    place’     more
                                                                               comfortably.
Strategy Two – Community Infrastructure that
supports Health & Ageing in Place                                     Strategy Three – Community Infrastructure that
                                                                      supports Family Friendly Environments
    1.   A     joint    collaborative       leadership     effort
         occur involving public and private medical                       1.   Ensure the development of family and
         and allied health agencies, in order to                               child    friendly      public        environments           by
         develop a Health Business Plan for the                                improving the quality, functionality, and
         District. This includes providing leadership                          identity of the public environments, in
         around priorities that include:                                       central areas and in local residential areas
                GP recruitment and retention                                   (neighbourhoods).
                Health      promotion         activities    and           2.   Increase the availability of child and family
                knowledge                                                      focused services and facilities in both
                Transport and roads                                            Bowen and Collinsville and at the same
                Emergency health management                                    time improve their physical connectivity.
                Securing          allied     health      worker
                positions                                                 3.   Resource the increase in primary and
                                                                               secondary school and out of school hour




Final Report                      P. xxi
                                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




           care places that are required, in time with                      6.   Increase funding to existing individual and
           increases in student numbers.                                         community support services to allow them
                                                                                 to adequately service future resident and
    4.     Enhance      youth         focused     facilities    and              non-resident populations.
           services, catering to non-resident and
           resident populations, including;                                 7.   Integrate, empower and enhance local and
                Gym and other               indoor recreation                    district community reference and advisory
                facilities                                                       groups     to       maximise       effectiveness       and
                Internet and satellite TV                                        representation         of    a    diverse      range    of
                Safe place to drink/not drink and                                voices:
                socialise                                                                Build in a monitoring role so that
                Community education initiatives                                          impacts of change are constantly
                Cultural activities                                                      reviewed and responded to
                Employment and training initiatives,
                linked       to   existing       and    emerging            8.   Build     or    retrofit     a    multipurpose        civic
                business and industry opportunities                              building       in    Bowen,        focused       on    the
                                                                                 performing          arts     and       other     creative
Strategy Four – Community Infrastructure that                                    industries, and that adds value to local
supports       Art,        Cultural         &      Community                     community           and     business      development
Development                                                                      aspirations


    1.     Develop         cultural       infrastructure        that        9.   Build a sub-regional art gallery in Bowen
           recognises needs and interests of the                                 (by 2021) that is integrated with the
           Australian South Sea Islander community.                              performing arts space and other existing
                                                                                 cultural facilities and activities.
    2.     Protect valued places and routines that
           underpin local people’s quality of life and                  Strategy Five – Community Infrastructure that
           sense of identity.                                           supports Non-Resident [Visiting] Populations


    3.     Better use and promotion of sports and                           1.   Apply common ‘standards of service’ for
           recreation        facilities     in    Bowen         and              infrastructure provision in purpose built
           Collinsville.                                                         accommodation                villages         that     are
                                                                                 responsive to the needs of tenants and
    4.     Develop and promote the link between                                  include such things as:
           nature-based           recreation,          community                         Meeting room/s
           activities/events and tourism.                                                Welcome/ orientation to community
                                                                                         program delivered by existing service
    5.     Upgrade      key       community        facilities     to                     provider/s
           accommodate future demand for services                                        Health and medical services
           and programs – including:                                                     Gym and other recreation facilities
                Collinsville Community Association to                                    Activity      program          that     provides
                a Neighbourhood Centre                                                   opportunities            for     workers        to
                Collinsville and Bowen libraries                                         positively          engage       with         local
                Cooinda Family Centre                                                    community          members       and     groups,
                Girudala Community Cooperative.                                          and with local places and facilities
                                                                                         Local transport service
                                                                                         Laundry and catering services




Final Report                      P. xxii
                                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




                IT and communications services.                                       other         commercial             accommodation
                                                                                      developments.
    2.   Ensure conditions of development and/or
         project approval include the need for                                 7.     Local and state government officers to use
         Employer        programs        that        create     links                 good practice knowledge about growth
         between new workers and their families                                       management in resource areas to inform
         (not staying in accommodation villages)                                      decision making and negotiations around
         and the local community:                                                     the development, design, management,
                Welcome/orientation to community,                                     and exit (deconstruction or reuse) of
                in   partnership        with     local       service                  accommodation            villages,        in     order        to
                provider/s and businesses                                             mitigate the negative impacts of non-
                Sponsorship of local events, festivals                                resident workforces on community life and
                and other initiatives                                                 community infrastructure
                Community relations plan, including
                local      employment           and         training
                                                                           Conclusion
                programs,            local      buy           policy,
                community           benefit     program,         and
                community engagement strategy                              This report has highlighted the significant impact
                                                                           that the proposed major projects will have on

    3.   Resource existing community services and                          accommodation and community infrastructure in

         programs to deliver targeted services to                          the Bowen Region.

         incoming        (construction         and         seasonal)
         workers, including:                                               The report also reveals the importance of the

                Welcome/ orientation to community                          agricultural sector to the region and its significant

                program delivered by existing service                      existing    and    ongoing       problem        in        relation       to

                provider                                                   accommodating seasonal workers.                      Managing the

                Community health information and                           impacts of these projects and maintaining the

                support initiative                                         value of the agricultural sector is an important part

                Safe public places                                         of ensuring the success of these projects and their

                IT and communications services.                            contribution to economic prosperity at the local,
                                                                           state and national level.

    4.   Develop and implement a local tourism
         infrastructure       strategy        that    includes     a       As has been highlighted throughout this report, a

         public      and      community          infrastructure            range      of   solutions      will    be   needed              if     the

         improvement plan                                                  accommodation           needs         are       to         be        met.
                                                                           Furthermore, these solutions are required as a

    5.   Develop        and   implement         a     community            matter of urgency given the expected timing of the

         impact assessment policy for any future                           major      projects     and    the    existing        issues           with

         accommodation villages or other major                             accommodation for the seasonal workers in the

         commercial accommodation developments                             agricultural      sector.        Among          the        immediate

         that     utilises    the    principles       and      other       needs/actions required will be the consideration of

         information identified in this report.                            augmentation to the infrastructure systems, and
                                                                           how these will be funded.               Bowen has existing

    6.   Establish       a    mechanism              to     identify,      infrastructure        limitations      which          mean             that

         measure        and    mitigate        the        cumulative       augmentation       of    the   current      network             will    be

         effects of accommodation villages and                             required for growth of the existing community as




Final Report                   P. xxiii
                                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




well as for temporary workers’ accommodation
sites.                                                                 Like   accommodation         requirements,        community
                                                                       facilities   that   are   required   are    linked    to   the
Should the major projects considered here be                           population associated with the number and scale of
implemented within their expected timeframes,                          major projects that proceed over time.
these sites will be required within the next 2 years.
This is a very tight timeframe to successfully                         The    well     planned     provision      of     appropriate
address all the issues noted within this report, and                   accommodation         and    community          infrastructure
the best outcomes will only be achieved by                             solutions will enable the Bowen region to respond
proactive      measures          and   close        co-operation       positively to the challenges association with major
between Council, State Government, commercial                          projects in the area, maximise the number of
operators and the community.                   To house the            permanent residents attracted to the area, and
expected increases in residential and operational                      achieve positive and sustainable social outcomes.
workers accommodation (which is assumed to be
located      within        the     existing         community),
investigations regarding the likely feasibility of the
market      taking    up    the     options     of    increasing
densities within the existing zoning area should be
undertaken.     Through all these investigations, the
community should be consulted and kept well
informed of progress made through the existing
community consultation committee.


Community infrastructure is a vital component of
community wellbeing and must be well planned to
cater for needs of both permanent and temporary
residents.       A    high       standard      of    community
infrastructure provision has the potential to act as
a drawcard for the region to attract a higher level
of permanent resident workers, rather than fly in/
fly out workers.


Specific facilities should be provided within workers
camps to ensure a high standard of community
infrastructure to this sector of the community.


Some of the specific community facilities and
actions likely to be required include;
          an upgrade to the Bowen Library;
          addition aged care (nursing care and
          retirement village);
          additional child care and school facilities;
          improved health care;
          youth services and facilities;
          TAFE and training programs; and
          Library services targeted to temporary
          workers




Final Report                      P. xxiv
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   1            Introduction
In May 2009, SGS Economics and Planning were commissioned to complete the Bowen Abbot Point
Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study. The Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and
Community Infrastructure Study is a collaborative effort between the Department of Infrastructure
and Planning (DIP) and Whitsunday Regional Council (WRC). SGS was commissioned to build upon
previous work completed by several consultants.         This report is informed by a comprehensive
Community Infrastructure Report prepared by Anita Egginton. The full Community Infrastructure
Report should be considered in further implementation measures.



1.1            Purpose and Objectives
The purpose of the study is to determine the accommodation and community infrastructure needs
and appropriate responses within the Bowen Region, associated with large scale industrial and
infrastructure development. The need for the study has arisen due to potential for a number of
large scale industrial and infrastructure projects that may be developed over the short, medium
and long-term in the Bowen Abbot Point area. The region is within the strategic location of the
Northern Economic Triangle and includes the Abbot Point State Development Area. Managing the
impacts of large scale industrial and infrastructure projects on existing industries and communities
is an important part of ensuring the success of these projects and their contribution to economic
prosperity at the local, state and national level.
The purpose of the Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study is to
address one area of significant potential impact and ensure solutions can be found that are
acceptable to all stakeholders.


The objectives of the accommodation component of the study are to:
     1.   Identify the accommodation needs of major project workers as well as all groups within
          the community;
     2.   Identify any issues relating to accommodation and meeting the accommodation needs of
          existing and new residents;
     3.   Provide broad principles for planning for these needs as well as specific recommendations
          for the Bowen study area; and,
     4.   Suggest potential solutions to be considered in the resolution of the identified
          accommodation issues.



1.2            Study Area
The study area aligns with the pre-amalgamated local government area (LGA) of the former Bowen
Shire. This study uses the urban centre/locality (UCL) boundaries from the 2006 Census to define
the main towns of Bowen and Collinsville, as well as the village of Merinda. A map showing the
former Bowen LGA and the urban localities of Bowen, Merinda and Collinsville is provided in 0. This
map also includes the Port of Abbot Point and the State Development Area.




Final Report            P. 1
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Bowen is located on the coast and was the administrative centre for the former Bowen Shire
Council. Bowen was amalgamated with the Whitsunday Shire Council in March 2008 to become the
Whitsunday Regional Council. Bowen is connected to the population centres of Townsville (202 km
north) and Mackay (192 km south) by both road and rail. The statistical local area (SLA) of Bowen
had an estimated resident population of 13,370 people at 30 June 2007, an increase of 235 people
(or 1.8 per cent) over the previous year.


Bowen experienced population losses between 1986 and 2001, with the resident population falling
from around 14,000 to 12,400 during that period. This decline was largely triggered by the loss of
working age families from the area following extensive job losses in manufacturing, the mining
industry and the horticultural sectors.


Since 2001 there has been a resurgence of mining activity across the entire Bowen Basin region,
along with construction of new port and tourist facilities in Abbot Point and Bowen.           Job growth
from these activities has reversed Bowen’s population decline and future population projections
expect this growth to continue, particularly with the declaration of the Abbot Point State
Development Area.


Other towns within the Bowen Region include Merinda and Collinsville.


Merinda is a small village located approximately 10 km west of Bowen. The village is situated on
the Bruce Highway, near the Abbot Point State Development Area.                Merinda has an estimated
resident population (2007) of 242 (BAPACI Demographic Analysis, 2009), with an additional non-
resident workforce of 124 currently. The non-resident population is expected to increase to 500 by
the end of 2009, due to a new workers camp being constructed.


Collinsville is a rural and mining service centre located approximately 85 kilometres to the south-
west of Bowen. It provides accommodation and administrative services to the region’s coal mining
industry and has a large coal fired power station. Collinsville is an historical mining town that has
declined over the years; however, it has seen a resurgence with the increasing resources sector
activity in the Bowen Basin. The current estimated resident population is 2,140 with an additional
estimated non-resident workforce of 248 persons, according to a survey of accommodation
providers undertaken by PIFU in 2007.




Final Report           P. 2
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




F i g u re 1 . M ap of B owen and Ur ban C e n tr e / L o c a li t ies - S tu d y A r e a 1 a n d 2




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report              P. 3
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




1.3            Project Method
The project method utilised to complete the accommodation and community infrastructure study
consisted of six stages. These are outlined graphically in Figure 2 and then described in detail.


F i g u re 2 . Accommodation and Community Infras truc tur e Study Method




    Stage 1          Stage 2          Stage 3            Stage 4           Stage 5           Stage 6
                                                                          Gap & Land
    Inception          Policy          Supply             Demand                              Potential
                                                                           Capacity
     Meeting           Advice          Analysis           Analysis                           Responses
                                                                           Analysis




Source: SGS Economics and Planning


Stage 1 consisted of the inception meeting, context setting and development of a work-plan. The
context setting included reviewing the study area population profile, economy and employment and
housing and accommodation characteristics.        It also included a review of strategic intent of the
Northern Economic Triangle Infrastructure Plan 2007 – 2012, the Abbot Point State Development
Area and its associated development scheme (Development Scheme for the Abbot Point State
Development Area), the Port of Abbot Point and its associated land use plan (Land Use Plan for the
Port of Abbot Point), and the potential major industrial and infrastructure projects, as well as a
review of:
        The housing system roles and responsibilities;
        The Framework for National Action on Affordable Housing;
        The Queensland Government Sustainable Resource Communities Policy;
        A Sustainable Future Framework for Queensland Mining Towns;
        The Whitsunday Hinterland & Mackay Regional Plan, 2006 (Queensland Government,
        Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Bowen Regional Organisation of Councils);
        Bowen Planning Scheme;
        State Planning Policy 1/07, Housing and Residential Development (noting that from a
        statutory viewpoint Bowen is not bound by this Policy);
        Housing Needs Assessment for the Bowen – Collinsville Region, 2008;
        Draft Whitsunday Social Development Plan (2008-2013);
        Bowen Collinsville Enterprise (BCE) Socio-Economic Development Strategy;
        Bowen Shire Arts & Cultural Policy;
        Bowen Shire Recreation & Sport Plan;
        WHAM Regional Plan - Social Facilities Infrastructure Audit;
        Burdekin Dry Tropics Board ‘A Caring for Country Plan’ ;
        Girudala Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Community Development Plan;
        Northern Economic Triangle (NET) Infrastructure Plan;




Final Report           P. 4
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        Bowen Abbot Point Industrial Land Concept Plan and Infrastructure Plan; and
        Ports Corporation Land Use Plan for the Port of Abbot Point.


Stage 2 consisted of the development of a framework for accommodation and community
infrastructure policy advice. The outcome was a series of high level principle statements that were
recommended for use when determining the potential responses associated with accommodation
and community infrastructure.      These statements were derived from first principles as well as
extensive reviews of any available literature on past experience with temporary accommodation for
major projects.


Stage 3 addressed the current and future supply of accommodation and community infrastructure
for all demand groups. This stage included a review and analysis of the current and likely supply of
future accommodation for the study area. It consisted of a review of accommodation, current and
emerging trends, profiles of existing accommodation, information on new land estates and
developments, and land potentially available for accommodation purposes. This stage examined in
detail the current supply of community infrastructure and future plans.


Stage 4 considered the current unmet needs in the study area for accommodation and community
infrastructure, as well as the likely future demand. The demand for accommodation and community
infrastructure in Bowen was analysed with regard to the resident population, the major projects’
worker population (which is divided into construction and operational), the tourist population, and
the seasonal worker population. To assess the current and future unmet need, consultation was
undertaken with a range of stakeholders, and wherever possible, opinions were verified/dismissed
by evidence based data.


To determine the likely future need for accommodation, projections for each of the identified
demand groups above were determined by the project team using a range of credible data sources.
For resident population and dwelling forecasts, the project team used PIFU data generated through
the state-wide population information forecasting model.          For seasonal workers and tourists,
projections were developed by SGS based on information from established sources where possible,
such as the Bowen District Growers Association and Tourism Research Australia, and supported and
verified by investigations, interviews and consultation in the field.


Stage 5 consisted of analysing the results of Stages 3 and 4 on the supply and demand to
determine whether sufficient capacity exists in the Bowen Abbot Point area to adequately meet the
identified current and future demand, given the available supply and projected need under four
different scenarios.
This ‘gap analysis’ identifies the accommodation and community infrastructure needs.


Stage 6 concluded this study by exploring potential responses to the results of the gap analysis
and actions that could be undertaken by the State and Local Government. The potential responses
to the gaps were evaluated and reviewed using the policy advice developed at Stage 2.




Final Report            P. 5
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




1.4            Structure of this Report
This report documents the findings and outcomes of the Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and
Community Infrastructure Study. It includes the following components;


         Executive Summary – includes the objectives of the study, information about the study
         area, the method used for the study and an outline of the report structure.
    1.   Introduction – includes purpose and objectives of the study, information about the study
         area, and project method.
    2.   Project Context – provides information on the demographic, strategic and planning
         context of the study.
    3.   Strategic Context and Planning Policy – this section reviews the existing policy
         framework within which response will be framed
    4.   Research and Policy Advice – this section includes an overview of background research
         undertaken as part of the study and lists the challenges and issues identified from the
         research. This section also includes high level principles relating to both accommodation
         and community infrastructure.
    5.   Accommodation Supply Analysis – presents the data and findings of the supply
         analysis.
    6.   Accommodation Demand Analysis – presents the data and findings of the demand
         analysis.
    7.   Gap Analysis and Land Capacity Analysis – identifies the difference between the supply
         and demand indicating where the accommodation gaps are. This section also includes the
         results of the land capacity analysis.
    8.   Potential Responses to Address the Accommodation Gaps – this section indicates a
         range of potential responses to address the accommodation issues identified in the other
         parts of the report.
    9.   Community Infrastructure Supply Analysis – presents the data and findings of the
         supply analysis.
    10. Community Infrastructure Need Analysis – presents the data and findings of the need
         analysis.
    11. Community Infrastructure Gaps – identifies the difference between the supply and
         demand indicating where the community infrastructure gaps are.
    12. Potential Responses to Address the Community Infrastructure Gaps – this section
         indicates a range of potential responses to address the community infrastructure issues
         identified in the other parts of the report.
    13. Conclusions – This section highlights the key issues for both accommodation and
         community infrastructure and the common areas for recommended action.
    14. Appendices – includes additional research, reviews and maps.
    15. References




Final Report             P. 6
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




     2            Demographic Context
This section of the report presents a summary of the demographic profile of Bowen, Merinda and
Collinsville using Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data compiled by PIFU1.              The full PIFU
demographic report is attached at Appendix A.           Most of the data is from the 2006 Census, and
refers to the former Bowen Shire (referred to from here on as ‘Bowen’) which is comprised of the
localities of Bowen (referred to as the ‘Bowen locality’), Merinda, Collinsville, with the remainder
labelled the balance of the former Bowen Shire.



2.1            Population
The population of Bowen is projected to reach 17,862 residents by 2031, an increase of 4,727
people from 2006 (2006 population 13,135). As previously noted, Bowen experienced considerable
population decline from 1986 to 2001, largely as a result of closures in the manufacturing industry
and restructuring in the mining and horticultural industries.           Due to growth from positive net
migration, the estimated resident population of the area in 2007 (13,370 people) reached the same
level last seen in 1996.


Bowen has an older population than the Queensland average, with 15% of the population aged 65
years and over compared to 12% for Queensland. ‘Lone Person’ households make up 28% of
households in Bowen compared to 23% for Queensland and ‘Family’ households make up 69% of
Bowen households compared to 73% for Queensland. The number of ‘Lone Person’ households in
Bowen is projected to increase from 1,442 in 2006 to 2,602 in 2031, this is an 80% increase
compared to a projected 12% increase in ‘Couple Family with Children’ households over the same
period. The projected change in household structure may require consideration to be given to the
appropriate dwelling types in the future. By 2031, Bowen is projected to have around 2,500 more
households than in 2006, and a third of these are projected to be ‘Lone Person’ households.



2.2            Economy and Employment
In 2006, Bowen had a labour force of 5,625 people and a relatively low unemployment rate of
4.6% compared to 4.7% for Queensland and 5.2% for Australia.                  Unemployment was slightly
higher in Collinsville than elsewhere in the area at 6.6%. Bowen’s labour force participation rate of
56% is relatively low compared to Queensland’s rate of 66%, which may be due in part to an older
population not seeking work.


The ‘Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing’ sector is the largest employer in Bowen, employing 22% of
the population compared to 3% for Queensland. The ‘Retail Trade’ industry is the second largest,
while Construction and Mining at present lag well behind.           Figure 3 shows the industry share of
resident employment for Bowen and Queensland in 2006.




1
    Department of Planning and Infrastructure (2009), Demographic Analysis of Bowen/Abbot point Study Area,
    Produced by the Planning Information and Forecasting Unit (PIFU).




Final Report               P. 7
                                                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




F i g u re 3 . E m pl oyment by Indus t r y , Bow e n a n d Qu e e n s lan d , 2 0 0 6

           Percentage of Total Employed Residents   25%
                                                                                                                        Bowen
                                                                                                                        QLD
                                                    20%


                                                    15%


                                                    10%


                                                    5%


                                                    0%




Data Source: ABS Census


In terms of occupation, ‘Labourers’ are the biggest category, especially in the Bowen locality and
Merinda, while ‘Machinery Operators’ and ‘Drivers’ are also highly represented in Collinsville and
Merinda.                               Large losses of labouring jobs occurred from 1996 to 2001 due to closures and
restructuring of local industry (predominately manufacturing, mining and horticulture), and have
not been recovered in the employment growth that occurred between 2001 and 2006.


Most of the increases in employment between 2001 and 2006 were in the areas of
‘Technicians/Trade Workers’ and ‘Machinery Operator/Driver’ jobs taken by male workers. Bowen
has significantly low proportions of ‘Professionals’, comprising 7% of occupations compared with
17% for Queensland.


Incomes for Bowen are well below the state average, with a median weekly household income of
$826 compared to $1,088 for Queensland. This reflects the high incidence of relatively low paid
jobs, a high reliance on seasonal work, and a higher number of ‘Lone Person’ households than
Queensland. High numbers of retirees on age pensions also lower the area’s income medians.


The Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) is a suite of indexes which rank geographic areas
across Australia in terms of their socio-economic characteristics. The SEIFA indexes are created by
combining information collected in the five-yearly ABS Census. In 2006, as a result of low incomes
and other contributing factors, the SEIFA Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and
Disadvantage places Bowen 57th out of 157 LGAs in Queensland in terms of relative disadvantage
(note these were the 157 LGAs at the time of the 2006 Census). In comparison, the former LGAs
of Gladstone, Mackay and Townsville were respectively ranked 130th, 138th and 145th in
Queensland.




Final Report                                              P. 8
                                      Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




2.3            Housing and Accommodation

Housing Types


According to the PIFU demographic report provided in Appendix A, Bowen has a diverse mix of
housing types, particularly for its regional location, with relatively low proportions of common
private dwellings such as detached houses, semi detached dwellings or flats and units compared to
Queensland.     Table 7 provides an overview of the housing types for each locality, Bowen and
Queensland.


T ab l e 7 .        Housing T ypes , 2006

                                                          Caravan ,
                         Separate Semi-        Flats,               Improvised          Not
                                                            cabin,
                          House detached       Units                 dwelling          Stated
                                                          houseboat
 Bowen locality                 58%    13%         12%           15%             2%           1%
 Collinsville locality          86%      1%        10%            1%             0%           2%
 Merinda locality               96%      0%          0%           4%             0%           0%
 Balance of LGA                 70%      6%          0%          15%             7%           1%
 Bowen LGA                      66%      9%          9%          13%             3%           1%
 Queensland                     75%      8%        14%            2%             0%           0%
Source: ABS, PIFU


The high number of alternative dwellings provided in the area, mainly ‘Caravans, cabins and
houseboats’, reflects the need to accommodate seasonal workers and visitors, including tourists,
seasonal agricultural workers, and construction workers. This category also includes self contained
retirement villages.


‘Detached houses’ made up only 66% of private dwellings in Bowen in 2006, which was well below
the Queensland average of 75%. However, a visitor to the region would not be struck by a high
density environment as can be seen in Figure 4. The Bowen locality had the lowest proportion of
‘Detached houses’ (58 per cent) while the localities of Merinda and Collinsville had the highest at
96% and 86% respectively.


‘Caravans, cabins and houseboats’ provide 13% of private dwellings in Bowen compared to just 2%
in Queensland as a whole. A further 3% of private dwellings in Bowen are ‘Improvised dwellings
and tents’, compared to only 0.3% for Queensland.         The high incidence of these dwelling types
greatly contributes to the diversity in Bowen’s housing, and is an important source of affordable
housing for some sections of the population. Most ‘Caravans, cabins and houseboats’ are located
in the Bowen locality and in the balance of Bowen (15% each), while ‘Improvised dwellings and
tents’ are more common in the rural areas of the balance of Bowen (7%).


Housing Tenure


The Bowen area has a high rate of outright home ownership, but a low rate of dwellings being
purchased. Some 38% of private dwellings were owned outright in 2006, a higher rate compared
to Queensland overall (32%) and the former LGAs of Gladstone (24%), Mackay (33%) and




Final Report             P. 9
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Townsville (27%). Rates of outright ownership were higher again in Collinsville (47%), balance of
Bowen (42%), Merinda (40%) and the Bowen locality (35%)2.


However, as noted, the proportion of dwellings being purchased was much lower for Bowen (24%)
and it’s localities than for Queensland (34%) and other LGAs. In all, total home ownership (owned
outright plus being purchased) was lower in Bowen compared to Queensland (62% and 65%
respectively). This pattern, combined with outright home ownership, is consistent with a mature
population who are home owners but relatively few owner/occupiers who are purchasing, whether
as first home buyers or people wishing to upgrade.


More people in Bowen are renting dwellings in the private market than purchasing.                    Rentals
account for a third (33%) of tenures in Bowen, slightly more than for Queensland overall (31%)
and Mackay (29%). While this could be attributed, in part, to Bowen having a large population of
seasonal and temporary workers, consultation with relevant government agencies, the local real
estate industry and community stakeholders, suggest that the high proportion of rental tenure
reflects the limited supply of current housing stock, local income profiles, investor caution due to
both current financial market uncertainties and the concern over the boom and bust cycle, and
increasing     numbers   of   temporary    workers    in   search   of   accommodation.       Most    rental
accommodation within Bowen is located in the Bowen locality (37% of dwellings) and the balance
of Bowen (28% of dwellings).


Dwelling Density


The dwelling density for permanent and temporary accommodation in the Bowen locality, Merinda
and Collinsville is shown in Figure 4. The areas shown in red (high density) are typically tourist
accommodation, such as caravan parks and motels. The main residential areas in the Bowen and
Collinsville localities are shown in orange, reflecting a density of 3.5 – 7.5 dwellings per hectare
despite their location in the centre of town.      At this density, these dwellings are on lots ranging
from 1,333 sqm to 2,857 sqm, (a third to three quarters of an acre), which are low densities.




       2
           ABS 2006 Census




Final Report             P. 10
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




F i g u re 4 . Dwelling Density – Dwellings per Hec tare




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report           P. 11
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Rental Prices


According to ABS data, the cost of renting in Bowen is significantly lower than for Queensland
generally. In 2006, the median rent for Bowen was $135 per week compared to the state average
of $200 per week.       Median weekly rents were also low for the Bowen locality ($145), Merinda
($135) and Collinsville ($105). These rental prices were obtained from PIFU, however, discussions
with real estate agents in June 2009 indicated that prices for rental accommodation may be quite a
bit higher. They indicated that the average weekly rent in Bowen was approximately $180-$250
for 2 bedroom units and $220-$350 for higher quality units, while a 3 bedroom house was $300-
$400 and a 4 bedroom house was $420-$550. Rental properties in Bowen also generally have a
low vacancy rate, with most properties being rented very quickly unless they are in poor condition
or very expensive i.e. $500-$800 per week.      Houses are viewed as the preferred form of rental
accommodation generally by all types of renters.


Site visits, field verification and consultation suggest that the low rents indicated by ABS data are
likely to be associated with the high incidence of caravans, cabins and houseboats and improvised
dwellings and tents, particularly those in the rural area of the Bowen balance and in Bowen locality.
Perception of low rents in Collinsville are more likely to reflect the generous housing subsidies paid
to mining workers rather than the availability of cheap rental housing in the area, as actual rental
prices are still relatively high.


Real estate agents noted a significant rise in both rents and house prices in Bowen over the last 5
years or so.     The agents suggested that the rental increases were due to high demand from
temporary workers and that subsidies paid to some workers often have the effect of inflating rental
prices. This has a flow on effect of disadvantaging permanent residents and other visiting workers,
who do not have access to higher wages and/or rental subsidies.


Property Prices


The median sales price of detached houses in Bowen for the year to 30 June 2008 was $322,500.
This was lower than that for Gladstone ($365,000), Townsville ($380,000) and Mackay ($385,000).
House prices in all the former LGAs noted in the preceding point have increased considerably since
2002, when the median price for Bowen was just $75,000. A chart of this data is provided in Figure
5.


The median sales price of detached houses in the Bowen locality for the year to 30 June 2008 was
$356,000, higher than the Bowen area’s average price ($322,500) and the Bowen balance
($350,000). Houses in Collinsville were more affordable at a medium price of $220,000. Prices in
all areas have increased considerably since 2002, when the median house price for Bowen locality
was $85,000. These changes are shown in Figure 5.


The number of house sales in Bowen declined to 205 in the year to 30 June 2008, down from a
peak of 435 sales in 2003. Strong sales occurred in Collinsville from 2005 to 2007, but declined in
2008.


In 2006, the median housing repayment for Bowen was $953 per month, compared to $1,300 for
Queensland.     Median monthly repayments were lower than Queensland for the Bowen locality




Final Report             P. 12
                                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




($1,000) and much lower for Merinda ($729) and Collinsville ($693). The most common monthly
repayment category for Bowen and all its localities except Collinsville was $750 $1,199 in 2006.
Over a third (34%) of monthly housing repayments in Collinsville fell between $400 and $749.


F i g u re 5 . Ho use Sa les Pr ices for Bowen an d o th er Tow ns /Cities , 2 002- 200 8

                      $450,000
                                    Form er Bowen (S)
                      $400,000      Form er Gladstone (C)
                                    Form er Mackay (C)
                      $350,000      Form er Townsville (C)

                      $300,000
 Median Sales Price




                      $250,000


                      $200,000


                      $150,000


                      $100,000


                       $50,000


                          $-
                                 2002       2003         2004      2005        2006         2007        2008


Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from PIFU




Final Report                        P. 13
                                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




F i g u re 6 . House Sales D a ta for Bowen, Mer ind a & Collins ville Loc alities , 2002-2008
                      $400,000
                                  Bowen

                      $350,000     Collinsville
                                   Merinda
                                   Form er Bowen (S) Bal
                      $300,000
                                   Form er Bowen (S)

                      $250,000
 Median Sales Price




                      $200,000


                      $150,000


                      $100,000


                       $50,000


                          $-
                                 2002         2003         2004       2005        2006         2007         2008

Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from PIFU


Land Prices


According to the ABS, the median sales price of residential lots in Bowen for the year to 30 June
2008 was $162,750, lower than that for Mackay ($190,000), Townsville ($187,950) and Gladstone
($185,000). Land prices in all these former LGAs have increased considerably since 2002, when
the median price for Bowen was just $27,500. The change in land prices for these areas is shown in
Figure 7. Consultation with local real estate agents indicates that the likely drivers for increased
land prices in Bowen have been the development of up-market estates such as Whitsunday Shores,
increased industrial development at the Port of Abbot Point, the increased population, and
speculative interest in the property market, although this has stalled since the global financial
crisis.




Final Report                        P. 14
                                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




F i g u re 7 . Land Sales Data for Bow en and other Towns /C ities , 2002-2008

                      $250,000
                                   Form er Bowen (S)
                                   Form er Gladstone (C)

                      $200,000     Form er Mackay (C)
                                   Form er Townsville (C)
 Median Sales Price




                      $150,000




                      $100,000




                       $50,000




                          $-
                                 2002       2003        2004        2005        2006         2007        2008

Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from PIFU


The median sales price of residential land in the balance of the former Bowen Shire for the year to
30 June 2008 was $238,000, higher than the area average ($162,750) and for the Bowen locality
($150,000). Prices in the balance of the former Bowen Shire have increased rapidly since 2002,
when the median price was $27,000. These increases are due partly to the greenfield development
of Whitsunday Shores, which targets a more upmarket segment of the market by offering a golf
course development with ocean views and high levels of urban design and amenity. These changes
are shown graphically in Figure 8.


For purposes of context the median housing price for Rockhampton LGA to March 2009 was
$305,000 and for Queensland it was $380,000.                    The increase in housing prices in Rockhampton
from March 2004 to March 2009 was 113.7% and the Queensland increase over the same period
was 41.8%.


The number of land sales in Bowen declined to 72 in the year to 30 June 2008, down from a peak
of 242 sales in 2006. Strong sales occurred in all areas from 2005 to 2007, but declined in 2008,
possibly due to the combined effects of the global financial crisis and uncertainty surrounding some
of the major projects.




Final Report                        P. 15
                                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




F i g u re 8 . Land Sales Data for Bow en, Mer inda & Collins ville Localities , 2002- 2008

                      $250,000
                                        Bowen
                                        Collinsville
                                        Merinda
                      $200,000          Form er Bowen (S) Bal
                                        Form er Bowen (S)
 Median Sales Price




                      $150,000




                      $100,000




                       $50,000




                          $-
                                 2002         2003          2004         2005         2006          2007         2008


Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from PIFU
NB: Data for Merinda and Collinsville is not available for all years.


Dwelling Approvals


Bowen recorded relatively strong growth in the number of dwelling approvals between 2005 and
2008, peaking at 129 approvals for the year ending 30 June 2006. Bowen’s growth in approvals is
more recent than that for other LGAs such as the former Mackay and Townsville local governments,
although the latter areas also experienced a surge of activity in 2008. However due to the much
smaller size of Bowen, relatively few building approvals can give a higher percentage of approvals,
compared with larger urban centres. Building activity in Gladstone tends to be more cyclical than
the other areas compared here, with peaks occurring in 2003 and again in 2008.                           This is most
likely due to the influence of major industrial projects.


Most of Bowen’s dwelling approvals have occurred in the locality of Bowen, which peaked at 98
approvals in 2006. The number of approvals has steadily increased in Bowen balance since 2006,
reaching 28 approvals in 2008, while Merinda also recorded a surge in activity in 2007 and 2008.


Discussions with real estate agents in Bowen indicate that the global financial crisis towards the
end of 2008 has had an impact on the level of development, with many deferred or put on hold
until greater certainty about key projects and easier access to financing has improved.




Final Report                       P. 16
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




2.4            Summary of Demographics
In comparison with the Queensland population, the population of Bowen is older and has a higher
proportion of males. It also has a much higher proportion of persons employed in the agricultural
and mining industries than the Queensland average, reflecting its strategic location within a
resource rich area. The main occupation types are a reflection of the dominant industries with a
low proportion of professionals but a high number of labourers. The incomes in Bowen are lower
than the Queensland average as a result of the type of work predominantly available in the area.
In 2006, as a result of low incomes and other contributing factors, the SEIFA Index of Relative
Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage placed Bowen 57th out of 157 LGAs in Queensland in
terms of relative disadvantage (note these were the 157 LGAs at the time of the 2006 Census).


Bowen has a high number of ‘Lone Person’ households, and this is expected to increase as a
proportion of all households over time in line with national trends towards smaller and single
person households, and due to the relatively high proportion of the population in older age
categories.     The types of dwellings in Bowen reflect the high level of seasonal and temporary
workers in the area with a high number of ‘Caravans, cabins and houseboats’ in the area compared
to the Queensland average. The property market has experienced significant growth in land, house
and rental prices over the last five years or so, due to the announcement of major projects in the
area, investment in major infrastructure by Government and the development of new greenfield
land estates.


The future main drivers of change for the demographic profile of Bowen are likely to be the influx
of construction and operational workers associated with the major projects as well as any growth or
change in the agricultural industry. The high number of people in the older age categories might
signal that the ageing of the population will have a more noticeable impact in Bowen than areas
with a more even age spread.     The impacts of such an aging population may include a shortage of
workers, increased demand on some elements of community infrastructure, and demand for more
compact lower maintenance housing.       However, the influx of workers for the major projects is
likely to mask this trend to some extent.


The key challenge for the region that is applicable to this study is the need to be able to attract and
retain younger families to the area. This will ensure the demographic shift that is likely to result
from the major projects contributes positively to Bowen socially and economically. In order for this
to occur there must be appropriate and affordable accommodation, and a full range of high quality
community infrastructure, together with the attractive lifestyle attributes in the Bowen area.




Final Report             P. 17
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




     3            Strategic Context and Planning Policy
The Bowen Abbot Point area has the potential for a number of significant industrial projects to be
developed over the short, medium and longer-term (i.e. 5, 10, and 20 year timeframes).
Managing the growth and the social impacts of these projects is an important part of ensuring the
success of these projects. The Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure
Study has been developed as a collaborative effort between the Department of Infrastructure and
Planning (DIP) and Whitsunday Regional Council (WRC) to address, among other things,
accommodation issues.


The project Steering Committee, comprising the project sponsors and a representative for the
affordable housing services in the Department of Housing, has met regularly as a reference group
for the project to help guide the study. This section provides information about the project context
from a demographic, strategic and planning perspective.



3.1            Northern Economic Triangle
In 2007, the Queensland Government released the Northern Economic Triangle Infrastructure Plan
2007 – 2012 (NET Infrastructure Plan) with the vision to foster sustainable economic, social and
community development and growth through the emergence of Mount Isa, Townsville and Bowen
as a triangle of mining, minerals processing and industrial development over the course of the next
half century.3


The development of the NET Infrastructure Plan involved a broad range of consultation that was
undertaken with public/private stakeholders and the broader community to identify critical issues
that should be taken into consideration in establishing Bowen as a new industrial precinct. The NET
Infrastructure Plan recognises accommodation and community infrastructure as critical to the
overall economic, social and community development of the regions. As a result, Strategy 31 of
the NET Infrastructure Plan seeks to identify and undertake planning to supply the urban and
community infrastructure necessary to support population growth in the economic centres, and
meet the needs of new workers and their families.4



3.2            Abbot Point State Development Area
The Abbot Point State Development Area (APSDA) was declared, and its associated development
scheme approved in June 2008. The Development Scheme for the APSDA (development scheme)
provides for the establishment of industry, infrastructure corridors and essential services to support
mineral processing and other industries, while recognising and protecting environmental, cultural
heritage and community values.


3
    Department of Infrastructure and Planning, Northern Economic Triangle Infrastructure Plan 2007-2012.
4
    Department of Infrastructure and Planning, Northern Economic Triangle Infrastructure Plan 2007-2012:
    Annual Report September 2007-08.




Final Report               P. 18
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




It is noted by the State, that industrial development in the APSDA will impact upon the
accommodation needs of the study area, and the results of this study will be used to determine the
additional actions that may be required to maintain the quality of life for residents, workers and
visitors to the study area.



3.3            Potential Major Projects
The Bowen Abbot Point study area (see Section 1.2) has a number of potential significant industrial
projects that may be developed over the short, medium and long-term. The NET and APSDA are
clear indications of State Government support for the economic prosperity of the area. The State
Government, through its relevant strategic planning and policy, has also demonstrated a
commitment to ensure that the economic benefits of the SDA do not compromise the social fabric
of the community. The potential major projects of interest in this study are described below. Two
additional potential major projects, the Galilee Coal and Alpha Coal projects have been announced
during the study timeframe. Although described at the end of this section, employment forecasts
for these projects were not included in the demand analysis due to the advanced state of this
study.


It should be noted that the inclusion of any project in this document does not imply State Government or
Council support for the project, nor does it imply any commitment to them proceeding.


Abbot Point Coal Terminal


Expansion of the Abbot Point Coal Terminal to 21 Mtpa (Stage 2) was completed by the (then)
Ports Corporation of Queensland in November 2007 (this authority is now North Queensland Bulk
Ports Corporation Limited). A further $818 million has been committed to expanding the terminal
to 50 Mtpa (Stage 3) by the end of 2011.            The approvals have been granted for Stage 3.          A
planning need to expand port capacity to 110Mtpa is currently under investigation. The expansion
of the capacity of the Abbot Point Coal Terminal will result in an increase in employment
opportunities during both construction and operational phases of the development, while also
increasing the export capacity of the region.          This will contribute significantly to the region’s
economic, social and community growth. Port facilities at Abbot Point will also support development
that is facilitated by the declaration of the Abbot Point State Development Area.


Proposed Goonyella to Abbot Point Expansion Rail Project


The proposed Goonyella to Abbot Point Expansion Rail project incorporates the 69 km ‘Northern
Missing Link’, which proposes to connect the Goonyella and Newlands rail systems, and is another
significant infrastructure project within the Bowen Abbot Point study area. QR’s (Queensland Rail)
$3.8 billion Goonyella to Abbot Point Expansion Project is currently being re-scoped to reflect
current coal industry projections.


Water for Bowen


The Water for Bowen project by SunWater proposes to bring water from the Burdekin River, 150
kms south to Bowen and the surrounding areas.             The project is a key part of the Queensland




Final Report             P. 19
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Government’s Water Grid Plan and is intended to increase water security in the Bowen Region. This
major project aims to supply up to 60 000 megalitres (ML) of water per annum for industrial and
horticultural users by 2012. According to SunWater it has “commenced Stage Two of the project
which involves feasibility level engineering, an environmental impact study as well as finalising
route selection for the channel and pipeline system”5. The current feasibility studies will assist in
determining whether the project proceeds.


132 kV Collinsville to Bowen Power Line


Powerlink is acquiring easements to construct a 132 kV transmission line from the Strathmore
substation to a new 132/66kV substation at Merinda, adjacent to the APSDA.             Powerlink is also
investigating a possible route for a transmission line corridor from the Strathmore substation to the
APSDA. This investigation is expected to be completed by the end of 2009.


In May 2008, Ergon Energy committed $27 million to upgrade the Merinda substation and build a
new 66kV line to the Port of Abbot Point. This was planned for completion by September 2009,
and other stages of the upgrade, including a new 132 kV substation to be built nearby, will be
completed by late 2010.


Proposed Chalco Alumina Refinery


A memorandum of understanding between the Queensland Government and Chalco for a feasibility
study into the construction of an alumina refinery in the APSDA was announced on 25 June 2008.
Chalco is expected to complete the feasibility study and make a final decision on the project by the
end of 2009.


Expansion to Port of Abbot Point Facilities


The Abbot Point Multi-Purpose Harbour Concept Plan was completed by the then, Ports Corporation
of Queensland (now North Queensland Bulk Ports Corporation Limited) in 2007. Technical studies
are underway on the proposed development. The plan envisages the development of a sheltered
multi-cargo facility (MCF) that accommodates the export and import of a variety of cargoes. The
MCF’s ultimate capacity would mean the creation of 12 berths, with the capacity to handle most, if
not all of the largest ships currently operating internationally on industrial and resources trading
routes. This project is listed as a priority by Infrastructure Australia in its May 2009 report.


Other Proposed Projects


The two additional potential major projects that were announced during the study timeframe are
the Galilee Coal and Alpha Coal projects.       Waratah Coal has finalised a study of port and rail
options for its proposed Galilee Coal Project. The proposed project includes a thermal coal mine
and 490 km of standard gauge rail line linked to the APSDA for export through the Port of Abbot
Point.



         5
             http://www.sunwater.com.au/current_projects_Bowen.htm




Final Report              P. 20
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Hancock Prospecting’s Alpha Coal Project identifies the Abbot Point Coal Terminal as one of two
export options being investigated, the other being a new coal terminal at Dudgeon Point at the Port
of Hay Point. This project proposes the construction of a new railway to either of these export
locations.


These two projects were not considered in relation to the future potential requirements of
accommodation identified in the study as they were announced late in the study’s development.



3.4            Summary of Strategic Context
The study area is strategically located in the Northern Economic Triangle (NET), includes the
APSDA, and has a raft of large potential industrial and infrastructure projects planned for the short
to medium term. Managing the impacts of these potential projects on existing industries and
communities is critical to not only the success of these projects and their contribution to economic
prosperity at the local, state and national level, but also to the longer term sustainability of the
community.


The State of Queensland has made a significant commitment to the future of this area by its
endorsement of these plans and programs, and acknowledgement of the potential for substantial
growth and development in the Bowen Abbot Point study area. The results of this study are built
upon this strategic context foundation and the planning context described in the next section. The
success of meeting the current and future accommodation and community infrastructure needs
must be predicated on an understanding of the government’s strategic objectives, the community’s
long-term sustainability and the existing conditions.




Final Report           P. 21
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




3.5            Planning Context
This section of the report provides an overview and highlights of the planning policy context of
relevance to this study. These have been taken into consideration in this investigation of the study
area.


The following have been reviewed:
        The housing system roles and responsibilities;
        The Framework for National Action on Affordable Housing;
        The Queensland Government Sustainable Resource Communities Policy;
        A Sustainable Future Framework for Queensland Mining Towns;
        The Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, 2006 (Queensland Government,
        Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Bowen Regional Organisation of Councils);
        Bowen Planning Scheme;
        Development Scheme for the Abbot Point State Development Area;
        Land Use Plan for the Port of Abbot Point;
        Draft Bowen Planning Scheme Priority Infrastructure Plan Assumptions and Priority
        Infrastructure Area;
        State Planning Policy 1/07, Housing and Residential Development (noting that from a
        statutory viewpoint Bowen is not bound by this Policy); and
        Housing Needs Assessment for the Bowen – Collinsville Region, 2008.


Housing


The housing market and the delivery of housing outcomes are indirectly and directly influenced by
all levels of government, the private and not-for-profit (community) sector.           There has been
recognition of the essential role of housing in the long term sustainability of communities at the
State and Federal level through the:
         endorsement of the Framework for National Action on Affordable Housing in 2008 by the
         Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Local Government and Planning Ministerial
         Council;
         Queensland State Planning Policy on Residential and Housing Development (SPP 1/07);
         and
         Queensland Housing Affordability Strategy.


These frameworks and strategies emphasise the importance of all sectors taking appropriate
actions in planning for community accommodation needs.


Sustainable Resource Communities Policy


The State Government has demonstrated an interest in managing the immediate and long term
effects of industry expansion through the Sustainable Resource Communities Policy. This policy
recognises that rapid development is having significant impacts on mining communities, and
although this policy was developed in response to the rapid expansion of resource activities in the
Bowen Basin, there are many similarities with the study area, including the potential for rapid
expansion of industry and its associated community impacts. It is a commitment to:




Final Report           P. 22
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        strengthen the Government’s role in coordination;
        improve linkages between social impact assessment and regional planning;
        foster partnerships with local government, industry and the community; and
        an enhanced regulatory environment for social impact assessment.


Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan


The Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay (WHAM) Regional Plan’s seven major themes include two of
direct relevance to this project, including settlement pattern and social infrastructure.


Settlement pattern refers to urban development that includes a range of residential housing types
and tenures, including tourism and short term worker accommodation.                  The following key
settlement patterns issues from the WHAM that are of relevance to this study include:


    Population growth in the coastal areas has led to changes in land use on the fringes of the
    region’s larger urban areas, with expansion of urban development onto good quality
    agricultural land;
    Activities associated with urban development in the past have had direct and indirect adverse
    impacts on the region’s environmental values;
    The scattered nature of the development pattern, particularly in rural and remote areas is also
    straining the ability of service providers to ensure equitable access to social, community, and
    transport infrastructure;
    Urban areas need to be based on improved yields from available urban land;
    Access to affordable housing and rental accommodation in the region is a pressing issue for
    some sectors of the community, particularly for low income and other disadvantaged sectors;
    Over recent years, there has been a mixed pattern of growth and decline in the region’s mining
    and service towns;
    There is evidence of an ageing population in the area, as well as a declining of population which
    is particularly seen in the 18 – 24 year age bracket;
    The region has a high transient workforce due to the nature of industries i.e. mining, peak
    agriculture and horticultural periods, and peak tourism periods. Bowen is dominated by mining
    with an average unemployment rate of 2.1%; and
    Tourist, holiday and business visitors make up a significant proportion of the population in the
    region.


The following key social infrastructure issues from the WHAM that are of relevance to this study
include:
    The WHAM Region has a higher percentage of people living outside an urban centre than
    Queensland as a whole;
    There will be a challenge to providing services to areas like Bowen which have highly transient
    communities but are up to 300km away from the key regional centre of Mackay;
    Currently, there is a lack of mechanisms to facilitate and coordinate community participation,
    and enhance community leadership to ensure each sector has a voice;
    Further developmental resourcing is required to enhance the platform of partnership and
    collaboration in planning for social infrastructure;
    The diverse planning boundaries and budgetary systems of local governments limit whole of
    government responses to regional issues;




Final Report             P. 23
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




    There is limited capacity to facilitate the appropriate linkages with Indigenous people, people
    from diverse linguistic backgrounds and Australian South Sea islanders;
    There is also inadequate planning for isolated communities;
    State agencies in the region are under considerable resourcing pressure to provide levels of
    service to meet community expectations; and
    Inadequate coordination in the provision of social infrastructure on a local area basis.


Bowen Planning Scheme and Priority Infrastructure Plan using a Regulated
Infrastructure Charges Schedule


The Bowen Planning Scheme (adopted by Council in May 2006) provides the statutory framework
by which development proposals within the former Bowen LGA are assessed and decided. It should
be noted that since local government amalgamations it is the intention that the new Regional
Councils (in this case Whitsunday) will ultimately prepare a new planning scheme to apply to the
new Regional Council area. In the meantime the Bowen Planning Scheme will continue to apply.
The provisions of the planning scheme have been used in this study as the basis to determine the
density existing land in Bowen could be redeveloped to, and subsequently, the number of
additional lots (additional land yield) that could be developed to meet future need. Further details
of the development allowed under the planning scheme for residential areas are included in Section
5.4.1.


The Planning Scheme includes a designated land use pattern including:
         Urban - Unconstrained land in Bowen and Collinsville accommodating urban growth and
         development of land uses, facilities and services supporting such urban growth.
         Park Residential - Land to the west of the Bowen urban area and south-east of Mt Gordon
         adjacent to the Bruce Highway providing for low density urban style living in a rural setting.
         Rural - Agricultural land and land not required to satisfy expected urban growth.
         Areas of Significant Constraints - Land with significant constraints to development and
         possessing significant environmental values requiring careful management.
         Crown land possessing significant environmental values.


The following Desired Environmental Outcomes are included
     (a) Development does not adversely affect the values of the Shire’s natural environment
     including   coastal    areas,   wetlands,   beaches,   headlands,   waterways,    Protected    Areas,
     undeveloped hill slopes, and areas of significant native vegetation, from any adverse effects
     accruing from clearing, soil degradation and pollution due to erosion and contamination,
     acidification, salinity, waste disposal and any modifications to natural processes.
     (b) Development does not adversely affect the quality and quantum of water available for a
     range of consumptive uses throughout the Shire.
     (c) Risks to safety, property and the environment are not increased by the interaction of
     development and natural or other hazards, including flooding, bushfire, disturbance of acid
     sulphate soils, storm surge, cyclonic weather events and landslide.
     (d) Development protects the economic values of natural resources including good quality
     agricultural land, extractive and mineral resources, vegetation and water.
     (e) Development provides a benefit to and satisfies an economic demand of residents of the
     area in which it is located.




Final Report               P. 24
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




     (f) Opportunities for maintaining and improving employment resulting from advancements in
     information technology and emerging business/industry trends are maximised.
     (g) The Shire’s tourism industry is strengthened and expanded based on the sustainable use of
     natural, cultural and man-made assets and the orderly provision of services and facilities.
     (h) Bowen continues to function as the main business centre and administrative hub for the
     Shire.
     (i) Growth and community development within the Shire focussed on the existing Bowen and
     Collinsville urban areas to facilitate the efficient use, timely and orderly expansion and
     continued operation of infrastructure.
     (j) Development facilitates diverse housing choice, including affordable housing, that is
     responsive to the changing demographic structure of the Shire’s population and promotes
     equity in access to goods and services.
     (k) Development promotes the efficient use and provides for the orderly expansion of the
     Shire’s movement system, including motorised and non-motorised modes.
     (l) Development occurs in an area:
          (i) which is suitable and compatible with the nature of the development; and
          (ii) in which services and facilities required in respect of the development are existing,
          planned or provided by the development.
     (m) Development does not adversely affect:
          (i) the community’s health and safety;
          (ii) the amenity enjoyed by people in different areas of the Shire; and
          (iii) the safe and efficient operation of the transport, energy and other infrastructure
          supporting the Shire and surrounding region.
     (n) Development reflects the community’s reasonable expectations and harmonises with the
     natural environment and does not prejudice the Shire’s existing scenic amenity, particularly
     along the coastal plain.
     (o) The community values of places and landscapes reflecting the community’s history and
     identity are not detrimentally affected by development.


It provides development assessment categories and provisions for seven (7) specific types of Zones
in the area, as well as for Special Management Areas. The seven Zones include:
        Rural
        Park residential
        Residential
        Business
        Industry
        Open space
        Special purpose.


Purposes of the residential zoning codes are:


Park Residential Zone Code
        Development for low density residential purposes;
        clustered within a rural or natural landscape setting, and integrated with the natural
        environment facilitating resident’s enjoyment of rural amenity and lifestyle, and
        does not adversely impact on good quality agricultural land
        does not adversely impact on the environmental values of the site and its surroundings




Final Report            P. 25
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        does not adversely impact on existing open space networks;
        Uses and works are located and designed to maximise the efficient use and extension and
        safe operation of infrastructure.


Residential Zone Code
        Residential areas are characterised by high levels of amenity and provide attractive living
        environments;
        Development for residential purposes comprises:
               o    a range of residential accommodation styles including long-term and short-term
                    accommodation,
               o    long-term and short-term accommodation located appropriately in relation to
                    densities nominated in this code,
               o    well designed residential development which is sensitive to climatic conditions and
                    provides for the retention of natural features like creeks, gullies, waterways,
                    coastal zone and vegetation;
               o    an open space system including formalisation of recreational and movement
                    opportunities where appropriate;
        Development is provided with physical and social infrastructure commensurate with the
        scale and density of development;
        Non-residential uses locating in a residential area comprise purposes of a local
        business/community nature which support the enjoyment of residential areas by residents
        but do not detract from the character and amenity of localities in which they are
        established;
        Development does not adversely impact on the environmental values of the site and its
        surroundings.
        Development is designed to achieve safe and efficient access for vehicles, pedestrians and
        cyclists.


The Scheme has 16 Codes for specific uses and issues. A number of these relate directly to
accommodation and community infrastructure including:
        Annexed Apartment Code
        Caretaker’s residence Code
        Child care centre Code
        Dual Occupancy Code
        Multi-dwelling and Retirement Village Code
        Short-term Accommodation Code
        Telecommunications Code.


A number of the Schedules attached to the Scheme also relate to community infrastructure
planning and provision. This includes:
     Schedule 2: Parking
     Schedule 3: Identified Cultural Features
     Schedule 4: Infrastructure (standards)
     Schedule 5: Community Infrastructure (designated government site only)
     Schedule 6: Design standards for community safety




Final Report               P. 26
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




A Temporary Local Planning Instrument - Code for assessing temporary worker accommodation -
has also been developed by WRC, and is currently under review by the Department of
Infrastructure and Planning.


The Whitsunday Regional Council is currently undertaking the development of a draft Bowen
Planning Scheme Priority Infrastructure Plan Assumptions and Priority Infrastructure Area.          This
work is being undertaken to meet the State’s requirement for each planning scheme to include a
Priority Infrastructure Plan (PIP), in this case based on a regulated infrastructure charges schedule
(PIPRICS). The planning assumptions about the type, scale, location and timing of future urban
development inform the preparation of the PIPRICS.         This draft report includes the assumptions
underpinning the proposed PIPRICS for the 2006 Bowen Shire Planning Scheme, and the location
and size of the priority infrastructure area (PIA).   This draft report deems anything outside the
proposed PIA as inconsistent development. This would include potential sites that are identified for
temporary and permanent workers accommodation.              Therefore, such development would be
subject to an additional trunk infrastructure cost assessment which may be imposed as a condition
of approval if the development is approved.


Housing Needs Assessment


The Housing Needs Assessment for the Bowen-Collinsville Region undertaken by the Bowen
Housing Working Group identified a number of issues associated with the housing needs of the
Bowen and Collinsville communities.    Issues identified throughout this report were:
        Difficulties in attracting staff to positions in the area due to the current high rental and
        purchasing cost for housing;
        Significant lack of low cost housing available in the area;
        Land is a premium commodity and has increased the price of land, making affordable
        housing solutions less attractive to developers;
        There are many flow-on issues within the community that are related directly to the lack of
        affordable housing in the area;
        The population that requires special housing and support needs has limited suitable
        housing options; and
        The lack of appropriate accommodation for builders, traders and labouring workers.


Further details on the planning policy context can be found in Appendix B.



3.6            Key Challenges Noted through Consultation
There was overall agreement throughout the consultation undertaken for this project that there is a
high level of unmet need for permanent and temporary accommodation in the Bowen Region. Real
estate agents in Bowen indicated that the high level of current demand for permanent
accommodation is reflected in the high rental and sales prices of dwellings in Bowen, as well as the
low vacancy rates of rental properties. Similarly, accommodation providers indicated that there is
unmet need in tourist and seasonal worker accommodation in the peak seasons, and that this is
again evidenced by very low vacancy rates of motels, resorts, backpacker hostels and caravan
parks during peak season. Note that whilst this information has provided very important anecdotal




Final Report           P. 27
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




evidence, it is by definition subjective in nature and as such is no substitute for more rigorous and
robust data.


Through discussions with real estate agents, accommodation providers and other stakeholders in
Bowen, there were several patterns relating to demand for accommodation identified. These were:


    1. Property and Land Prices
        The announcement of several major projects in the Bowen area has created strong demand
        for both permanent and temporary accommodation, which has increased the property
        prices quite dramatically over the past several years. The median cost of a house in Bowen
        has increased 330% between 2002 and 2008, while the median cost of a lot of residential
        land has increased 492% over the same period.            These increases partially reflect an
        increase in the quality of the houses and land coming on the market, such as land releases
        in new estates, including Whitsunday Shores. However, most of these new estates are land
        only, so the increase in the median cost of a house reflects the increasing cost of property
        in Bowen. Given the relatively low socio-economic circumstances of many households in
        Bowen, many existing residents may find it difficult to purchase property.        As such, this
        component will often be competing with the other demand groups for the rental properties,
        which also has affordability implications. These are discussed in the next points.


    2. Strong Demand for Rental Properties
        There is strong demand for rental properties across Bowen, particularly in the locality /
        town centre of Bowen. Real estate agents indicated that rental properties are not usually
        on the market very long. The demand for rental properties is from existing residents, those
        who do not have the means to purchase their own home, seasonal workers looking to share
        accommodation, and workers from major projects who do not want to live in the workers
        accommodation.


    3. Affordability of Rental Properties
        The project team has been made aware, during discussions with real estate agents, that
        major project workers can receive rent subsidies of up to $500 per week, and that this has
        had a major impact on the affordability of rental properties through artificially pushing up
        the rental prices. According to real estate agents, an average rental price for a 3 bedroom
        house is $300 - $400 per week and good quality apartments are $220 - $350 per week. As
        noted previously, many households in Bowen have relatively low household incomes, and
        real estate agents noted that these households are finding it difficult to afford rentals.


    4. Seasonality of Demand
        Consultation findings indicate that demand for all types of accommodation varies
        considerably over the year, particularly accommodation favoured by the majority of
        seasonal workers, such as backpacker accommodation and caravan parks. The agricultural
        season starts from about April and ends around September.            Given that this group of
        people generally demand backpacker hostels, this type of accommodation experiences high
        demand throughout this season.       Consultation with proprietors of these accommodation
        types indicated that their premises are continuously at capacity during these months.
        However, outside of the agricultural ‘picking’ season (termed the off-peak season)
        occupancy rates are so low that many close for months at a time.           Likewise, when the




Final Report           P. 28
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        tourist and picking seasons overlap (with the peak tourist season occurring during the
        winter months from June through to August, particularly with interstate caravan users from
        southern states), there is very high demand for cheaper temporary accommodation such as
        caravan parks.


    5. Major Project Impacts
        Given the nature of the potential major projects planned for the study area and the type of
        construction and operational work involved, it is forecast that almost all the workforce
        required, particularly the construction workforce, will consist entirely of male workers.
        Contracts awarded with regard to the major projects are often of varying timeframes, and
        as such, workers need to be accommodated for varying lengths of time. Real estate agents
        mentioned that often these workers have minimum standards of accommodation in their
        contracts and many receive generous subsidies which act to inflate rent prices for other
        renters in the market and creates a subsequent shift of demand to cheaper alternatives
        such as caravan parks.


In addition to these issues, consultation with key stakeholders, including discussions with
stakeholders within Gladstone that have undergone similar experiences to that which is facing
Bowen (see Section 4.2), indicate that there are 3 main target groups. These are:


    1. Residents and operational workers - It is anticipated that operational workers brought
        into the area will be integrated with the existing residential community and that both
        residents and operational workers will prefer separate houses, semi-detached dwellings,
        flats and houses or flats attached to a shop/office. Affordable housing (both rental and for
        purchase) will also be important to a proportion of this population. It is further assumed
        that while some of the operational workers will be sourced from the resident population,
        others will be attracted to the region;


    2. Construction workers – Based on similar mining projects in Queensland and Western
        Australia, it is assumed that a large majority of these workers will be accommodated in
        single person quarters (SPQ) accommodation (termed temporary workers’ accommodation
        throughout the report) due to the large numbers of these workers and the short term
        nature of their stay in the area. The vast majority of these workers will be attracted to the
        region from elsewhere. It should be noted however that some level of construction workers
        may be attracted to existing townships, may bring families to the area, and may come from
        the study area.


    3. Tourists and seasonal workers - The tourists and seasonal workers are assumed to
        prefer similar types of accommodation which includes motels, caravan parks, backpacker
        hostels, holiday apartments and cabins. Seasonal workers are assumed to take up the vast
        majority of this group, as tourism, although on the increase, is still evolving in the Bowen
        Region. It is assumed that there will be a modest increase in tourism based on forecasting
        by Tourism Research Australia; however any future changes will depend on the strength of
        any tourism strategy, business development, marketing and infrastructure development.


These research findings together with the planning principles in the following section helped inform
the potential responses in Section 8.




Final Report              P. 29
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




3.7            Summary of Key Issues and Challenges
Based upon the review of the planning policy context, together with outcomes from consultation
and data analysis, the following issues have been identified and are summarised below.              These
issues have helped to inform the analysis, policy advice and potential avenues for consideration.


    Population     growth      impacts   from    major    infrastructure     projects    and   industrial
    expansion – Significant population growth is predicted for the Bowen Abbot Point study area,
    adding to the existing pressures on the region for accommodation and infrastructure provision.
    Due to the size and timing of the major projects proposed for the region, population growth is
    not likely to increase in a consistent and predictable manner over the study period. Instead,
    the region is likely to see underlying steady growth from natural population increase coupled
    with significant fluctuations in population due to the commencement and cessation of
    construction around the major projects.       Suitable solutions therefore need to be found such
    that all resident and non-resident workers, and their families, can be adequately housed
    without impacting on other groups within the community, or leaving significant ‘holes’ in the
    community fabric once the concentrated requirement for additional housing disappears. Given
    the significant and time specific population increases (and decreases) expected from the
    proposed construction work in the region (that being an increase and decrease of some
    additional 40% from the base population at any one time), solutions to account for fluctuations
    in the population cannot only rely on accommodation within the existing community, but must
    include land that is able to be commissioned and decommissioned at short notice, without
    negatively impacting on the existing community.         Throughout the study process, areas that
    were considered suitable for hosting workers’ accommodation, while still adding value to the
    existing community, have been identified.       Similarly there needs to be adequate community
    facilities both for existing communities and to cater for large increase in the number of
    temporary workers.


    Infrastructure will be required to support growth – Given the potential for significant
    growth in the Bowen population, urban and community infrastructure provision will be a critical
    component of ensuring a sustainable and economically prosperous future. Assessments of the
    development infrastructure currently in place in the Bowen Region indicate that these systems
    are already at capacity, particularly the water and sewerage networks. Therefore, regardless
    of the solutions posed, augmentation to the infrastructure networks will be required if
    additional population is to be accommodated.         Key requirements of this study and potential
    future investigations will be to efficiently provide infrastructure that meets Council’s standards,
    while facilitating development. Ensuring that costs are attributed fairly and equitably amongst
    the beneficiaries likely to gain from the development occurring is also a key consideration. A
    high standard of community infrastructure is especially important in the ability of the region to
    attract workers and particularly encourage temporary workers to become permanent residents
    of the area.


    Good quality and productive agricultural land should be protected - The good quality
    and productive agricultural land within the region is significant, not just for the region, but for
    Queensland and Australia. The soils within the area are some of the richest and most diverse
    in Queensland, and cannot be replicated elsewhere.         In addition, given the drought in other
    growing areas of Australia, such as Victoria, the importance of the land in Bowen becomes even




Final Report           P. 30
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




    more significant.   The Bowen District Growers Association has indicated that they have had
    enquiries from several growers in Victoria interested in learning more about the Bowen growing
    region.    Therefore, the agricultural sectors remain an important part of the economy for the
    region (and for Queensland and Australia) and must be protected.           The expansion of urban
    development should not encroach into productive agricultural areas that have long term
    sustainable potential for agriculture.


    Challenges associated with accommodating seasonal workers – The agricultural industry
    is the largest employer in Bowen, employing approximately 22% of the resident population. In
    addition to these employees, there are a large number of workers who come to Bowen as
    temporary workers during the picking season. The need to accommodate seasonal workers is
    an existing and ongoing accommodation issue that will only be exacerbated by the expected
    influx of major project workers.     The seasonal workers are often international backpackers
    undertaking the work to gain an extension on their visa or skilled migrants brought in from
    overseas specifically to undertake this work. Alternatively they may be workers that travel up
    and down the coast following the harvesting and picking seasons for different crops. The
    accommodation needs of these workers tend to be affordable, communal living arrangements
    such as backpacker hostels (which are particularly popular), camping, caravans and shared
    rental accommodation. Anecdotal information from real estate agents indicates that in some
    share accommodation situations, it is not uncommon for up to 15 people to share one house, in
    a bid to minimise housing costs. The exact extent of seasonal workers stays and overcrowding
    should be explored further and inform a more detailed implementation strategy.             From the
    Consultant Team’s perspective this type of solution is not considered desirable.                  The
    backpacker hostels act as a link between workers and employers by organising work for
    backpackers and transportation to the farms.              Given the nature of the work, the
    accommodation requirements of these workers is very seasonal. Proprietors of hostels and
    caravan parks mentioned that during picking season they are almost constantly at capacity but
    in the off-season they usually close for up to 3 months due to lack of demand. The seasonality
    of demand limits the financial feasibility of increasing the numbers of rooms or attracting new
    entrants into the market. Avenues that should be followed to assist this situation are discussed
    in the report.


    Provision of a diverse range of housing options for both residents and the non-
    resident population – Access to affordable housing and rental accommodation in the region is
    a pressing issue for many sectors of the community, low income and other disadvantaged
    sectors. This would include seasonal workers and other key service workers who are critical to
    the local economy and ensuring a desirable level of community services. There is a need for
    better use of existing urban land to provide a diversity of housing types such that pricing
    options can better match the workforce mix of both residents and non-residents. This presents
    a significant challenge for the region, and while some solutions are posed within the report,
    frequent monitoring and assessment will be required to ensure that these sectors are being
    adequately housed into the future.


    The Priority Infrastructure Planning (PIPRICS) should be reviewed to ensure that the
    Priority Infrastructure Area (PIA) can appropriately service the expected growth for
    the next 10 to 15 years – Council have a draft PIPRICS in place, which demarcates a PIA.
    The PIA is an area that shows the area intended be serviced with water, sewerage, storm




Final Report            P. 31
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




    water, transport and community purposes infrastructure over the next 10 to 15 years.               The
    investigations completed in this study have shown that there will be land required outside the
    currently demarcated PIA, particularly for area of temporary workers’ accommodation. These
    areas will be required in order to ensure that the area can adequately house the expected
    number of workers that are likely to flow to the region over certain time periods. The PIPRICS
    should be reviewed to include the areas suggested in the report, and include the plans for the
    infrastructure that will adequately service these populations. Rural areas cannot be included in
    a PIA, and there rezoning may be required.           Alternatively areas outside the PIA that are
    approved for development can be conditioned to pay for the cost of additional trunk
    infrastructure.


    Also, infrastructure systems within the existing PIA should be assessed to determine the
    augmentation required to the existing infrastructure, should the expected additional population
    within the community result. A related requirement will be that the Planning Scheme is
    adequately updated to ensure that the development assessment processes include appropriate
    ‘tests’ and ‘social impact assessments’ such that future workers’ accommodation include
    appropriate levels of development and community infrastructure.


    Identification of land use requirements for social infrastructure and services – Further
    to the above point, the related social and community infrastructure implications from major
    projects and industrial expansion will need to be determined and provisions for these made.
Some of the specific community facilities and actions likely to be required include;
        an upgrade to the Bowen Library;
        addition aged care (nursing care and retirement village);
        additional child care and school facilities;
        improved health care;
        youth services and facilities;
        TAFE programs and training programs; and
        Library services targeted to temporary workers




Final Report            P. 32
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   4             Background Research and Recommended
                 Planning Principles
In order to ensure the information and responses provided through this study are appropriate,
extensive literature searches were conducted and all available literature on good practice
approaches reviewed. A key finding of the research was that although Queensland and Australia
have numerous communities that have been significantly impacted by the resources industry and
by large infrastructure projects, there is an extremely limited amount of research on the
accommodation impacts and best practice responses associated with these types of development.
The available information generally focuses on mining communities which are often remote, tend to
have experienced rapid growth, and have had a large influx of short to medium term workers. This
has often led to a rapid demand for accommodation, facilities, and services, resulting in
communities that face serious housing and social issues.                 The impacts which have been
experienced in these communities are similar to that which Bowen is likely to experience.               The
majority of the major projects expected in the study area are in close proximity to the existing
Bowen community, which is different from some other examples; however, any differences are duly
noted.


Recent literature on housing trends in resource impacted towns has highlighted a number of issues
in these communities. Examples of towns include Moranbah, Dysart and Clermont. Providers of
temporary accommodation in areas such as these were also reviewed and assessed for their
appropriateness for the Bowen Abbot Point study area.


Gladstone has also been reviewed to highlight the implications for communities that have
experienced the rapid growth associated with large industrial or infrastructure projects. However,
it is noted that the Gladstone example is different to the Bowen Abbot Point example, given the
extent of the existing community and the long history associated with mining and related industries
(2006 population in Gladstone of 29,085 versus 2006 population in Bowen of 13,1356).


Upon the review of easily accessible and infrastructure ready land in Bowen (refer Section 5), it
was found that few land parcels were readily available. Given the shortage of readily available and
appropriate land in Bowen, there was also the requirement to determine the appropriateness or
otherwise of using part of the APSDA in Bowen for workers’ accommodation. As such, this section
also provides an assessment of the purpose of State development areas (SDAs) and some general
findings     regarding   the     appropriateness   or   otherwise   of   including   temporary    workers’
accommodation in these areas. However it is noted that this issue is dependent on the location
and purpose of individual SDAs.


Despite the efforts to assemble pertinent information associated with accommodating a temporary
population in a best practice fashion, it is again worth noting that the literature on good practice
solutions is minimal. As such, the consultant team supplemented their findings with good planning
practice developed from first principles. The principles which the consultant team consider relevant
to Bowen are included at the end of this section.          Also included at the end of this section are
general principles for the planning and provision of community infrastructure. The information and

       6
           ABD 2006 Census Data




Final Report             P. 33
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




outcomes of all the investigations undertaken to date led directly to the advice provided in this
report.



4.1            Background Research

4.1.1          Impacts of Major Projects on Housing

A recent report produced by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI) notes
that one of the most dominant issues associated with mining towns is housing shortages and flow-
on effects of the resulting high rent levels.     This is evidenced in the towns of Emerald and
Moranbah in Queensland which recorded rents as high as $700 and $900 per week respectively for
a four bedroom house (Rolfe et al, 2007).       Not only is rental accommodation unaffordable, but
housing prices are also exorbitant, with some mining communities experiencing median house
prices that are greater than some metropolitan areas.      This is particularly the case in the mining
communities of Emerald, Moranbah and Nebo in Queensland, which have all recorded a high
increase in median housing prices (DLGPSR, 2006).


Discussions with real estate agents in Bowen support the AHURI findings for the Bowen
environment. However, Bowen has even further complicating factors. Discussions highlighted the
strong demand for rental properties from existing residents and project workers in Bowen as well
as strong demand from seasonal workers and some demand from tourists.                The presence and
importance of other major economic contributors, such as agriculture and horticulture, can be
considered a differentiating feature of Bowen when compared to many of the mining towns that
have been reviewed.


Despite the strong demand for housing, over the last 6 months, real estate agents report that the
sales market for properties, which is mainly from existing residents and project workers, has
experienced a drop, due mainly to the uncertainty surrounding the global financial crisis.


Nonetheless, real estate agents noted a significant rise in rents and house prices over the last five
or so years, which they attributed to high demand from construction workers, coupled with the
generous rent subsidies these workers receive.         In addition, the agents suggested that the
subsidies paid to some workers often have the effect of inflating rental prices and disadvantaging
permanent residents and other non-subsidised workers.


A report on the Bowen Basin produced by McKenzie et al (2008) again supported the stance that
mining activity has impacted on housing affordability. The report noted that there has been:
    1.    Considerable rent increases – the median rent for a three bedroom house increased by
          142% ($123 to $198) between 2001 and 2006.
    2.    Significant house price increases – the median cost of purchasing a three bedroom house
          rose from $51,300 in 2001 to $196,100 in 2006.


The impacts of housing shortages and high rental prices in resource communities were documented
in 2006, when “A Sustainable Futures Framework for Queensland Mining Towns” discussion paper
was released.     This report highlighted that due to high rental accommodation prices as well as
housing prices, low income earners found it difficult to find affordable accommodation.          This is




Final Report            P. 34
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




further supported by McKenzie et al (2008) who emphasises that high rental prices made it
unviable for people to work in low income jobs and live in the areas with high rents.


According to Rolfe et al (2007), in mining areas with tight housing markets, the resulting demands
for private housing are not being met by local housing markets due to several reasons including:
        Limited availability and release of land in some communities;
        Limited availability of building contractors (and housing for them);
        Caution of investors due to project uncertainty;
        Constraints in infrastructure provision in some communities; and
        Constraints and delays in planning and approvals processes.


Anecdotal evidence suggests that some companies provide a level of infrastructure and service
together with housing in a bid to attract and retain workers. This occurred in Weipa, Jabiru, Roxby
Downs and some Pilbara communities such as Pannawonica.


In the case of Collinsville, there are existing accommodation facilities, including a dining hall, that
have   been     integrated   into   an   existing   neighbourhood    for   many   years.     They    provide
accommodation primarily for workers associated with the Collinsville and Sonoma coal mines, and
anecdotal evidence suggests that there have been few problems.                    The existing Collinsville
businesses also benefit from this arrangement as the workers are more likely to seek basic services
in the existing community. Council estimates that this accommodation may account for between
25-35% of the neighbourhood housing stock. This is an example of how temporary worker
accommodation within existing communities can work well when it is at a scale that can be easily
integrated into the community.


4.1.2          Research on Accommodation Providers

Temporary accommodation responses for workers associated with large infrastructure or resources
industry projects have often included the use of private sector providers. As a result, research was
undertaken to better understand temporary accommodation providers, the attributes of their
products and their key services. This research was based on information from available literature
and statistics, as well as the outcomes of workshops, meetings and fieldwork, and limited
consultation.


The four key temporary accommodation providers researched, included: The Mac Services Group
Limited (The MAC); Australian Mining Villages Pty Ltd (AMV); AUSCO Modular and Sodexo. These
temporary accommodation providers have been involved in the construction stage, the operation
and provision of services, or both.


The MAC is an Australian-owned public company that supplies accommodation services to the coal
mining, construction, resources and tourism industries. MAC is currently the largest owner and
operator of accommodation facilities and services to the resource industry in Australia. The
company has five service divisions including; The MAC Accommodation, The MAC Construction, The
MAC Property Maintenance, The MAC Travel and The MAC Linen Services.                    The company also
utilises outside suppliers when demand exceeds production capacity, and has delivered both the
construction and operational stages of temporary accommodation villages including the provision of
services.




Final Report             P. 35
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




The MAC has designed, built and currently operates five accommodation villages in Central
Queensland, which serve approximately 4,500 residents.        The company provides a high level of
amenity, landscaping, and community space, and seeks to integrate into the local area through the
use of a Community Relations Plan.        MAC notes that the most commercially optimal scale of
accommodation in remote areas is around 2,000 rooms.              The 2,000 rooms would generally
accommodate a single person; however some couples may be accommodated, increasing the
number of people slightly above 2,000. However, it is noted that this is in remote areas and that a
scale such as this would require the full complement of social infrastructure and services. Workers’
accommodation can be provided on a scale much lower than this.                On the issue of scale,
consultation conducted with emergency services and state agencies prior to SGS being appointed
to the current study indicated that there is known to be many problems associated with such a
number of temporary workers in one location. This is particularly evident due to the general age
group being from early twenties to mid forties, the fact that the work being conducted is quite
physically demanding, and that the vast majority of occupants/workers are male.            The scale of
accommodation thought to be more applicable, particularly if close/adjacent to town but not within
the existing area, was around the 500 room level.          The City of Geraldton-Greenough’s local
planning policy in Western Australian adopts an even more conservative level at between 200 to
500 room size for the similar types of accommodation (see following text box for further details).
However, as noted above the number of persons per camp may be higher given some couples
being accommodated in one room.


Australian Mining Villages Pty Ltd (AMV) is an Australian owned and operated business that
specialises in mining camp accommodation and associated infrastructure. AMV focus on the design
and construction stages of supplying temporary accommodation, whereas outside suppliers provide
operational services such as catering. Their villages tend to located be in remote locations.


Ausco Modular provides modular, relocatable, portable and transportable buildings in Australia. The
mining and resource sector are the company’s key market. They provide a range of building types,
including accommodation, kitchens, amenities, offices, classrooms and other multi-purpose
buildings. They focus on the provision of structures and not accommodation management or other
services.


Sodexo is an international company that provides integrated services management and food
services. Their target markets include remote sites and they provide a range of services such as
building and property maintenance and landscaping, cleaning, reception and concierge, waste
management, security, laundry, catering, recreational facilities, and management consultation
services. They focus on the provision of services rather than facilities.


Research into temporary accommodation providers indicates that they generally focus on a specific
aspect of temporary accommodation, whether it is the construction and/or relocation of structures,
or the provision of a range of accommodation services - with one exception, they do not look at a
holistic package that seeks to provide a well designed quality living environment.


   Box 1: Provisions of the City of Geraldton-Greenough Temporary Accommodation Camps
   Planning Policy




Final Report           P. 36
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   Location: The particular location of any proposed camp is at the discretion of the local government and will
   depend on the capability, suitability and appropriateness of the site for the proposal. In general, unless the
   local government grants approval otherwise, temporary accommodation or construction camps shall not be
   located in a position or area that would adversely affect residential, rural residential or rural smallholdings
   uses or lifestyles or that would detract from any particular scenic or visual attraction, adjacent to recognised
   tourist routes, unless suitably screened or designed for permanent use,           within any environmentally
   sensitive areas or buffer zones and the local government would give favourable consideration to proposals
   which enhance existing tourist accommodation facilities.
   Density: Camps within urban areas will not exceed 200 beds and camps remote from existing urban uses
   will not exceed 500 beds. The local government may consider variations to the above requirements, subject
   to the proponent providing adequate justification for the proposed variation(s) to the satisfaction of the local
   government.
   Variety of Accommodation: Council's preference is for the camp(s) to provide for a variety of
   accommodation (married and single) units within any camp to promote good social integration and well
   being in keeping with local community aspirations and standards.
   Recreation and Community Facilities: It is preferred that the workers utilise the recreation and
   community services available within the existing towns and settlements throughout the region when the
   camp is located within reasonable proximity to these facilities.




Finally, because most of these companies market and respond to the needs of remote locations,
there is little best practice to suggest what works. The MAC have sought to significantly improve
the temporary accommodation village concept through its attention to the physical design,
landscaping, common facilities for social interaction and attention to the community development
needs that accompany these types of special purpose residential villages. The level of amenity that
The MAC provide should be mandated in the Bowen region as at least a minimum standard and this
should be facilitated through the Temporary Local Planning Instrument - Code for assessing
temporary worker accommodation (developed by WRC).                     It is considered that the design of
temporary accommodation should consider uses beyond the project life (e.g. accommodating
seasonal workers or backpackers). Depending on the location and possible future uses, the level of
amenity and design may vary.           However stand alone facilities should consider adequate open
space, good quality landscaping, communal space, recreational facilities, convenience retail, a
range of accommodation options (e.g. for couples), telecommunication and internet services, small
scale library services, and programs of social activities.


Details associated with these four providers are noted in the table below, and further detail about
the background research can be found in Appendix C. It should be noted that the information in
the following table is a sample of accommodation providers examined for this study and does not
represent a comprehensive list of all accommodation providers.




Final Report              P. 37
                                                                                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 8 .        O ver view of Work er Accommodation Pr oviders

    Temporary            Overview/Structure of                    Locations                Scale         Facilities and Services                        Comments
Accommodation                     Provider                                                                         Provided
      Provider
                      The MAC is an Australian-owned         The MAC Village,           - 900 rooms   - The ‘Zest’ eatery facility (serves   - Established in 2006
The Mac Services      public company that supplies           Coppabella, Qld.           - 800 ha      two cooked meals per day with          Numerous areas for socialisation
Group Limited (The    accommodation services to the                                                   ‘ToGo’ lunch options)                  and interaction
MAC)                  coal mining, construction,             (150 kms west of                         - A Hub Tavern facility (open to
                      resource and tourism industries.       Mackay. Coppabella                       guests and the general public)         - Generously landscaped
                      The MAC operates under the             is midway between                        - A convenience retail store
                      following divisions:                   Nebo and Moranbah                        (open 24hours, offers a variety of
                      - The MAC Accommodation                and it services                          goods such as snacks, grocery
                      The MAC Construction                   surrounding coal                         items and other basic essentials)
                      - The MAC Property Maintenance         mines)                                   - A Gymnasium ( Includes
                      - The MAC Travel                                                                weights, weight machines, cardio
                      - The MAC Linen Services                                                        machines)
                      MAC also utilises outside                                                       -Outdoor tables and benches
                      suppliers when demand exceeds
                      production capacity.




                                                             The MAC Village,           - 733 rooms   - Includes a caravan park              - Established in 1997
                                                             Dysart, Qld.               - 19.57 ha    - Dining and kitchen facilities        - Dysart has a current population
                                                                                                      - Administration facilities            of 4,000 people
                                                             (280km south west
                                                             of Mackay)




                                                             The MAC Village,                         - Outdoor tables and chairs
                                                             Middlemount, Qld.
                                                             The MAC Village,           - 1056        - Dining room and kitchen              - Established in 1996
                                                             Moranbah, Qld.             rooms         facilities                             - adjoining the northern edge of
                                                             (191km west of             - 6.71 ha     - Administration facilities            Moranbah, so good opportunity
                                                             Mackay)                                                                         for integration and use of existing
                                                                                                                                             services
                                                                                                                                             - includes a store, café, gym and
                                                                                                                                             landscaped recreation areas
                                                                                                                                             - Moranbah is a single-purpose
                                                                                                                                             mining town with a population of
                                                                                                                                             nearly 8,000 people (including
                                                                                                                                             those not counted as usual
                                                                                                                                             residents, i.e. temporary workers
                                                                                                                                             and visitors).
                                                             The MAC Village,           - 600 rooms   - The “Coolibah Tavern” which is       - Established in 1998
                                                             Nebo, Qld.                 - 8.78 ha     available for use by village           - On site art include: a mural
                                                                                                      guests and the general public          series, sculpture and the Pioneer
                                                             (91kms west of                           - Dining room and kitchen              Tracks of Queensland
                                                             Mackay)                                  facilities                             Photographic Gallery
                                                                                                      - Administration facilities            - Nebo is surrounded by cattle
                                                                                                      - Outdoor tables and benches           grazing and agricultural crops,
                                                                                                      - Waste water treatment                and has a Shire population of
                                                                                                                                             approx. 2,500 people (ABS, Place
                                                                                                                                             of Usual Residence).


                                                             The MAC Village,                         - Dining room facilities
                                                             Kambalda, Qld.
                                                             The MAC Village
                                                             Karratha, WA.
                                                             The MAC Village, Port                    - 1,200 rooms
                                                             Hedland.
                                                             (being established
                                                             and another up for
                                                             tender)
                      AMV is an Australian owned and
Australian Mining                                                                                     Accommodation designs include:
                      operated business specialising in
Villages Pty Ltd                                                                                      -The Stationhand
                      Mining Camp Accommodation
(AMV)                 Solutions and associated                                                        -The Jackaroo
                      infrastructure. It offers a range of                                            -The Roustabout
                      services, including; consulting,
                                                                                                      -The Offsider
                      accommodation design, site
                                                                                                      -The Foreman - 1 & 2 -Bedroom
                      design and layout, development
                      approvals, drafting tender                                                      Cabins




Final Report                                                                    P. 38
                                                                                                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




                        documents, and mining camp
                                                                                                         -The Executive - 1 Bedroom
                        solutions.
                                                                                                         Cabin
                                                                                                         -The Statesman - 1 & 2 Bedroom
                                                                                                         Cabins
                                                                                                         AMV can provide facilities such
                                                                                                         as: swimming pools, tennis
                                                                                                         courts, gymnasiums, village
                                                                                                         stores, administration buildings,
                                                                                                         squash courts, rooms for people
                                                                                                         with disabilities, or simple
                                                                                                         laundry and ablution blocks.
                        Ausco Modular provides modular,       Kingfisher Stayover        - 250 rooms.    Accommodation types include:        - 15 offices throughout Australia
Ausco Modular           relocatable, portable and             Village, Karratha,                         - Standard                          with at least one office in each
                        transportable buildings in            WA.                                        - Executive                         state and territory.
                        Australia, with the mining and                                                   - Studio single
                        resource sector being a key                                                                                          - Head office is located in
                        market. AUSCO Modular                                                            Other facilities include:           Brisbane, Queensland.
                        specialise in designing and                                                      - Restaurant
                        manufacturing buildings, as well                                                 - Gym
                        as hiring and sales services. They                                               - Swimming pool
                        provide a range of building types,                                               - Tavern
                        including; accommodation,
                        kitchens, amenities, offices,
                        classrooms and other multi-
                        purpose buildings.




Sodexo                  Sodexo is an international            Office locations           - Large         The range of services they
                        company with establishments           include:                   international   deliver include:
                        across the world, including           - St Leonards, New         company         - Building and property
                        Australia. They provide services      South Wales                with various    maintenance and landscaping
                        under the following four key          - Camberwell,              locations       - Domestic and industrial
                        areas: technical services, soft       Victoria                   around the      cleaning
                        services, food services, and          - Perth, Western           world.          - Reception and concierge
                        health and safety services.           Australia                  - Five          - Waste management
                                                              - Hendra, Queensland       companies       - Security
                                                              - Hove, South              based within    - Laundry
                                                              Australia                  Australia.      - Catering
                                                                                                         - Provision of food safety
                                                                                                         information and training
                                                                                                         - Management of wetmess and
                                                                                                         recreational facilities
                                                                                                         - Project design and
                                                                                                         management consultation
                                                                                                         services
                                                                                                         - Airport transportation services
                                                                                                         - Retail services



Note: This information in this table is a reflection of those providers researched as a consequence of this study and is not an extensive or exhaustive list of providers.




Final Report                                                                     P. 39
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




4.2            State Development Areas and the Demand for
               Temporary Accommodation
There are limited areas throughout Queensland that have been declared as a State Development
Area (SDA). SDAs are created in the public interest, including for the purpose of providing for the
establishment of industry, essential services or an infrastructure corridor. The Development
Scheme for the Abbot Point SDA includes objectives regarding the provision of land for industrial
development of regional, State and national significance, the efficient and effective functionality of
the land for industry and the protection of environmental values. The Abbot Point SDA is located
20km west of Bowen and is generally separated from sensitive receiver uses by the Mount Little
mountain range and by Mount Roundback.


4.2.1          Demand for Temporary Accommodation

As noted previously, even without the major projects, high levels of temporary agricultural
employment in Bowen causes strong seasonality in the demand and supply of labour.                   This
seasonality impacts the property market, creating accommodation shortages in peak seasons but
much lower demand in the off-season.


Currently, there is a high level of use of temporary accommodation options such as caravan parks
and cabins by seasonal and construction workers during the ‘picking’ periods, and this is likely to
be maintained into the future.     As has been discussed, seasonal workers in the horticultural
industry often opt for cheaper accommodation, and anecdotal evidence indicates many of the
workers are combining the work with travel plans across Australia. As noted, in peak periods, the
seasonal workers can fully utilise the current accommodation in this sector, but significant
vacancies can be left in the off-peak season.      Discussions with operators indicate that the low
demand in the off-season reduces the incentive to provide more accommodation.


Occupation of caravans and cabins by seasonal workers can mean that there is very little tourist
accommodation available during the peak periods.


The major projects and mining operations have generally high staffing levels, both operational and
construction, as can be seen in Section 6.     Anecdotal information suggests that in some cases,
provision of accommodation for workers for major projects and mining operations across Australia,
has been driven by maximising commercial considerations for the project/operation.             This can
mean that the end result is low cost housing (or substandard housing) on cheap land.                 The
implication can be that inappropriate living standards result and in many cases, little integration
with nearby communities occurs.


Alternatively, many of these major project operations are able to pay a certain subsidy for
housing/accommodation. This can be the impetus for inflation in rental prices as the subsidies are
often determined without regard to the market in which they are vying for the housing, and there
is anecdotal evidence from real estate agents that this is occurring in Bowen. In addition, there




Final Report                                     P. 40
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




has been evidence that low-income residents are being squeezed out of the property rental market
in Bowen because of rent increases caused by subsidised accommodation for construction workers.
As has been shown in the research above, housing shortages and increases in property and rental
prices are often the outcomes for areas where there is a large influx of construction workers for
mining or major industrial projects, with some mining communities experiencing median house
prices that are greater than some metropolitan areas.


Consideration of accommodation impacts on Bowen, Merinda and Collinsville due to major projects
in the SDA must take into account the long term and expanding role of the SDA and the Port of
Abbot Point.     Focussing on individual projects can set an unwanted precedent for less than
workable outcomes over the longer term. Taking a strategic and long term view will ensure that
the cumulative effects are taken into account and that the mitigation of impacts is distributed
amongst the beneficiaries fairly. Our recommendations aim to ensure that the quality of life for
residents, workers and visitors to the study area is maintained as a minimum, and enhanced where
possible.



4.3            Recommendations for Worker Accommodation
Some broad recommendations regarding the general location (including within the SDA or not) of
operational and construction worker accommodation is provided below:


1.   The SDA is an important industrial site and provides crucial land for the mining industry and
     large scale industrial projects. There are a limited number of places where development and
     infrastructure of this nature can be located, therefore it is important to reserve the SDA for
     such purposes. Even in the early stages of development of the SDA, allowance for workers’
     accommodation in the SDA could set unwanted precedents.           Residential use in the SDA will
     limit the potential of the SDA to develop over the long term and will severely limit the range of
     permitted industrial use both on the residential site itself, but also in the surrounding lands
     because of residential sensitivities. This will make the SDA much less attractive to a range of
     potential industrial operators.   It should also be noted that any residential approvals would
     restrict industrial uses in the interim until development proceeds or the approval lapses and
     this could be a period of up to four years.     Examples of uses likely to be incompatible with
     residential accommodation include the stockpiling of coal as proposed by the Waratah Coal
     project and the constant noise and vibration from possible 24 hour, 7 days per week operations
     associated with this and various other industries.


     The Initial Advice Statement (IAS) provided for the Waratah Coal project stated that noise
     emissions were unlikely to significantly affect the township of Merinda due to the separation
     distance.   Given that Merinda is located 9.2 kilometres from the SDA any residential
     accommodation proposals closer to the SDA should only be considered if they can satisfy
     appropriate noise and emissions standards for the worst case industrial uses within the SDA.
     Threats associated with major industrial uses, such as dust emissions, hazardous materials,
     and flammable materials, pose a serious risk to the safety of any residents located in the SDA.


2.   As shown previously, workers camps within mining areas have been a solution used widely by
     mining companies. However, industrial sites such as the SDA and other projects in the area




Final Report                                      P. 41
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




     have different characteristics to mining operations.      Mines typically have a fixed life and are
     usually located in remote, inland locations where alternative locations near services and
     facilities are all but impossible.        Although worker accommodation within the mining
     environment may be the best solution for mining projects, it does not follow that this applies to
     the provision of accommodation for all major industry and infrastructure projects in all
     locations. Given the potential size and number of major projects anticipated to occur within
     the region, Bowen is likely to require a number of workers’ accommodation sites. However, it
     is recommended that these should be at a safe distance from the SDA, in a location that would
     maximise the benefit to the existing Town area, and provide workers with access to services
     and facilities.


3.   There are a large number of constraints that limit the possible location of accommodation for
     temporary workers associated with the large scale projects proposed for SDA, the wider region,
     and the expansion and ongoing operation of the Port of Abbot Point. These include:
         a.    The incompatibility of co-locating residential and large scale industrial uses within the
               SDA as discussed in point 1 and the restrictions this may put on the use of the SDA,
               and;
         b.    Recent constraints mapping completed by the DIP indicate that once environmental
               constraints are taken out of the site, the area left for industrial purposes is not as large
               as first expected. Given the extent of potential industrial activity in the future, the
               highest and best use of this SDA is in giving preference to industrial activity. Therefore
               residential uses in the SDA would seriously compromise the development of the area
               for its intended purpose, with resulting economic impacts on the region.


4.   Currently, only a handful of major projects are planned for the SDA, however it is likely that
     over the next 10-15 years as the port capacity expands, the construction of other major
     projects in the SDA is likely to occur.      This could mean that construction workers may be
     required on a longer term basis, establishing a need for semi-permanent accommodation that
     provides the flexibility to accommodate families or couples and not just single persons. Should
     this occur, further accommodation within or adjacent to the township of Bowen would be
     desirable.


5.   Consolidation of urban development is an important urban planning principle supported by
     State Government and Council. Consolidation ensures efficient provision of infrastructure and
     services and promotes community cohesion. Compliance with this principle would support the
     provision of worker accommodation in or adjacent to existing urban areas.
         a.    Collinsville is located approximately 85 kilometres from the SDA; therefore locating
               workers accommodation in Collinsville for the SDA workers would be inefficient and
               costly.
         b.    Although only located about 10 kilometres from the SDA, the location of worker
               accommodation at Merinda township may be considered for temporary workers
               accommodation provided a number of key issues are satisfactorily addressed. These
               include:
               valuable good quality agricultural land that surrounds Merinda is not unnecessarily
               impacted (as noted earlier GQAL is significant to the ongoing economic benefit of the
               region, Queensland and Australia);




Final Report                                        P. 42
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




               access to essential services can be achieved (i.e. community, social, recreational,
               health, etc);
               potential social impacts on Merinda are acceptable (this is particularly important given
               that current approvals allow for 1,000 additional persons above the 2007 estimated
               resident population of 242);
               land use conflicts do not result (e.g. health hazards associated with pesticide and
               herbicide application and use, noise and light spill); and
               potential flooding impacts are addressed.


        c.     The location of worker accommodation adjacent to the Bowen township is most
               desirable as this will provide economic benefits and the opportunity for better social
               cohesion between workers and existing residents. Having the worker accommodation
               located adjacent to the existing community is also likely to minimise the cost of
               providing additional infrastructure, given that this will be in close proximity to existing
               networks. Locating workers here and requiring some level of use of the towns facilities
               assists in ensuring that a level of community ownership of the town by the workers is
               present.   However, it should be noted that the area around Bowen is heavily
               constrained by flooding, environmental issues, good quality agricultural land, and
               potential for land use conflicts between agricultural activities and urban settlement.


6.   In addition, locating the worker accommodation adjacent to the existing areas within Bowen
     where infrastructure provision is more efficiently accommodated provides more flexibility in the
     use of the worker accommodation.         If new projects are announced in the SDA the worker
     accommodation can be reused. Otherwise the worker accommodation could be adapted and
     reused by seasonal workers, tourists, or aged/retirees. Depending on the level of integration
     with the community they may also be able to be used by existing residents unable to find
     rental accommodation. All these options require that the amenity of the accommodation is at
     an appropriate level for long term use and integration with the existing urban form.


7.   Ensuring that a component of the worker population can be located within the existing town
     centre is also essential. This could be achieved through the development of a range of housing
     stock from detached dwellings, to townhouses, and small scale units. The provision of a range
     of accommodation types may allow workers to bring their partners or families with them, and
     assist in longer term community sustainability.



4.4            General Accommodation and Community
               Infrastructure Principles
Given the preceding discussion on the background research and policy advice, a number of high
level accommodation principles have been identified. These principles are outlined below and have
been developed to outline desired outcomes and more detailed recommendations following the
needs analysis.       This section also includes principles related to community infrastructure, as
outlined in the separate Community Infrastructure Report. In addition, specific recommendations
for the Bowen Abbot Point Region are also provided below.               This section does not include a




Final Report                                        P. 43
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




discussion of principles for the location of housing for major project workers as this is covered in
the preceding Section.


Economic Prosperity and the Community


        State Development Areas are a critical component of ensuring economic prosperity for all
        Queenslanders. The intent of the SDAs needs to be preserved and maintained.


        The critical need for adequate accommodation to support economic activity should be
        addressed in a proactive manner and reviewed for all major projects.


        The critical role of housing in community well being should be recognised by Federal and
        State Government frameworks and strategies and by Local Government.


        The importance of well serviced settlement patterns, choice in housing/accommodation mix
        and tenure, affordability and appropriate design should be facilitated to achieve optimal
        housing outcomes.


        The State and Local Government and the private sector should facilitate sustainable
        communities through a diversity of housing for both residents and non-residents.
        Sustainability will be achieved through the mitigation of the social, economic and
        environmental impacts of major projects.


        Corporate social responsibility will be demonstrated by all levels of governments and the
        private sector through the processes available to them, to ensure sustainable communities.


        Consideration should be given to ways in which the major project sponsors and workers
        can contribute to the community, such as skills and training for locals, or shared use of
        facilities, such as multi-purpose community centres.


        It is important to recognise the role of agriculture and in particular horticulture within the
        region. The horticultural sector provides a significant contribution to the local economy,
        providing prosperity to the region in general and the provision and supply of a valuable
        resource for Queensland and Australia in general. Productive and sustainable agricultural
        land must be protected and preserved from fragmentation, isolation and sterilisation.



Housing


Planning and development processes should be recognised as the appropriate mechanisms to
advance housing outcomes. Efficient and appropriate housing outcomes are essential to
community well being. However it is also important to recognise that development processes can
not achieve all required housing outcomes and in some circumstances other mechanisms may be
required, including the active involvement of other levels of government.
        To ensure the community is adequately provided for with regard to housing, the planning
        and development system should:




Final Report                                     P. 44
                                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




                o    Enable a sufficient supply of land for a range of residential densities and
                     opportunities;
                o    Encourage housing types and diversity at different price points to meet different
                     housing needs;
                o    Ensure housing has a focus on sustainability;
                o    Facilitate development at locations with good access to services and infrastructure;
                     and
                o    Recognise the value of existing housing stock and need to replace stock over time.7


           The construction, amenity and level of infrastructure provision for permanent and
           temporary accommodation should be of an adequate standard as determined by Council’s
           Desired    Standards      of   Service     (DSS).        However   higher   standards   of   community
           infrastructure should be considered for its ability to attract and retain permanent residents;


           A diversity of housing options for residents and non-residents should be facilitated through
           the private housing market by improving land supply and development assessment
           efficiencies.


           Local Government should recognise the importance of an overall residential strategy as the
           mechanism to implement the objective of maintaining and encouraging a diversity of
           efficient housing options through the use of planning scheme provisions, PIPRICS and
           conditions of approval.


           Adequate land parcels should be readily available to allow development of temporary
           housing solutions within a short period of time. These land parcels should be provided with
           minimum amenity provisions including access to community facilities and services. Sites
           must also be free of constraints such as flooding, productive agricultural land (such as
           GQAL), or able to adequately mitigate the impacts of any constraints.


Planning and Infrastructure


           New and augmented infrastructure should be provided to support the future demand for
           housing for permanent and temporary residents. This may be achieved through adequate
           infrastructure charges and planning for new trunk infrastructure, other infrastructure
           contributions or works by major project proponents (i.e. for development outside of the
           PIA), or external sources of funding (State or Commonwealth).


           Adequate housing for non-residents, including temporary workers, must be provided in a
           manner which supports, enhances and maximises benefit to the existing communities.


           All new major projects must be evaluated for their impact on the existing and future supply
           of housing, and be conditioned where necessary, to ensure any negative impacts are
           mitigated.




       7
           From the Framework for National Action on Affordable Housing




Final Report                                                P. 45
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        All new residential development should be located in or proximate to existing communities.


        Worker accommodation in other locations should also respect constraints arising from
        conflicts with adjacent uses and the potential for social impacts.


        All residential development should be located in a manner that can be served efficiently
        with the required infrastructure.


        Major project workforces are to be accommodated in good quality dwellings with adequate
        infrastructure and access to other essential services, while minimising the adverse impacts
        on the existing communities.         This included both permanent and temporary workers,
        although the means of the achieving the desired outcomes may be different for each group.


        The development of accommodation for major projects must minimise impacts on the
        private ownership and rental market as well as existing short-term accommodation for
        tourists and seasonal workers. This should be accomplished through an appropriate
        planning scheme code dealing specifically with temporary workers accommodation and
        supported as necessary by relevant planning policies. Appropriate planning schemes
        measures should also ensure that the impacts of major projects and associated housing are
        adequately addressed through social and environmental impact assessments (where not
        addressed through other means such as State required Environmental Impact Statements).
        Until those amendments and policies are integrated into the local planning scheme this
        should be accomplished through an ‘Accommodation Management Strategy’ as a condition
        of development approval. The ‘Accommodation Management Strategy’ will provide policies
        and commitments for:
               o   The provision of accommodation for the project’s construction workforces that
                   minimises the impact on housing demand for existing residents;
               o   The provision of accommodation for the project’s operational workforces that
                   integrates housing provision into the existing communities;
               o   The provision of necessary infrastructure and related services;
               o   The provision of appropriate standards of accommodation efficiencies and amenity;
               o   Actions to manage and mitigate adverse impacts on the affordability and
                   availability of the local and regional housing markets; and
               o   The provision of measures to monitor the effectiveness of the strategy’s actions.


        Potential locations for accommodation for temporary workers should be identified by State
        and Local Governments. Planning for the provision of infrastructure to these sites should
        be well advanced so that the infrastructure can provided in a timely manner for major
        projects. This should include consideration of permanent trunk infrastructure or temporary
        solutions, planned and approved routes for trunk infrastructure networks and integration
        with existing Council facilities (e.g. water supply and sewerage treatment). Infrastructure
        costs should be borne fairly by those who are likely to benefit from the accommodation
        being present.      This would include the proponents of the major project and may also
        include State and Local Government.


        The location, form, and standard of accommodation for temporary residents associated
        with the construction phase and the much smaller proportion of temporary resident




Final Report                                       P. 46
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        operational workers for major projects should be negotiated between the employer and
        both State and Local Governments, and the results should at acceptable community
        standards (determined through Council). An appropriate Social Impact Assessments policy
        under Council’s planning scheme should be used to assist in this process (unless this is
        required as part of an EIS).


        Accommodation for temporary residents associated with the construction phase of major
        projects should be provided for through a range of options, with the objective of minimising
        the concentration and scale of any temporary dwellings. The results should be based on
        acceptable community standards (as determined through Council). An appropriate Social
        Impact Assessment policy should be present to assist this process (see previous point).


Communication


        Collaboration between stakeholders leading to strong alliances, sharing of resources and
        providing for innovative responses to accommodation needs.


        Communication among stakeholders should be transparent and the community should be
        involved and informed through the use of appropriate mechanisms.


        Good quality examples of temporary accommodation should be communicated to all
        stakeholders, as well as example of bad accommodation solutions to provide contrast and
        comparison.


Community Infrastructure Planning


        Any and all planning, provision and production of community infrastructure in the Bowen
        District contributes to the achievement of the following broad level outcomes:
               o   well   serviced   communities   with     affordable,   efficient,   safe   and   sustainable
                   development are created and maintained;
               o   areas and places of special aesthetic, architectural, cultural, historic, scientific,
                   social or spiritual significance are conserved or enhanced; and
               o   integrated networks of pleasant and safe public areas for aesthetic enjoyment and
                   cultural, recreational or social interaction are provided.


        It is important that community infrastructure be planned and integrated with physical,
        environmental and economic planning and that it be sensitive to local, cultural and heritage
        issues.


        Community infrastructure should be designed and provided so that it progresses with the
        community as the community grows, changes and evolves.


        There are a range of interests involved in the planning, provision and production of
        community infrastructure, including community, government and commercial interests.




Final Report                                        P. 47
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        It is essential to achieve community involvement and leadership in the planning,
        development, management and maintenance of community infrastructure for it to be
        successful and sustainable.


        Planning for the needs of a diverse range of resident and non-resident populations is
        required (non-resident workers, seasonal workers, and tourists) recognising social, cultural,
        economic, and physical differences and interests.


        An improved integration between the former Whitsunday and former Bowen shire areas in
        terms of future community infrastructure planning and provision must be achieved.


        Any planning for upgraded and/or new community infrastructure will consider investment
        principles relating to:
               o   service quality
               o   value for money
               o   prioritization
               o   flexibility
               o   fit with legislation and policy
               o   timeliness
               o   service system capacity (to deliver).


        Growth pressures on social infrastructure relate (but are not limited) to affordable housing
        options, health and other social services, community safety, recreation and sport, arts,
        culture and cultural heritage, employment and training opportunities.


        It is necessary to mitigate the social, physical and economic effects of any rapid
        introduction of large numbers and/or proportions of non-resident workforces on host
        communities, including the need to protect against distortions in local service provision and
        community life.


Community Infrastructure Provision


        Adequate and appropriate provision of community infrastructure that attracts, supports and
        retains workforces and their families is required to build sustainable regional communities.
        This provision may have to be pre-emptive to create the necessary shift and broadening in
        the population profile required in the Bowen District.


        Community infrastructure provision should be guided by fundamental principles that
        underpin social justice, including:
               o   Equity (fair distribution of resources and power)
               o   Access (to good quality services and facilities needed to support a decent lifestyle)
               o   Participation (community voice in social and political life and decisions which affect
                   individuals)
               o   Equality (of opportunity without discrimination)
               o   Reconciliation (harmony between individuals and groups).


        Community infrastructure should provide:




Final Report                                         P. 48
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        o      Focal points of community interaction, and contribute to development of centres,
        o      Places that build a community's identity
        o      Places and resources where residents can meet, organise and carry out activities
        o      Places that strengthen the relationships of the community, building responsible self-
               supportive and safe communities
        o      Places and resources for delivering community services, including office space for the
               staff and volunteers who provide services.


        It is a priority to maximise the utilisation of existing community infrastructure through
        upgrading and encouraging multiuse of facilities, co-locating compatible activities and
        services, and partnering to deliver services and programs.


        Public-private partnerships or initiatives are utilised to plan and provide infrastructure
        where possible.


        Both core and multi-agency investment in human services will be required to achieve new
        infrastructure.


Responding to the needs of non-resident populations


        The planning, provision and production of community infrastructure that responds directly
        to the needs of non-resident workforces is influenced by the approach taken to
        accommodating them. This could include one or more of the following approaches:
               o   Creation of construction and/or operational accommodation villages (single persons
                   quarters) that are self contained and separate from the existing housing stock –
                   will accommodate between 250 and 2000 persons (mainly single males) and have
                   basic infrastructure provided on site
               o   Utilisation of existing housing stock and commercial accommodation in an area –
                   including purchase of existing caravan parks and retrofitting them to accommodate
                   and service workforce/s
               o   A mixed approach, including #1 and #2 (above), as well as new residential
                   developments by key employers or contract companies (servicing key employers)


        Good quality standards are required for any discrete (self contained) accommodation
        villages catering for non-resident workforces in terms of the location and types of
        accommodation and infrastructure provided.


        There are specific effects of Fly-in/Fly-out (FIFO) and Drive-in/Drive-out (DIDO) operations
        on individuals, their families, and on the host communities they work in which must inform
        the planning and provision of universal and targeted community infrastructure.


        Targeted approaches to achieve physical, social and economic integration of workforces
        into the host community will be required.


        The wellbeing of non-resident workers is prioritised when making decisions about the best
        way to accommodate and service them.




Final Report                                        P. 49
                                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




         Actions taken to accommodate and service non-resident populations will not compromise or
         diminish the quality of life of existing residents, businesses and/or communities of interest.



4.5            Summary of Accommodation Planning
               Recommendations for Bowen Abbot Point
The research, policy advice, and high level principles presented above provide information that
supports the following recommendations:


1.   Accommodation provision in Bowen should ensure that permanent and temporary residents
     (including tourists, seasonal workers, construction workers, operational workers and residents)
     have access to the full range of community needs.


2.   Temporary workers’ accommodation should be located in close proximity to the Bowen locality.
     This will ensure that good outcomes for economic prosperity, amenity considerations and the
     potential for community cohesion occur. However this must take account of land constraints
     and potential for land use conflict.


3.   The location of temporary workers’ accommodation will need additional infrastructure to
     adequately service it, regardless of its location, given that Bowen locality is already at capacity.
     Locations that are most efficient regarding infrastructure provision should be encouraged, and
     infrastructure should not be seen as a major constraint in determining these locations.


4.   Given the importance of the agricultural industry to the region, Queensland and the rest of
     Australia, good quality agricultural land must be maintained and preserved wherever it is
     considered viable over the longer term. This should be informed by a framework established to
     quantify the viable and sustainable holding size(s) for the predominate agricultural systems of
     the Bowen region.


5.   The uncertainty of the progress and timing of the major projects requires that flexible solutions
     are considered. This should include a number of sites that are earmarked and development
     ready to host worker accommodation in advance of the projects occurring. The lands that are
     identified should also be able to be reused for other purposes once their need to host workers
     accommodation has expired.        That is, temporary workers’ accommodation should also be
     developed in a way that could accommodate other housing needs once the need for the
     construction population has dissipated (e.g. seasonal workers, tourist, existing residents, and
     potentially aged/retirees).


6.   Operational workers and population associated with natural increase and migration should be
     accommodated within the existing residential and future residential areas.


7.   Workers’ accommodation (for both temporary construction /operational and permanent
     operational) in Bowen needs to set new standards of accommodation provision. Aside from the
     social benefits to workers and communities, higher quality worker accommodation can be
     justified economically given the longevity of the SDA and the anticipated ongoing need for




Final Report                                          P. 50
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




     workers’ accommodation.        Some examples of good accommodation outcomes that can occur
     needs to be communicated early with the existing community.


8.   The worker accommodation should have regard to, and be compatible with adjacent land uses.
     Thus, it is likely that the worker accommodation will need to be proximate to, but not directly
     within existing townships. The exception to this would be where the amenity of the workers
     accommodation within the existing townships was on a par with the surrounding residential
     environment, and where the scale of the accommodation was small or interspersed within the
     existing urban fabric.


9.   Residential workers accommodation is incompatible with the industrial and major project
     intentions of the SDA. The inclusion of residential areas may be a health hazard and may also
     limit the economic potential of the SDA, which is contrary to the State’s overall intent of SDAs.
     Even in the early stages of development of the SDA, allowance of workers accommodation in
     the SDA would set unwanted precedents and is therefore not recommended.


10. The location of workers accommodation in Collinsville for the SDA is not suitable due to the
     large distance (85kms) between the SDA and Collinsville. However, worker accommodation in
     Collinsville should be considered for any major project in close proximity to Collinsville.


11. The location of worker accommodation for the SDA outside the Merinda township may be
     considered for temporary workers’ accommodation provided a number of key issues are
     satisfactorily addressed. These include:
               valuable good quality agricultural land that surrounds Merinda is not unnecessarily
               impacted (as noted earlier GQAL is significant to the ongoing economic benefit of the
               region, Queensland and Australia);
               access to essential services can be achieved (i.e. community, social, recreational,
               health, etc);
               potential social impacts on Merinda are acceptable;
               land use conflicts do not result (e.g. health hazards associated with pesticide and
               herbicide application and use, noise and light spill); and
               potential flooding impacts are addressed.


These findings were used as a basis for recommendations throughout the report.


Further detail about the background research can be found in Appendix C.




Final Report                                        P. 51
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   5            Accommodation Supply Analysis
The accommodation supply analysis presents information and data about the supply of various
types of permanent and temporary accommodation. Permanent accommodation includes houses,
semi-detached dwellings, apartments, caravan sites, motel rooms, cabins and backpacker beds and
temporary workers’ accommodation refers to workers’ camps that are currently or potentially
available.


The accommodation supply information is provided for each of the following groups due to the
similarities between the types of accommodation they generally require. The demand groups were
discussed in Section 6, which indicated that the demand for housing types could generally be
grouped in 3 distinctive groups:
        Residents and operational workers;
        Construction workers; and
        Tourists and seasonal workers.


It should be noted that some operational workers could be temporary residents and some
construction workers could be permanent residents and therefore some flexibility should be
maintained.



5.1            Supply of Accommodation for Residents and
               Operational Workers
The supply of accommodation for residents and operational workers is shown in Table 9.                 As
already noted, it is assumed that operational workers will be integrated with the existing residential
community and therefore both demand groups will use the same supply of accommodation.


T ab l e 9 .   Es timates of Accommodation Supply for Res idents and Oper ational
Work ers (2008 – 2015)

                              2008       2009     2010     2011      2012      2013     2014      2015

Accommodation Supply for
Residents and Operational
Workers                         5,594     5,709    5,824     5,940    6,055     6,170     6,286    6,401
Source: ABS Census; ABS Dwelling Approvals


To calculate the 2008 figure, the supply of housing for residents was calculated using the sum of
separate houses, semi-detached dwellings, flats, and a house or flat attached to a shop/office from
the 2006 census as a basis, and then adding the dwelling approvals from 2006 to 2009.                It is
assumed that dwellings approved in a particular year become part of the housing stock the
following year (due to the lag between approval and construction).


For the forecast periods (2009-2015) the number of dwelling approvals for 2006 - 2008 was
averaged and added to the base figure. This indicated that approximately 115 dwellings per year
were added to the permanent supply of housing in the Bowen Abbot Point Region over the forecast




Final Report                                      P. 52
                                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




period. However it should be noted that this is an indication only as it is expected that supply of
new dwelling would rise in response to demand associated with major projects in the area.


As the table above shows, the supply of dwellings for residents and operational workers is expected
to grow from 5,709 in 2009 to 6,401 in 2015 on current trends.


It is noted that the supply of residentially zoned land and the Bowen planning scheme provisions
regarding the preferred development types will affect the extent to which the future supply of
dwellings can be provided. The land capacity analysis in Section 7 completes investigations into
the land supply situation in Bowen, and the results indicate that the assumed demand for dwellings
could be accommodated without requiring further zoned land if vacant land was developed at the
allowable increase in density currently within the zones. This is discussed further in Section 7.




5.2             Supply of Accommodation for Temporary
                Construction Workers
The supply of accommodation for construction workers is based on the currently approved (and in
some cases yet to be built) Single Person Quarter (SPQ) accommodation within the former Bowen
Shire.


Information about individual accommodation used to obtain the overall supply figures are provided
in Table 10. If any of the proposed worker accommodation listed in Table 10 does not proceed
then this will further affect the supply of temporary construction workers accommodation. It is also
important to note that the current accommodation may not be used to their full capacity if the
conditions are not considered acceptable by workers. If this occurs, then flow on effects will be
created, and other types of accommodation may be impacted.


T ab l e 10 .        C o n s tr u c t io n W o r k e r A c c o mmo d a t io n S t a tu s a n d Su mm a r y

 Name                                                Capacity       Comments
 Merinda existing                                    380            Existing
 Merinda approved not built                          120            Approved but not built
 Merinda prelim approval                             500            Preliminary approval given
 Existing SPQ Collinsville                           150            Existing
 Approved QANTAC Collinsville                        200            Operational
 Morris Corp Proposed Collinsville                   768            Approval refused
Source: PIFU


The above worker accommodation information has been combined to reflect the potential supply of
construction worker accommodation from 2009 to 2015 by location, and the outcomes are shown
in Table 11.        Although the supply for Bowen, Merinda and Collinsville has been taken into
consideration in meeting the accommodation demand from construction workers, as previously
noted it is not considered practical for workers working in the APSDA to live in Collinsville due to
the travel time and distance.




Final Report                                             P. 53
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 11 .      Accommodation Supply for C ons truc tion Workers

 Construction Worker Dwelling Supply          2009          2010     2012         2013     2014     2015
 Bowen                                        0             0        0            0        0        0
 Merinda                                      380           1,000    1,000        1,000    1,000    1,000
 Collinsville                                 150           350      350          350      350      350
Source: PIFU



5.3             Supply of Accommodation for Tourists and
                Seasonal Workers
The supply of accommodation for seasonal workers and tourists typically includes motel rooms,
apartments, caravan sites, cabins, on-site vans, other types of self-contained accommodation and
backpacker beds, and is shown in Table 12.         This data was obtained through an accommodation
audit conducted by SGS and PIFU, which included visits to accommodation providers, phone
contact and internet searches.       Details of this audit are provided in Appendix D. These
accommodation types are used by both tourists and seasonal workers. In addition to the types of
accommodation mentioned, it is noted that tent sites are also used by this demand group.
However, as designated sites were not often easily determined by sight, the recording of this
information was not considered to be robust.           Needless to say that this element of potential
accommodation would add to the supply for some components of the tourist and seasonal workers
group, but has not been quantified at this time.


T ab l e 12 .      Supply of Accommodation for To uris ts and Seas onal Work ers

                     Motel     Caravan   Cabins/                 Apartments/ Backpacker             Total
                    Rooms       Sites  Onsite Vans              Self Contained  Beds               Supply
Number                   214        720               109                   130             481          1,654
Percentage            12.9%      43.5%              6.6%                   7.9%           29.1%         100.0%
Source: SGS Economics and Planning and PIFU


While there may growth in the supply of these forms of accommodation, there is no past evidence
to show what the growth rate has been to allow any form of business as usual projection of future
supply. For the purposes of showing future need, we have assumed the current supply is carried
forward, and that additional demand will need to be met from this ‘fixed’ base. In practice, there
will be a market response to demand as in the case of general housing described in Section 5.1.




Final Report                                        P. 54
                                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




5.4              Supply of Land for Residential Purposes
This section presents an overview of the quantity and location of residentially zoned land in the
study area. It presents the current zoning scheme maps for the study area as well as a map
showing unallocated State land that has been recommended for urban residential uses (by the
Department of Environment and Resource Management through the Bowen State Land Evaluation
Project (June 2009)).8 . This information has been used in conjunction with the results of the land
capacity analysis presented in Section 7 to gain an understanding of any rezoning requirements
and existing land constraints.


5.4.1            Residentially Zoned Land

There are significant existing constraints on the land surrounding Bowen, Merinda and Collinsville,
and these are presented in detail in the land capacity analysis in Section 7 of this report.                  The
current planning scheme maps for Bowen, Merinda and Collinsville are presented in Figure 9 and 0.
A brief overview of each of the residential land zoning types is as follows:


           Residential Zone: The residential zone is broken down into three distinct precincts:
                 o   Residential 1 Precinct (R1): Comprising most of the residentially zoned fringe areas
                     of Bowen Town, and almost all of the residential zoning in Merinda and Collinsville,
                     the minimum subdivision size permitted within the R1 Precinct is 600 square
                     metres.    The preferred uses for this land include single dwellings, dual occupancy
                     dwellings, annexed apartments, bed and breakfast accommodation and display
                     homes.
                 o   Residential 2 Precinct (R2): The densest precinct of the residential zoning which
                     applies to the majority of the central Bowen residential zone, the R2 minimum
                     subdivision size permitted is 1,000 square metres. The preferred uses of this land
                     include   single    dwellings,   multi-unit    apartments,      accommodation      buildings,
                     retirement villages, caravan parks, annexed apartments and institutional residence.
                 o   Tourism Residential Precinct (TR): A very small component of the overall residential
                     zone. The TR residential areas reflect the high tourism value of these areas and as
                     such the preferred land use in these areas is tourism residential developments.


           Park Residential Zone: The park residential zone is typified by large lot rural residential
           size blocks with a minimum subdivision size of 4,000 square metres. The preferred uses
           for   this land     include   dwellings,   home      based   businesses    and   bed   and   breakfast
           accommodation.




       8
        Department of Environment and Resource Management and Whitsunday Regional Council (2009)
       Bowen State Land Evaluation Project.




Final Report                                            P. 55
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




F i g u re 9 . B o w e n Sh ire P la n n i n g S c h e me Ma p – Bow e n a n d Mer in d a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning using information from Whitsunday Regional Council




Final Report                                         P. 56
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Figure 10.      Bowen Shire Planning Scheme – Collins ville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning using information from Whitsunday Regional Council




Final Report                                      P. 57
                                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




5.4.2           New Development Estates

According to stakeholders consulted during the project (Council, real estate agents), the potential
major infrastructure and industrial projects planned for the study area and Bowen Basin has
created activity in the property market.                  Developers are anticipating strong demand for housing
due to an anticipated significant potential increase in the population. In the last several years, this
has resulted in a number of new housing estates being created. These are described in Table 13.
The majority of the new estate developments and land subdivisions are located in Bowen and just
to the south of Bowen.


T ab l e 13 .              New Lan d Es ta tes

                                Lots      Lots          Total        Size of               Price of
   Development Name             Sold    Remaining       Lots      Remaining Lots        Remaining Lots            Location
Whitsunday Shores
  Stage 1                        99          20          119      677sqm - 6 acres    $170,000 - $1.5 million   South of Bowen
  Stage 2                       145          15          160     646sqm - 3,100sqm    $159,000 - $1.7 million   South of Bowen
  Stage 5a                      10*          28           38     600sqm - 1,057sqm              NA              South of Bowen
  Seaside C ove**
   Stage 1                       0           56           56      318sqm - 838sqm               NA              South of Bowen
   Stage 2                       0           58           58      318sqm - 525sqm               NA              South of Bowen
   Stage 3                       0           30           30      325sqm - 487sqm               NA              South of Bowen
   Stage 4                       0           26           26      325sqm - 512sqm               NA              South of Bowen
Whitsunday Breeze Estate         51          15           66      675sqm - 916sqm      $140,000 - $160,000      South of Bowen
The Hill
  Single dwelling                38              9        47     705sqm - 2,127sqm     $165,000 - $350,000          Bowen
  Dual occupancy                 4               3        7      1020sqm - 1,314sqm    $220,000 - $350,000          Bowen
  Multi unit residential         2               4        6      2513sqm - 3,449sqm   $645,000 - $1.6 million       Bowen
Kapok Park                       18              9        27     773sqm - 1,313sqm     $165,000 - $179,000          Bowen
C asuarina Heights
Stage 1                          1           27           28     4006sqm - 7,592sqm    $188,000 - $325,000      South of Bowen
Brampton Seabreeze Estate
Stage 2                          28          27           55    4203sqm - 16,600sqm    $225,000 - $295,000      South of Bowen
C itrus Grove Estate             32              9        41     622sqm - 1,000sqm     $135,000 - $220,000          Bowen


* Ten lots are designated as a Display Village
** Seaside C ove is a separate development within Whitsunday Shores

Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data and information from L.J. Hooker and Whitsunday Regional
Council


Table 14 outlines the unit and townhouse developments approved, built or under construction.




Final Report                                                    P. 58
                                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 14 .         N ew R es i de n ti al D e vel op men ts

                                             Number Number    Total
  Development Name         Description        Sold Remaining Number Price of Remaining           Location

                          Exectuive 2 br
C ocos Palms Apartments    Townhouses           0         4         4       From $315,000          Bowen

                          Executive 2 and
C oral C ove Apartments   3 br Apartments       31        7        38     $850,000 - $2 million Horseshoe Bay

Leichardt Place              2 br Units         1         4         5          $295,000            Bowen

Manta Ray Villas             2 br Units         6         2         8          $300,000            Bowen

Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data and information from L.J. Hooker


As was noted previously, the current global financial crisis and the uncertainty surrounding several
major projects has seen many subdivisions put on hold, and commencements delayed.                               This
highlights the vulnerability of the accommodation market and its responsiveness to major
infrastructure and industry projects.


5.4.3           Unallocated State Land

The Department of Environment and Resource Management has just completed the Bowen State
Land Evaluation Project (June 2009).9 This was a study of unallocated State land (USL) for 74 USL
lots (comprising 350 ha) and 42 Reserve lots (comprising 396 ha) located in Bowen.                              The
evaluation was to provide adequate information, rationale and conclusions regarding the most
appropriate use and tenure of the subject lands. The evaluation was based on the provisions of the
Land Act 1994, which requires taking into account the interests of key stakeholders and the general
community.         The study’s recommendations include the identification of a number of parcels for
urban residential use subject to management of some constraints including slope, drainage, and/or
the relocation of existing infrastructure.           This includes the potential relocation of the Sewerage
Treatment Plant (Lot 207\SP159339) and the existing Showgrounds (Lots 111\HR296 and
55\HR296).


Further, this study recognises that the identification of the most appropriate use and tenure for
State land in Bowen will ensure that the department is in a position to respond to growing urban
pressures in the NET region.              It also notes the economic contributions that are anticipated as a
result of the APSDA, and committed and planned infrastructure in the area.


The evaluation of USL was based on principles which must ensure that the land is managed for the
benefit of the people of Queensland having regard to:


           Sustainability - to ensure existing needs are met and the state’s resources are conserved
           for the benefit of future generations;
           Evaluation - Land evaluation based on the appraisal of land capability and the consideration
           and balancing of the different economic, environmental, cultural and social opportunities
           and values of the land;

       9
        Department of Environment and Resource Management and Whitsunday Regional Council (2009)
       Bowen State Land Evaluation Project.




Final Report                                              P. 59
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        Development - Allocating land for development in the context of the State’s planning
        framework, and applying contemporary best practice in design and management and when
        land is made available, allocation to persons who will facilitate its most appropriate uses
        that supports the economic, social and physical wellbeing of the people of Queensland; and
        Community purpose - if land is needed for community purposes, the retention of the land
        for the community in a way that protects and facilitates the community purpose should be
        determined.


The evaluation undertaken included a land assessment, land evaluation, community consultation
and a balancing of interests in the land. Some of the pivotal issues identified in the report are:
        the presence of native title over much of the area,
        the significant amount of land that is tidal or subject to flooding, and
        the strong projected demand for housing and urban expansion associated with potential
        future major projects.
The study’s broad recommendations include the identification of land with the potential for future
urban residential use recognising the land will also be subject to additional constraints such as
slope and drainage which will require resolution during development assessment. These properties
are shown in Figure 11.


These properties are potentially available for future urban residential development and details
regarding them are provided below.


These parcels, however, have not automatically been included in potential accommodation supply
summary. This is due to both the recent completion of the report and the processes that will be
required to implement the report’s recommendations. The sites, however, were considered when
evaluating potential responses to the need for sites for workers accommodation.




Final Report                                     P. 60
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Figure 11.      Urban Residentia l Unallocated State Land




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                   P. 61
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 15 .         Unallocated State Land Recomm end ed fo r Urban Residential Use

                                                                                Recommended
                       Legal                            Recommended             Most
                       Area               Existing      Most                    Appropriate           Follow Up
Area    Lot Plan       (m²)    Tenure     Purpose       Appropriate Use         Tenure                Required
1       16\B66103      16190   USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold subject      NT assessment
                                                        subject to slope        to investigations     required prior to
                                                        constraints and                               freeholding
                                                        investigation of
                                                        hospital land
                                                        requirements
                                                        (including buffer).




1       53\B6618       7079    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold subject      NT assessment
                                                        subject to slope        to favourable         required prior to
                                                        constraints and         outcome of            freeholding
                                                        investigation of        investigations
                                                        hospital land
                                                        requirements
                                                        (including buffer).




1       273\HR1404     4075    RE         Park and      Urban (residential)     Freehold, if          NT assessment and
                                          Recreation    subject to drainage     development is        drainage
                                                        constraints.            appropriate on lot.   investigation.
                                                                                If not suitable for
                                                                                development retain
                                                                                as reserve for park
                                                                                and recreation.

1       14\SP104456    73700   RE         Local         Urban (residential)     Freehold for          NT assessment
                                          Governmen     and/or public           residential areas     required prior to
                                          t             infrastructure          and/or future         freeholding
                                                        (future hospital        hospital expansion
                                                        expansion with          (including buffer)
                                                        buffer)


2       207\SP15933    29260   RE         Local         Public infrastructure   Current tenure        NT assessment
        9                                 Governmen     until relocation of     should remain until   required prior to
                                          t (Sewage     the STP. Urban          relocation of the     freeholding. Liaise
                                          Treatment     (residential and/or     STP. Freehold         with council over
                                          Plant)        tourism) over non       tenure is             STP relocation.
                                                        remnant areas           appropriate for
                                                        following relocation    residential uses.
                                                        of STP. The
                                                        remainder of the lot
                                                        should be allocated
                                                        to environmental
                                                        uses.




4       255\HR1287     16300   RE         Local         Urban purposes          Retain as current     NT assessment
                                          Governmen     (Caravan Park)          tenure (Reserve for   required prior to
                                          t (Caravan                            local Govt) or        any land dealing.
                                          Park)                                 convert to Term
                                                                                lease for caravan
                                                                                park purposes.




Final Report                                         P. 62
                                    Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




                                                                          Recommended
                   Legal                            Recommended           Most
                   Area               Existing      Most                  Appropriate   Follow Up
Area    Lot Plan   (m²)    Tenure     Purpose       Appropriate Use       Tenure        Required
5       1\B6646    1029    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       2\B6646    984     USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       3\B6646    1163    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       4\B6646    1310    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       8\B6646    1323    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       9\B6646    1323    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       11\B6646   1811    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       12\B6646   1740    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       13\B6646   1045    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       14\B6646   1158    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       15\B6646   1275    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       16\B6646   814     USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.

5       17\B6646   1088    USL                      Urban (residential)   Freehold      NT assessment
                                                    subject to drainage                 required prior to
                                                    and slope                           freeholding.
                                                    constraints.




Final Report                                     P. 63
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




                                                                             Recommended
                    Legal                            Recommended             Most
                    Area               Existing      Most                    Appropriate             Follow Up
Area    Lot Plan    (m²)    Tenure     Purpose       Appropriate Use         Tenure                  Required
5       23\B6646    1196    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       24\B6646    1034    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       25\B6646    837     USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       27\B6646    1067    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       28\B6646    1184    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       29\B6646    1290    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       30\B6646    1057    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       31\B6646    1255    USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold                NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage                             required prior to
                                                     and slope                                       freeholding.
                                                     constraints.

5       326\HR350   35920   USL                      Urban (residential)     Freehold over areas     NT assessment
                                                     subject to drainage     suitable for            required prior to
                                                     and flooding            residential use.        any land dealing.
                                                     constraints. Buffers    Amalgamate              Detailed flood
                                                     required to             remainder of lot        analysis required in
                                                     minimise land use       into Lot 269 and        consultation with
                                                     conflicts between       270 HR1585 as USL       WRC.
                                                     residential and light   or reserve for
                                                     industrial land uses.   environmental /
                                                     If flooding risk        cultural purposes.
                                                     precludes
                                                     residential MAU is
                                                     open space and
                                                     rural (grazing).
5       111\HR296   22590   RE         Show          Urban (residential)     Freehold (if used for   NT assessment
                                       ground        subject to              residential             required prior to
                                                     relocation of the       purposes). If current   land use and tenure
                                                     showground. If no       use as showgrounds      changes.
                                                     relocation then         is retained, tenure
                                                     retain for current      should remain
                                                     use.                    unchanged.




Final Report                                      P. 64
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




                                                                                Recommended
                       Legal                             Recommended            Most
                       Area                Existing      Most                   Appropriate             Follow Up
Area      Lot Plan     (m²)     Tenure     Purpose       Appropriate Use        Tenure                  Required
5         55\HR296     74690    RE         Show          Urban (residential)    Freehold (if used for   NT assessment
                                           ground        subject to             residential             required prior to
                                                         relocation of the      purposes). If current   land use and tenure
                                                         showground. If no      use as showgrounds      changes.
                                                         relocation then        is retained, tenure
                                                         retain for current     should remain
                                                         use.                   unchanged.


5         10\B6646     2023     RE         Quarry        Urban (residential)    Freehold if used for    NT assessment
                                                         subject to drainage,   residential             required prior to
                                                         slope and erosion      purposes. If            land use and tenure
                                                         constraints.           drainage is an issue    changes.
                                                                                change purpose of
                                                                                reserve to drainage.




Source: Department of Environment and Resource Management and Whitsunday Regional Council (2009)
Bowen State Land Evaluation Project.



5.5             Accommodation Supply Summary
The supply of accommodation for each of the main accommodation types is summarised in Table
16.     This table shows the supply of housing based on previous permanent residential growth,
known workers camps proposals and no change in accommodation for tourist and seasonal
workers, therefore providing a base case scenario.


Note that 5,709 dwellings for residents is based on growth from the Census plus recent rate of
building approvals, not a current count. Actual housing may be above or below this. As we will see,
PIFU’s high estimate for 2009 population would require more dwellings than this if all residents are
housed at the average rate of 2.4 persons per dwelling.


The market would be expected to respond to growth in demand, and certainly major new projects
would be expected to have accompanying accommodation for construction workers planned.
However proactive planning for required accommodation needs is necessary to avoid issues
associated with lags in the supply of housing and market failure.


T ab l e 16 .        Summar y of Accommodation Su pply, 2009 - 2015

    Accommodation Supply for:                   2009          2010      2012        2013         2014        2015
    Residents & Op Workers                      5,709         5,824     6,055       6,170        6,286       6,401
    Construction Workers                        530           1,350     1,350       1,350        1,350       1,350
 Tourist & Seasonal Workers                     1,654         1,654     1,654       1,654        1,654       1,654
Source: SGS Economics and Planning


It is important to reiterate that the supply of worker accommodation includes those currently
approved (and in some cases yet to be built) Single Person Quarter (SPQ) accommodation within




Final Report                                          P. 65
                                      Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




the former Bowen Shire and if any of these plans for worker accommodations are not realised then
the supply will change.   It is also important to note that the worker accommodation may not be
used to its full capacity if the conditions are not considered acceptable by workers. This would then
create flow on effects, impacting on the supply of other types of accommodation. Therefore it is
important to ensure that high quality standards are achieved.


The supply of accommodation for tourists and seasonal workers includes a wide variety of
accommodation types, which may not be suitable to some within this category. For example the
caravan sites, which make up 43.5% of the supply of tourists and seasonal worker accommodation,
may not be suitable for international visitors and backpackers as they are unlikely to hire a caravan
for their visit.




Final Report                                    P. 66
                                      Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   6             Accommodation Demand Analysis
This section of the report presents the current and future demand for accommodation in Bowen.
The demand for accommodation in Bowen is discussed with regard to four main groups. These are
the resident population, the major projects worker population, which is divided into construction
and operational, the tourist population, and the seasonal worker population. Given that the
resident population and the operational workers are assumed to both require the same types of
accommodation these have been combined for some parts of this report as have tourists and
seasonal workers for the same reason. Demand from workers in other industries such as support
services are not included in this analysis; however this would be an important consideration for any
future broader economic studies.


To assess the current unmet need, general feedback regarding demand for accommodation is
presented. This is based on consultation with local real estate agents and accommodation
providers. Wherever possible, these opinions were verified/dismissed by evidence based data.


To determine the likely future need for accommodation projections for each of the main demand
groups, the project team utilised a range of credible data sources.        For resident population and
dwelling forecasts, the project team used PIFU data generated through their state-wide population
information forecasting model. In regards to seasonal workers and tourists, this data was
developed by SGS based on information from established sources where available, such as Tourism
Research Australia and supported and ‘ground truthed’ by investigations and interviews in the field.
It is noted that the major projects worker population is heavily dependent on the timing and roll-
out of the projects which is currently uncertain and as a result four scenarios for this demand group
are presented.



6.1            Demand for Residential Accommodation
As already noted there is strong demand for residential accommodation and demand will only
increase with the anticipated accommodation requirements for major project workers likely to
increase dramatically over the next few years.


The projections for the resident population have been informed by the PIFU Demographic Report
prepared for this study and the updated 2009 analysis of four development scenarios.                 As
mentioned in the PIFU Report, the mature age population profile of Bowen leads to a lower natural
population increase (births minus deaths) than areas that have a younger population profile. Thus,
Bowen has a low natural population increase and the scale of industrial development is expected to
be the main contributor to the population increase driving in-migration.


A number of possible major projects have been considered in projecting future growth and housing
demand:
        Abbot Point Coal Terminal stage 3 expansion (X50);
        Proposed Abbot Point Coal Terminal stage 4 expansion (X110);
        Proposed Chalco alumina refinery within the SDA;
        Expansion to the Port of Abbot Point including a proposed Multi-Cargo Facility;




Final Report                                     P. 67
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        Goonyella to Abbot Point Expansion (Missing Link) rail project (Q-Rail);
        Water for Bowen project (SunWater);
        Export of coal from the Galilee Basin (Waratah Coal and Hancock Prospecting) to Abbot
        Point; and
        132 KVA Collinsville to Bowen power line project (PowerLink).


Given the significant impact population influx from these projects could have on the demand for
accommodation and the uncertainty relating to the timing and rollout of the major projects PIFU
developed four scenarios in consultation with DIP. The four scenarios are:
    A. All projects will proceed according to current advice from proponents;
    B. Proposed Chalco alumina refinery and proposed Multi Cargo Facility delayed by 12 months,
        other projects proceed as advised;
    C. Proposed Chalco alumina refinery and proposed Multi Cargo Facility delayed by 12 months,
        X110 not proceeding, other projects proceed as advised; and
    D. Proposed Chalco alumina refinery and proposed Multi Cargo Facility not proceeding, other
        projects proceed as advised.


The PIFU 2009 analysis accounts for population growth driven by:
        Construction jobs taken up by local residents or new permanent residents
        New operational jobs;
        Indirect jobs created by the direct employment on the projects;
        A multiplier of 2.6 for each new resident attracted.


The 2009 analysis stopped growth projections for each scenario at the end of commissioning for
the last project in each scenario. SGS have extended that with the medium growth rate from PIFU’s
2008 study. A comparison of the estimated growth rates from the 2008 and 2009 PIFU projections
is shown in Figure 12.


The population changes shown broadly follow the range between the low and medium forecasts
until the last quarter of project development for each of Scenario A, B & C. In the last quarter the
CHALCO plant is commissioned and a large operational workforce is required for these three
scenarios bringing them close to or above the high scenario at that point.


The 2009 PIFU forecast applies expected operational workforce numbers and indirect employment
from the projects, excluding construction, absorbing first the local residents available for work
before assuming any net inward migration. It assumes a certain proportion of the local workforce
will be taken up by the construction stage, but does not allow for any flow on population growth
arising from demand generated by the larger activity of the construction workforce.


In practice, our experience shows that often labour is attracted to areas with major project in
anticipation of new employment prospects, even before the employment is actually on offer. There
may also be some population growth driven by other activities in the area: agriculture and tourism.




Final Report                                     P. 68
                                                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Figure 12.                             Pop ula tion ch ang e : PIFU Sc enar io c omp ar iso ns


                                   Cumulative projected resident population change for development scenarios
                                        in Bowen/Abbot Point compared to PIFU 2008 series projections
                                                                         Source: PIFU, 2009
                                                                                                                                     5000


                                                                                                                                     4500


                                                                                                                                     4000
 Cumulative population change




                                                                                                                                     3500


                                                                                                                                     3000


                                                                                                                                     2500


                                                                                                                                     2000


                                                                                                                                     1500


                                                                                                                                     1000


                                                                                                                                     500


                                                                                                                                     0



                                                                         Quarter/Year

                                    PIFU High   PIFU Medium   PIFU Low          Scenario A    Scenario B   Scenario C   Scenario D

Source: PIFU 2009


For estimating future housing demand for resident population, SGS have taken the following
estimated population and housing figures, based on the PIFU estimates shown in Figure 12, using a
single annual estimate for June based on:
                                Scenario A & B: The medium population PIFU (2008) population growth until exceeded by
                                PIFU (2009) cumulative population growth to completion of the projects followed by PIFU
                                (2008) medium growth rate extended to 2015
                                Scenario C: The low population PIFU (2008) population growth to 2012, medium for 2013
                                and PIFU (2009) cumulative population growth to completion of the projects followed by
                                PIFU (2008) medium growth rate extended to 2015.
                                Scenario D: The low population PIFU (2008) population growth to 2015


The results of these assumptions are shown in Table 15. The dwelling projections have been
calculated using PIFU’s population projections and applying the ABS figure for Bowen of 2.4
persons per dwelling. The population values used by SGS to calculate dwelling demand are plotted
in Figure 13 for comparison with the PIFU 2008 and 2009 series.




Final Report                                                                 P. 69
                                                                  Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 17 .                             Res id en t Po pu la tion an d Dwe lling Pr ojec tions for Bowe n , 20 09-20 15


                                                                                                                                          Change
                                                         2009        2010         2011         2012           2013     2014      2015     2009-15
Scenario                           Resident Population   13,761     14,588       14,805       15,029          15,529   17,977   18,116          4,355
A
                                   Dwellings              5,734       6,078        6,169        6,262          6,470    7,490     7,548         1,814
Scenario                           Resident Population   13,761     14,588       14,805       15,029          15,261   15,476   17,939          4,178
B
                                   Dwellings              5,734       6,078        6,169        6,262          6,359    6,448     7,474         1,741
Scenario                           Resident Population   13,761     14,196       14,333       14,479          14,628   15,476   17,341          3,580
C
                                   Dwellings              5,734       5,915        5,972        6,033          6,095    6,448     7,225         1,491
Scenario                           Resident Population   13,761     14,196       14,333       14,479          14,628   14,761   14,825          1,064
D
           Dwellings             5,734     5,915     5,972   6,033    6,095                                             6,150     6,177          443
Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from PIFU Demographic Analysis


Figure 13.                             Pop ula tion ch ang e : PIFU Sc enar io and SG S a dop ted co mpa ris ons

                                   Cumulative projected resident population change for development scenarios
                                        in Bowen/Abbot Point compared to PIFU 2008 series projections
                                                            and SGS adopted values
                                                                      Source: PIFU, 2009, SGS 2010
                                                                                                                                          5000


                                                                                                                                          4500


                                                                                                                                          4000
    Cumulative population change




                                                                                                                                          3500


                                                                                                                                          3000


                                                                                                                                          2500


                                                                                                                                          2000


                                                                                                                                          1500


                                                                                                                                          1000


                                                                                                                                          500


                                                                                                                                          0




                                                                           Quarter/Year
                                         PIFU High                PIFU Medium                    PIFU Low                  Scenario A
                                         Scenario B               Scenario C                     Scenario D                SGS A
                                         SGS B                    SGS C                          SGS D




Final Report                                                                    P. 70
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




According to local real estate agents and accommodation providers, demand for accommodation
from the resident population is focused on permanent accommodation, with a preference for
houses over units. The real estate agents also noted there is generally a constant high demand
from residents for rental properties, and while demand for sales properties had been fairly good in
the past, it has slowed recently due to the effects of the global financial crisis. This suggests the
high PIFU case was not achieved. Some temporary accommodation providers suggested that some
residents may use tourist accommodation as an interim measure when moving between rental
properties due to the tight rental market for residential accommodation.



6.2            Demand for Construction Worker Accommodation
Based on project employment details obtained from managing companies and agencies, the
required construction employment for these major projects was also compiled. A portion of the
construction workforce was assumed to be sourced from local residents. The remainder are
described as ‘non-resident construction workers’ and are assumed to remain in the area only
during the construction phase. Those that choose to remain have been included in the resident
estimates above.


To estimate the dwellings it was assumed that the construction workforces would have 1 person
per dwelling or workers quarter. The following tables show the dwelling demand projections for
non-resident construction workers, resident workers have been considered above.


Table 18 shows the number of dwellings required to meet the demand from non-resident
construction workers based on the assumption of one person per dwelling which is the usual
situation for short term construction workers.      It should be noted that there may be a need for
construction workers over the longer term, who may choose to become permanent residents. The
estimation of non-resident employment allows for initial surges in employment to be as ‘non-
residents’ with a gradual increase in the number of residents employed over time while
construction employment is growing, then tapering down as construction is completed.


T ab l e 18 .      Non-res ident C ons truc tion W orker Dw elling Projec tions for Bowen,
2 009- 201 5


 Construction                2009     2010     2011       2012    2013        2014   2015

 Scenario A Workforce          725     3,435    5,250     4,675        450       0        0

 Scenario B Workforce          725     1,643    3,100     4,025       3,900    500        0

 Scenario C Workforce          725     1,143    1,855     4,025       3,850    500        0

 Scenario D Workforce           725     1,623    1,485      725          0       0        0
Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from provided by PIFU
Based on highest estimated quarter of employment in each year.


The non-resident construction workers are assumed to be housed primarily in workers camps. This
assumption reflects the following considerations:
        Most would choose to rent, not buy, because of the relatively short duration of their stay;




Final Report                                      P. 71
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        The private rental market is unlikely to respond strongly to demand for what would be
        perceived as a short term demand only;
        Housing may be in short supply for permanent residents if the market is slow to respond –
        making it preferable to develop accommodation in workers camps for construction workers
        will help reduce supply shortages in this sector;
        Accommodation in workers camps can generally be developed more quickly, and has
        potential later use as seasonal worker accommodation or can be relocated elsewhere for
        projects in other regions;
        Some operational workers may be housed in construction camp accommodation as a
        transitional arrangement should permanent housing development lag behind demand.


In practice, it is highly likely that some construction workers will rent or buy dwellings in the towns.
Others may stay in tourist accommodation. This will have the short term effect of adding to
demand for this housing, pushing up prices but also stimulating development activity higher than it
otherwise would be. However, if this additional demand is too large – due to an insufficient supply
of workers camp accommodation – the negative effects are potential housing shortages and higher
costs for some lower paid workers in the short term followed by falling demand and short to
medium term housing surpluses when the construction peak passes. The ‘peakier’ the construction
phase (Scenario A), the more severe these effects can be.


While these dynamics are to some extent unavoidable, and in the less peaky scenarios like
Scenario D mostly bring forward the supply that will be required in the longer term for operational
workers, adequate provision of housing on construction camps will diminish the severity of negative
effects. The analysis shows the numbers required if all construction workers are housed in camps
and as such is a conservative (that is, high) estimate of demand for this form of accommodation.


Scenario A involves a peak in construction workers of 5,250 in 2011.         Scenario B and C have a
lower peak of 4,025 in 2012. Scenario D has a peak of 1,623 in 2010. From this summary it is
clear that the accommodation demand will vary greatly depending upon the schedule of projects.
Further, the construction population peaks are quite short lived as shown in Figure 14.


The demand for construction labour near Collinsville is a small part of the total and is expected to
be largely complete by 2012. This demand is likely to be adequately met by existing and proposed
construction camps. The majority of the need will be closer to the Bowen Abbot Point SDA.




Final Report                                     P. 72
                                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Figure 14.          Non-res ident c ons truction labour forc e

       6000
                         Scenario A
                         Scenario B
       5000
                         Scenario C
                         Scenario D
       4000



       3000



       2000



       1000



          0
               Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
               09 09 09 09 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14

Source: PIFU



6.3            Demand for Tourist Accommodation
This section presents data and information on the tourist population and the projected level of
accommodation demand.           It further details the method and assumptions that were used by the
project team in order to forecast tourist numbers.


At the time of writing this report there was very limited data on tourism forecasts for Bowen. Data
used in forecasting tourist figures for the purpose of this analysis is primarily based on data
sourced from Tourism Research Australia (TRA)10 through its Tourism Profiles for Local Government
Areas in Regional Australia, Queensland 2008.             Using the TRA data, the project team applied a
number of assumptions in order to obtain figures for the number of tourists in Bowen to
understand the extent of accommodation requirements.


For the year to June 2007, Bowen had a total of 7,000 international visitors (equating to 96,000
international visitor nights), and 85,000 domestic overnight visitors (equating to 216,000 domestic
visitor nights).     In understanding room requirements it was necessary to translate visitor nights


10
     Tourism Research Australia currently produces a wide range of tourism research information at the National,
State/Territory and Regional level. Data is gathered from the two primary surveys conducted by Tourism
Research Australia – the International Visitor Survey (IVS) and the National Visitor Survey (NVS). The Tourism
Profiles for Local Government Areas in Regional Australia have been developed to assist regional Australia.
These provide individual Profiles for over half of the regional Local Government Areas in Australia.




Final Report                                           P. 73
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




into actual bed/room numbers. The method that was used by the project team to convert visitor
nights into bed/rooms involved:
    •   (A) Convert average number of visitor nights per year to visitor nights per day;
    •   (B) Visitor nights per day (A) converted to ‘units’ based on assumptions about the number
        of persons per tourist ‘unit’; (see assumptions below)
    •   (C) ‘Unit’ numbers (B) increased by 50% to account for seasonality and peak periods (i.e.
        the likely amount of tourists at any one time in the region); and
    •   (D) Increase in unit numbers (C) by 0.8% per annum until 2013 and then 1.3% until 2015,
        in accordance with tourism forecasts from TRA for all purposes of visits in Queensland but
        outside of Brisbane.


The rate of tourism increase will be very much dependent on tourism strategies for the area, the
impact of major industry and the ability to provide a range of accommodation options. Other
assumptions used in this method included:
    •   Average persons per ‘unit’ for each night stay for international visitors = 1.5 persons
    •   Average persons per ‘unit’ for each night stay for domestic visitors = 2 persons

Actual occupation rates per unit are averages across hotels, motels, caravan parks and
backpackers for the current mix of accommodation used. Clearly there will be more visitors per
‘unit’ in hotels and caravan parks than in a backpacker ‘bed’. As long as the mix stays broadly the
same, this simplification is workable. Backpacker beds currently represent about 29% of the
accommodation provided but would account for only about 20% of person nights accommodated.


Table 19 presents the tourist night and tourist ‘unit’ projections for Bowen. The growth rate for
tourist numbers are an estimate only based on TRA forecasting for the whole of Queensland outside
of Brisbane.


T ab l e 19 . T our is t Pop ula tion a nd R ooms / Be ds Pro jec tions for Bowe n , 20 09 - 2 015

Tourists                                   2009     2010    2011     2012    2013     2014     2015
International Visitor Nights per day        260      262     264      266     268      272      275
Domestic Visitor Nights per day             590      595     599      604     609      617      625
Total Visitor Nights per day                860      867     874      881     888      899      911
International Visitor 'units' (Average)     170      171     173      174     176      178      180
Domestic Visitor 'units' (Average)          300      302     305      307     310      314      318
Total Visitor 'units' (Average)             470      474     478      481     485      492      498
International Visitor 'units' (Peak)        260      262     264      266     268      272      275
Domestic Visitor 'units' (Peak)             450      454     457      461     465      471      477
Total Visitor 'units' (Peak)                710      716     721      727     733      743      752
Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from provided by TRA
Data for 2009 rounded to nearest 10.


The data indicates that 470 tourist accommodation ‘units’ are required in Bowen to support the
daily average anticipated tourist population. Discussions with tourist accommodation operators
indicates that the peak tourist season is between June and August when many visitors from the
southern states head north during winter.         This is in contrast to the minimal number of tourists




Final Report                                        P. 74
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




during the summer months, when the temperatures are very high, high levels of rain are likely,
and swimming is restricted due to stingers. There are visitors over the Christmas and New Year
breaks, but these would be likely to focus on visiting friends or relatives.


To allow for the concentration of tourist numbers in the peak season an additional allowance of
50% increase in the average number of tourist rooms/beds was applied.                 The 50% peak was
estimated by SGS based on discussions with accommodation providers. This indicates that at the
peak, 710 tourist rooms/beds would be required in 2009 rising by 42 to 752 in 2015.


Information on international and domestic tourists is provided as their accommodation needs and
preferences could be different.       Consultation with accommodation providers indicated that many
caravan park tourists are attracting mature age couples travelling for extended periods of time and
are likely to be domestic tourists, whereas international tourists are more likely to stay in resorts or
motels. International and national backpackers will have different needs again, with many wanting
backpacker residents or camping areas.          A lack of tourism data specifically for the Bowen area
prevents SGS from understanding the unique characteristics of each group in any more detail11;
however it would be worthwhile monitoring the tourist market.



6.4            Demand for Seasonal Worker Accommodation
According to accommodation providers, the peak demand for accommodation from seasonal
workers occurs during the picking season which is April to September. Many of these workers stay
in backpacker accommodation with the accommodation provider also supplying work contacts and
transport to a farm each day.         Other temporary accommodation options popular with seasonal
workers include caravan parks, where they stay in tents, and rental accommodation where they
share houses in large groups. The peak period for season workers overlaps with the peak tourist
season of June to August.          Because both groups have similar accommodation needs there is a
shortfall in desired accommodation types.


The seasonal worker population figures were provided by the Bowen District Growers Association
who also estimated four per cent growth per year. For the purposes of generating estimates of
demand for seasonal workers, an average of 1.5 workers per unit has been used, the same as for
tourist visitors. Given that large numbers, i.e. 15 people sharing one dwelling is unsuitable as well
as illegal, this trend has not been carried forth in the analysis conducted here. However, it is likely
to be the major factor behind the calculated shortfall in accommodation for this group in 2009.


T ab l e 20 . Seas onal Work er Projec tions for Bowen Shire from 2009 to 2015

 Seasonal Workers          2009       2010       2011       2012       2013       2014       2015

 Seasonal Workers          3,000      3,120      3,245      3,375      3,510      3,650      3,796

 Accommodation
                           2,000      2,080      2,163      2,250      2,340      2,433      2,531
 units needed
Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from the Bowen Research Station



       11
            E.g. the numbers of visitors staying with friends and relatives at different times of year.




Final Report                                        P. 75
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Table 20 shows that 2,000 accommodation units are required for seasonal workers in 2009,
growing to 2,531 in 2015.     As an indicator of the existing shortage, in 2009 we have 1,654 units
available which are also required to meet the tourist demand of 710 places. Without efforts to both
reduce overcrowding in some dwellings and increase supply, this will not translate into more use of
hotel or caravan park accommodation.



6.5            Accommodation Demand Summary
A summary of the population projections for the four main demand groups are provided in Table
19. The main difference in demand between Scenarios is with the construction worker sector,
although resident population grows according to the level of longer term operational employment
and flow on employment and population arising from that. Tourist and seasonal worker demand
growth is the same under each scenario.


In the case of tourists and seasonal workers, the accommodation numbers refer to motel rooms,
cabins, caravan sites and hostel ‘units’ as described earlier rather than dwellings.




Final Report                                     P. 76
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 21 . Dwe lling Projec tions for each D emand Sc enar io Bowen, 2009- 2015


 Scenario A                  2009        2010       2011        2012      2013        2014       2015

 Residents                      5,734     6,078      6,169       6,262      6,470      7,490       7,548

 Construction Workers            725      3,435      5,250       4,675        450            0          0

 Tourists                        710        716           721      727        733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers               2,000     2,080      2,163       2,250      2,340      2,433       2,531

 Scenario A Total               9,169    12,309     14,303      13,914      9,993     10,666     10,831

 Scenario B                  2009        2010       2011        2012      2013        2014       2015

 Residents                      5,734     6,078      6,169       6,262      6,359      6,448       7,474

 Construction Workers            725      1,643      3,100       4,025      3,900        500            0

 Tourists                        710        716           721      727        733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers               2,000     2,080      2,163       2,250      2,340      2,433       2,531

 Scenario B Total               9,169    10,517     12,153      13,264     13,331     10,124     10,757

 Scenario C                  2009        2010       2011        2012      2013        2014       2015

 Residents                      5,734     5,915      5,972       6,033      6,095      6,448       7,225

 Construction Workers            725      1,143      1,855       4,025      3,850        500            0

 Tourists                        710        716           721      727        733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers               2,000     2,080      2,163       2,250      2,340      2,433       2,531

 Scenario C Total               9,169     9,854     10,712      13,035     13,018     10,124     10,508

 Scenario D                  2009        2010       2011        2012      2013        2014       2015

 Residents                      5,734     5,915      5,972       6,033      6,095      6,150       6,177

 Construction Workers            725      1,623      1,485         725           0           0          0

 Tourists                        710        716           721      727        733        743        752

 Seasonal Workers               2,000     2,080      2,163       2,250      2,340      2,433       2,531

 Scenario D Total              9,169     10,334     10,342      9,735       9,168       9,326      9,460
Source: SGS Economics and Planning using data from SGS and PIFU 2009 four scenarios, extended


The findings from this demand summary and the supply summary are brought together in the gap
analysis in the next section.    This indicates where there are accommodation shortages and the
impacts of the worker populations from the major projects.




Final Report                                      P. 77
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   7             Gap Analysis and Land Capacity Analysis
The intent of this section is to combine the supply and demand work completed in previous
sections to determine the accommodation gap, i.e. where there are shortages in accommodation.
Given the different accommodation requirements of each demand group - residents, permanent
resident operational workers, construction workers, tourists and seasonal workers, the gaps for
each group are investigated separately, taking residents and permanent resident operational
workers as one group as they are expected to occupy the same kinds of dwelling.


This section of the report also includes the findings of the land capacity analysis which reports on
the development potential given the constraints on the land and the planning requirements for
development.     This has been used to inform Section 8 relating to potential responses to fill the
accommodation gap.



7.1             Gap Analysis
Summary tables of the supply of accommodation and the highest and lowest accommodation
demand scenarios are provided in Table 22 to Table 24. Table 20 shows the known and estimated
supply based on recent building approvals, and known residential projects, with supply for tourist
and seasonal workers remaining constant from 2010.                 This does not take into account market
response to higher residential demand, nor new workers camps. Just over half of the Construction
workers accommodation is in Collinsville, while most additional demand will be in or near the SDA.


T ab l e 22 .      Accommodation Supply Summar y, 2009- 2015

 Accommodation Supply for:                     2009          2010     2012    2013     2014        2015
 Residents & Op Workers                        5,709         5,824    6,055   6,170    6,286       6,401
 Construction Workers                          530           1,350    1,350   1,350    1,350       1,350
 Tourist & Seasonal Workers                    1,654         1,654    1,654   1,654    1,654       1,654
Source: SGS Economics and Planning and PIFU


The highest demand can be seen in Scenario A (Table 21) and the lowest demand can be seen in
Scenario D (Table 22).


T ab l e 23 .      Accommodation Demand Summary Scenar io A, 2009- 2015


 Scenario A                  2009       2010           2011          2012     2013      2014         2015

 Residents                    5,734      6,078          6,169         6,262    6,470     7,490         7,548

 Construction Workers           725      3,435          5,250         4,675      450           0            0

 Tourists                       710           716            721       727       733       743             752

 Seasonal Workers             2,000      2,080          2,163         2,250    2,340     2,433         2,531

 Scenario A Total              9,169     12,309        14,303        13,914    9,993    10,666       10,831
Source: SGS Economics and Planning and PIFU
T ab l e 24 .      Accommodation Demand Summary Scenar io D , 2009- 2015




Final Report                                         P. 78
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




 Scenario D                  2009       2010        2011        2012     2013        2014       2015

 Residents                    5,734      5,915       5,972       6,033     6,095      6,150       6,177

 Construction Workers           725      1,623       1,485        725           0           0          0

 Tourists                       710        716            721     727        733        743         752

 Seasonal Workers             2,000      2,080       2,163       2,250     2,340      2,433       2,531

 Scenario D Total              9,169     10,334     10,342       9,735     9,168      9,326       9,460
Source: SGS Economics and Planning and PIFU


The difference between the supply and demand figures (gap analysis) are shown in Table 25. In
Table 25 the values represent the level of supply minus the demand for each group under each
scenario. Therefore a negative value indicates an accommodation shortfall. This Table assumes
that no specific action has been taken to address the shortfalls, apart from the supply growth
previously noted.


The accommodation gap findings are organised according to the demand groups and the types of
accommodation they are likely to use. This indicates where the real shortages are if the demand
groups were to use the expected dwelling/room types. The column on the far right of Table 25
shows the maximum shortage for each group within each scenario (maximum number of persons
with “expected” accommodation types), and the year in which this occurs is highlighted.


Table 25 shows that even without the impacts of the construction and operational workers
relocating to the region for the major projects, there is an apparent shortage of all accommodation
types at 2009, principally for tourists and seasonal workers.


7.1.1          Residents

The accommodation shortage for residents varies with each scenario and ranges from a high of
1,204 for Scenario A in 2014 to a minimal 91 for Scenario D, in 2009 with no shortages thereafter.
In the case of residents, the accommodation numbers refer to dwellings such as houses, semi-
detached dwellings, townhouses and units over and above the 692 expected to be developed on a
‘business as usual basis’ (Table 20). For Scenarios A, B & C, the peak always arises after the
Chalco project becomes operational. Given the relatively long lead time and known level of
employment for this project, it is reasonable to assume that the housing market could respond to
this predictable demand once project construction begins. Further, except for Scenario D the peak
demand for residents always lags the peak demand for construction (as might be expected) by
about three years.


Given the land capacity analysis completed for this study, (see following section) the existing
community could absorb even the highest number of additional dwellings required. However, to
ensure that this could be best assisted, additional investigation into planning scheme provisions
would be beneficial.




Final Report                                      P. 79
                                                                                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 25 .     G a p Ana l ys is R e s u l ts f o r D w el l in g /a c c o mmo d a t io n U n i t s


                                               Principal
 Scenario A                               Accommodation Type                  2009         2010          2011      2012        2013       2014       2015    Max. Need
 Residents                                     Houses, units                    -25          -254         -229      -207        -300     -1,204     -1,147         1,204
 Construction Workers                          Workers camp                    -195       -2,085         -3,900   -3,325        900       1,350      1,350         3,900

                                          Motel rooms, caravan
 Tourists and Seasonal Workers                                              -1,056        -1,142         -1,231   -1,323      -1,419     -1,522     -1,629         1,629
                                           sites, hostel beds

 Scenario B                                                                   2009         2010          2011      2012        2013       2014       2015
 Residents                                     Houses, units                    -25          -254         -229      -207        -189       -162     -1,073         1,073
 Construction Workers                          Workers camp                    -195          -293        -1,750   -2,675      -2,550        850      1,350         2,675

                                          Motel rooms, caravan
 Tourists and Seasonal Workers                                              -1,056        -1,142         -1,231   -1,323      -1,419     -1,522     -1,629         1,629
                                           sites, hostel beds

 Scenario C                                                                   2009         2010          2011      2012        2013       2014       2015
 Residents                                     Houses, units                    -25           -91          -32        22          75       -162       -824           824
 Construction Workers                          Workers camp                    -195           207         -505    -2,675      -2,500        850      1,350         2,675

                                          Motel rooms, caravan
 Tourists and Seasonal Workers                                              -1,056        -1,142         -1,231   -1,323      -1,419     -1,522     -1,629         1,629
                                           sites, hostel beds

 Scenario D                                                                   2009         2010          2011      2012        2013       2014       2015
 Residents                                     Houses, units                    -25           -91          -32        22          75        136        224            91
 Construction Workers                          Workers camp                    -195          -273         -135       625       1,350      1,350      1,350           195

                                          Motel rooms, caravan
 Tourists and Seasonal Workers                                              -1,056        -1,142         -1,231   -1,323      -1,419     -1,522     -1,629         1,629
                                           sites, hostel beds

Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                                                      P. 80
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




7.1.2          Construction Workers

In all but Scenario D, construction workers have the greatest peak gap. The gap is in fact larger
than shown as just over half of the existing or planned supply identified is located in Collinsville and
not suitable to serve the greater portion of demand near the SDA. However the gap for
construction workers is relatively short lived. For Scenario C the gap lasts only two years, and for
the other two Scenarios, three years. Further, as shown in Figure 14, the peak in demand lasts
only 2 or 3 quarters. Much of the time the demand is only about half to two thirds of the peak. The
cost to serve such short lived peaks, if there is not subsequent use, can be quite high.


The shortages for construction workers accommodation range from 3,132 rooms in 2011 for
Scenario A down to 195 rooms for Scenario D – in 2009.            As has been noted, given the high
numbers required for construction workers over a 2-3 year period, and then for the possibility of
not requiring this accommodation again, it is considered that accommodating temporary workers in
high quality workers camps adjacent to the existing community provides significant opportunities
for it to be reused as seasonal accommodation later (see below).        As mentioned previously it is
recommended that Bowen aim to set adequate and high standards for such accommodation.


The accommodation should be designed to be integrated with the existing community through a
high level of amenity and facilities. Providing good quality accommodation and services to workers
rather than stand alone, low amenity ‘camps’ that have been provided in some mining communities
will be critical to workers being successfully housed and attracted to work in these areas. The
results of the Community Infrastructure Report included later in this document details the facilities
and services that should be provided for maximum benefit to workers and the wider community.


Not only are the quantities of temporary construction workers accommodation significant, the time
the accommodation is required may be as soon as 2011. If some immediate action does not take
place to fill some of the potential gaps for workers accommodation, potentially significant impacts
on all other accommodation types will be felt in the near term.


All construction workers need not be housed in workers camps. Given that the peak for
construction workers comes before that of permanent residents, some housing designed for longer
term residents could be rented to construction workers for a period of time. Two or three
construction workers could share a residence. Thus the growth in housing required in Scenario A
from 2013 to 2014 of about 1000 dwellings for ‘residents’, if built two years earlier, could house
about two thirds of the peak shortfall of 3,132 construction workers with two workers per house. As
the demand for construction workers winds down, the housing would become available for long
term residents, albeit about one year earlier than required. For Scenarios B and C and early supply
of housing for longer term residents would similarly meet much of the construction housing need.


Hurdles to this approach being successful include: the need to find investors to build and rent the
dwellings; the ‘gap’ between construction workers leaving and the take up by permanents; and the
different requirements of the short term construction workers and longer term residents (e.g.
private open space, need for two or three similar bedrooms rather than a more conventional family
bedroom arrangement). However, the role that this could play should be taken into account.




Final Report                                      P. 81
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




7.1.3          Seasonal Accommodation

The accommodation shortage for tourists and seasonal workers is the same for each scenario and
ranges from a need of 1,056 additional beds in 2009 to 1,629 additional beds in 2015. In the case
of tourists and seasonal workers, the accommodation numbers refer to motel rooms, cabins,
caravan sites and hostel beds rather than dwellings. Using assumptions noted in Section 6.3, these
figures indicate that in 2009 the region could, in theory, host an additional 13 motels and 15
hostels/camping/caravan sites. However, as has been noted throughout this report, the provision
of further motels / hostels etc is not as simple as it may first appear. Consultation with backpacker
owners and motel owners indicated that given the seasonality of the ‘picking’ season, they are at
capacity for up to 8 months of the year. Outside of the picking season, however, they are well
below occupancy levels that allow for a break even position. Many operators opt to close down for
periods of the year.


The shortfall in accommodation for tourists and seasonal workers identified in 2009 is probably
largely met in current practice by a combination of overcrowding and possibly peak occupancy
rates than assumed for some accommodation types. During the peak season groups of workers will
share housing at higher than desirable densities, up to 15 per dwelling, albeit for relatively short
periods. Hence, expecting new developments to ‘flow’ to the region due to the peak period demand
would be optimistic without concerted efforts to control overcrowding.


Further consultation with owners and operators will need to occur to determine what opportunities
are available to fill the gap in the non-peak period.    Some potential responses include building up
the tourist numbers in these ‘off peak picking’ periods, and also ensuring that Council and State
Agencies and other businesses utilise the capacity when available (for instance for meetings and/or
visiting guests). A tourist strategy for the region should be developed in order to address these
issues and means of boosting tourist numbers.


The shortage of motel rooms, cabins, caravan sites and hostel beds is likely to be exacerbated if
construction workers choose to live in these types of accommodation rather than in the temporary
workers’ accommodation.     Construction workers may choose this type of accommodation if the
workers’ accommodation is not of a standard that is considered acceptable over the term of their
contracts, or if workers’ accommodation is undersupplied (as is likely for the short peaks) or
provided on unrealistic terms. Hence the importance of Bowen setting a high standard for
construction worker accommodation solutions. Should temporary construction workers take up the
type of accommodation utilised by seasonal workers and tourists, significant impacts on the
agricultural and tourism industry would result, unless a short lived peak fortuitously coincides with
the period of minimum demand for seasonal labour.


If there is a demand for motel and similar accommodation from construction workers, they are
likely to outbid the agricultural industry workers with much higher pay and longer stays, filling
more tourism capacity in off-peak periods. If the construction workforce accommodation is
provided at the expense of the project developer, developers will have an incentive to ensure that
it is occupied by workers – recovering their outlay from revenue – in preference to having workers
use tourist accommodation. This would be true whether the accommodation was in the form of
workers camps or as housing built in the community.




Final Report                                     P. 82
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




While visitors may be discouraged by a lack of available accommodation due to crowding out by
construction workers, accommodation providers are unlikely to be as concerned if they are fully
booked over larger parts of the year. Thus the tourism accommodation operators are unlikely to
complain about a shortage of workers accommodation. However, those running tourism activities
and attractions will be affected by a shortage of available accommodation for visitors.


At the end of the period shown, there will potentially be some construction workers camps available
for use as seasonal workers’ accommodation if they are not relocated to other regions. Their value
for seasonal workers accommodation will depend on their location, amenity and operating costs
compared to alternatives.


7.1.4          Conversion to Land Required

Table 26 shows the land required given the maximum accommodation requirements identified in
the gap analysis. The sections in the table on houses/units and workers accommodation provides
several options.     For residents’ houses or units, the land required for both business as usual
growth plus additional demand could be met at different densities. At 8 dwellings per hectare, 237
hectares would be required whereas at 25 dwellings per hectare, 76 hectares would be required. In
practice some mixture of densities would be used, including some even lower density park
residential housing.


For the workers accommodation, two options are calculated depending on whether 5 or 10
hectare sites are selected for workers camps. It is assumed that each site would accommodate
around 500 workers. In practice, it is highly unlikely that the peak requirement would be met with
workers camps, probably closer to half to two thirds, with some being accommodated for a period
in long term residential housing and others in short term seasonal accommodation.


Only one approach to meeting the land requirement for the additional accommodation for
seasonal workers and tourists is presented on the basis that 25% of the seasonal workers and
tourists will require motel/resort style accommodation and the rest will be in caravan parks and
hostels. About 14 motels with 30 units per motel and 3 motels per hectare, would require 4.4
hectares. If it is assumed that the backpacker component / caravan / camping area will be the
most demanded accommodation type for the seasonal workers and that this is developed at around
3 hostels/caravan sites per hectare housing 80 beds each, then an additional 5 hectares will be
required. The motels/resort style accommodation is likely to be most demanded in the beachside
suburbs and to a lesser extent in the town (for motel style accommodation).             Backpackers are
likely to be accommodated within the town, with also some demand for beachside suburbs.


The land capacity analysis for this type of use indicates that there may be appropriate land
available.     However, this will need to be further considered as the land may not be suitable for
other reasons such as slope, incompatible adjacent uses or costs of infrastructure.                  Site
investigations will need to be undertaken on potential sites to determine specific site feasibilities.
Further detail about the recommendations is contained in Section 8, together with the option of
utilising the construction workers accommodation as a potential overflow for seasonal worker
accommodation.




Final Report                                      P. 83
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 26 .       Acco mmo da tio n an d La nd Re qu ire men ts

                                                        Maximum need            Area required
 Houses/Units                                              Dwellings                (Ha)
 all @ 8 dwellings/ ha                                         1896*                 237
                                                                   *
 or all @ 12 dwellings/ ha                                     1896                  158
                                                                   *
 or all @ 25 dwellings/ ha                                     1896                   76
 Workers Camps                                                Workers
 6 camps at 500 per camp and 5 ha each                         3132+                  30
                                                                   +
 or 6 camps at 500 per camp and 10 ha each                     3132                   60
 Seasonal workers, tourists                                    Units

 25% in motels, 30 units per motel - 14
 motels at 3 motels/ha                                          400                   4.4
 plus 75% in caravan parks, hostels, 80
 units per site – 15 sites at 3 sites/ha                       1229                   5.0
                                                                   ^
 Total seasonal accommodation                                 1629                    9.4
Source: SGS Economics and Planning
* based on 1204 for Scenario A plus 692 dwellings under business as usual
+ highly unlikely to need this capacity as some will go to residential dwellings and some short term peak can be
met in seasonal accommodation.
^ assumes all overcrowding controlled and additional accommodation capacity can be viable



7.2             Land Capacity and Yield Analysis
The land capacity analysis determines the area of land available for further residential
development, taking into account a range of constraints.               The land capacity analysis involves a
series of constraint map layers being overlaid onto each other.             These individual constraint map
layers are provided in Appendix E and a map showing all constraint layers on a single map is shown
in Figure 15 and Figure 16.        Each constraint layer is considered to be either a full or partial
constraint depending upon the ability and cost of mitigation of the constraint. For example, good
quality agricultural land (GQAL) is considered a full constraint as this land is valuable to the local
economy and should not be compromised, whereas acid sulphate soil can be mitigated against as
part of the building process and is not an absolute barrier to development.


The land areas are recorded by each residential zoning category. Details of each zoning category
are provided in section 5.4.1. These land areas are then translated into possible dwelling numbers
to provide the potential dwelling yield. To convert land areas to dwelling numbers the following
densities were considered, depending upon the zoning category, based on the controls in the
Bowen Planning Scheme:
         R1 – 12 dwellings per hectare (minimum lot size = 600sqm)
         R2 – 25 dwellings per hectare (minimum lot size to allow dual occupancy= 1,000sqm)
         PR – 2 dwellings per hectare (minimum lot size = 4,000sqm)


The results of the land capacity and yield analysis are provided in 5.4.                   The land areas are
displayed according to the zoning category, the constraint level and the location. Table 25 shows
that there is 55.6ha of unconstrained land in Bowen that is zoned R1 and a further 33.5ha of land




Final Report                                          P. 84
                                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




zoned R2. These areas of land are estimated to yield 667 and 837 dwellings respectively. There is
also substantial Park Residential land that is considered to be unconstrained (210.3 hectares),
which could currently house up to 420 dwellings. Together on these unconstrained parcels, it is
estimated that Bowen could host an additional 1,925 dwellings, which is (just) in excess of that
which is required in Table 26 for residents to 2015 in the highest Scenario A.


However, there is further land available in the partially constrained areas, which again indicates
that the current zonings could account for likely future demand for residents and operational
workers. Almost all the R1 and R2 land is included in the Draft PIA.                            PR zoned land is
predominantly outside of the Draft PIA. Table 27 shows a breakdown of available land by zoning
and potential yields.


With regard to construction workers accommodation, if the majority of construction workers are
accommodated in workers camps and the peak is catered for in Scenario A, there is not adequate
land within the existing zoned environment, particularly if the locational criterion of being adjacent
to existing communities is taken into account. In fact this situation is unlikely.


Some of the park residential land was assessed for this type of accommodation, but was considered
inappropriate. This is discussed further in Section 7. Given the potential maximum extent of land
required for the workers accommodation, and the need to ensure that it is adjacent to the existing
community, other land parcels were considered. Potential sites have been identified and a broad
assessment of these is provided in Section 7.


T ab l e 27 .         A v a il a b le L a n d Are a a n d D w e ll in g Y ie ld s

Level of Constraint                                        Land Area (ha)                       Possible Dwellings
                                Zoning      Bowen       Merinda       Collinsville    Total     Bowen       Total
 Land Free of Constraints         R1            55.6         -              28.9         84.5     667.4     1,014.3
                                  R2            33.5         -                3.2        36.7     837.3       917.8
                                  PR          210.3          -                -        210.3      420.5       420.5
                                 Total       299.4          -               32.1      331.5     1,925.3    2,352.7
 Partially Constrained            R1            84.9        11.2            25.5       121.6    1,019.2     1,459.4
                                  R2          131.6          -                -        131.6    3,290.2     3,290.2
                                  PR          181.8         14.5              -        196.3      363.6       392.7
                                 Total       398.3         25.7             25.5      449.6     4,673.0    5,142.3
 Fully Constrained                R1          133.5             2.3         71.5       207.2
                                  R2          127.1             1.2           -        128.3
                                  PR            23.6        13.4              -          37.0
                                 Total       284.2         16.9             71.5      372.6
 Total Residential                R1          274.0         13.5           125.9       413.4
                                  R2          292.2             1.2           3.2      296.6
                                  PR          415.7         28.0              -        443.7
                                 Total       981.9         42.7           129.1      1,153.7
Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                               P. 85
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Figure 15.      Land C apac ity Analysis Summary – All C ons traints , Bow en and
M er ind a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                   P. 86
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Figure 16.      Land C apac ity Analysis Summary – All C ons train ts , Co llins ville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                   P. 87
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




7.3            Summary of Accommodation Requirements &
               Ability for Existing Area to Meet Needs
In summary, the gap analysis identified the accommodation shortfall in terms of dwelling numbers,
for workers’ accommodation rooms, motel rooms, caravan sites, or backpacker beds, depending on
the accommodation type.      It also showed in which year these gaps are likely to occur. Based on
the earlier general and Bowen specific planning principles developed (refer Section 4.5Error!
Reference source not found.), it was noted that:
        Residential and operational workers should be housed wherever possible within the existing
        urban fabric;
        While some construction workers may choose to locate within the existing urban area,
        there needs to be temporary worker accommodation available adjacent to the existing
        urban area.     The need for efficient erection and removal of this type of accommodation
        necessitates a near town location, but not a location that is likely to leave large vacant
        spaces in the middle of existing communities once there is no more need for the
        accommodation. Alternatively and preferably these accommodation sites can be reused for
        other purposes as noted earlier;
        Seasonal workers and tourists generally choose backpacker/caravan/camping sites or
        motel/resort style accommodation, and this will generally be located within the town centre
        or in the beachside suburbs.


A land capacity analysis was then completed.       This took into account the land constraints and
identified the available area of residentially zoned land according to zoning category. Based on the
application of planning requirements (from the Bowen Planning Scheme), an indication of the
dwelling yield that could be achieved was also determined.          The results by each category of
demand is summarised below and also included in Table 25 (see previous).             The scope of this
report has not included the examination of zoning further land residential, and this is something
that could certainly be considered, particularly for workers camps.            However, the analysis
undertaken for this report shows that the amount of existing residential land is adequate, and it is
considered this should be used as a priority if possible (apart from workers camps) to provide
benefits of urban consolidation, and community building.


7.3.1          Residential Workers – Ability to Host within the Existing
               Urban Area

Table 26 showed that the maximum amount of land that is required within the existing urban area
is 237 ha. This was required to house up to 1,896 dwellings at the low density assumption of 8
dwellings per hectare. If higher densities were achieved, then the amount of land required over
the planning period would be lower.


Table 25 indicates that there is some 121ha of unconstrained R1 and R2 land, and a further 210ha
of unconstrained PR land in Bowen.         Furthermore, there is nearly 400 additional hectares of
partially constrained land within the Bowen area. As such, the maximum amount of land (237 ha)
that would be required to house the residential and operational workers over the planning period is
able to be accommodated within the existing urban fabric.




Final Report                                      P. 88
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




However, the ability for the market to respond to these demands is not certain. It is recommended
that broad market feasibility analyses occur to determine whether, based on the current planning
requirements, that a range of development styles within the urban fabric is viable.              Further
discussion on this is provided in Section 8.


7.3.2          Construction Worker Accommodation – Ability to host
               adjacent to the Existing Urban Area

The analysis undertaken for this study showed that accommodation for construction workers
represents the most significant current accommodation shortage. For this group, not only are the
quantities of temporary workers accommodation significant, the time the accommodation is
required is within a concentrated period and may be as soon as 2011. If some immediate action
does not take place to fill some of the potential gaps for workers accommodation, potentially
significant impacts on all other accommodation types will be felt in the near term. This is discussed
further in the potential responses.


With regard to the amount of land required to host temporary accommodation sites, if it is
assumed that a site of between 5 to 10 hectares is required to house 500 temporary workers, then
between 30 and 60 hectares of land would be required to house nearly all of the peak demand in
workers camps in Scenario A. More realistically demand would be for about half of this. Given that
the recommended planning principles (refer Section 4.5) indicated that these should be located
adjacent to or in close proximity to the existing communities, further land will need to be zoned for
this purpose.     The land availability assessment indicated that there was little chance of
accommodating even a component of the temporary workers’ accommodation within the existing
zoned land.     The following section outlines some potential locations for where these types of
accommodation could be hosted.


7.3.3          Seasonal Workers and Tourists – Ability to Host within
               the Existing Urban Area

The land capacity analysis for seasonal workers and tourists is important, particularly if the
agricultural industry is to retain its dominance in the economy of Bowen, and continue to be a
significant contributor to the Queensland and Australian economies. The assessments completed
for this study indicate that it is likely that appropriate land is available for these types of uses.
However, as has been noted throughout this report, the provision of further hotels / hostels is not
as simple as it may first appear.


Consultation with backpacker owners and motel owners indicated that given the seasonality of the
‘picking’ season, they are at capacity for up to 8 months of the year.         However outside of the
picking season they are often well below occupancy levels that allow for a break even position.
Given this situation, many operators opt to close down for periods of the year. Hence, expecting
new developments to ‘flow’ to the region due to the peak period demand may be optimistic.
Further consultation with owners and operators will need to occur to determine what opportunities
there are to fill the gap in the non-peak period. Some potential responses include building up the
tourist numbers in these ‘off peak picking’ periods, and also ensuring that Council, State Agencies’
and business utilise the capacity when available (for instance for meetings and/or visiting guests).




Final Report                                     P. 89
                                    Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




This is discussed further in the Section 8, together with the option of utilising the temporary
construction workers accommodation in the longer term for seasonal worker accommodation.




Final Report                                  P. 90
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   8             Potential Responses & Recommendations
                 to Address the Accommodation Gaps
This section concludes the report by noting the process utilised by SGS to respond to the
accommodation     gaps   identified,   recapping    on   the   overall   planning   principles   that   were
recommended and suggesting potential avenues to address the accommodation gaps.



8.1            Process for Addressing the Gaps
The results of the gap analysis (Table 25) provided a clear understanding of the shortfall in the
different types of accommodation that is likely to be required by various groups within Bowen. It
also identified that there is an existing accommodation shortfall across all accommodation types
but especially for tourists and seasonal workers.


The process for addressing these gaps involved calculating the land areas that are likely to be
required to meet the gaps based on a range of development densities. This information is provided
in Table 26 in the previous section.     Once the land area required was established, the existing
zoned area was assessed to determine whether the demand could be accommodated in the existing
community. This process showed that in land terms while the residential and operational workers
(those who are permanent residents), and potentially the tourist and seasonal workers could be
accommodated within the existing area, the temporary workers accommodation required further
investigation.   The temporary workers accommodation could house construction workers and
possibly some operational workers who are not permanent residents.


A workshop with the Bowen Abbot Point steering committee and Anita Egginton was held on August
4th 2009 to discuss the possible locations for the temporary workers accommodation.                     This
workshop was particularly useful as it provided a means to utilise local knowledge from the
Whitsunday Regional Council representatives.        A selection of sites were nominated as potential
sites for temporary accommodation, and the site selection was based on the planning principles
summarised below (refer section 8.1.1).         SGS prioritised the sites according to their broad
suitability for workers’ accommodation, based on minimising disruption to the existing community
and agricultural uses while also ensuring a certain level of integration with the existing community
(in line with high order principles). Note, however, that the sites identified are not the only sites
that may be considered for temporary workers accommodation.


It is important to note the there are significant land constraints around Bowen and the identified
sites do not satisfy all the planning principles. Some of the identified sites are subject to significant
issues and concerns that must be further investigated and addressed prior to further consideration
of their suitability. It should be noted that potential land use conflict is a key concern that must be
addressed in future residential development.       There are legitimate agricultural activities in close
proximity to Bowen (and other urban areas) that should be allowed to continue.               This requires
adequate buffers to ensure minimise the risk associated with the application of agricultural
chemicals.




Final Report                                        P. 91
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Following from the initial assessments, Council was asked to identify the infrastructure costs
associated with each site to determine the relative efficiency of enabling the different sites under
selection. As noted at the outset, the infrastructure networks within Bowen are all at capacity, and
as such further infrastructure requirements to service the land should not be seen as a constraint
to its potential hosting of workers’ accommodation. However, prioritising parcels according to least
cost should be completed, as well as determining an equitable approach to how and who should
fund the infrastructure required.     Recommendations regarding these elements are included in
Section 8.5.


8.1.1          Recapping the Recommended Planning Principles

As discussed in Section 4.5 the following principles were established by SGS to guide the selection
of possible sites to host temporary and permanent accommodation. These principles were based
on higher order policy advice, which follow the 11 principles below. It is recommended that the
higher order policy principles and the Bowen specific principles be adapted as required for
incorporation into the Bowen planning scheme, as well as a residential strategy that should be
developed to guide the timely and appropriate introduction of housing and accommodation within
Bowen.


    1.   Accommodation provision in Bowen should ensure that permanent and temporary residents
         (including tourists, seasonal workers, construction workers, operational workers and
         residents) have access to the full range of community needs.


    2.   Temporary workers’ accommodation should be located in close proximity to the Bowen
         locality.   This will ensure that good outcomes for economic prosperity, amenity
         considerations and the potential for community cohesion occur. However this must take
         account of land constraints and potential for land use conflict.


    3.   The location of temporary workers’ accommodation will need additional infrastructure to
         adequately service it, regardless of its location, given that Bowen locality is already at
         capacity. Locations that are most efficient regarding infrastructure provision should be
         encouraged, and infrastructure should not be seen as a major constraint in determining
         these locations.


    4.   Given the importance of the agricultural industry to the region, Queensland and the rest of
         Australia, good quality agricultural land must be maintained and preserved wherever it is
         considered viable over the longer term.          This should be informed by a framework
         established to quantify the viable and sustainable holding size(s) for the predominate
         agricultural systems of the Bowen region.


    5.   The uncertainty of the progress and timing of the major projects requires that flexible
         solutions are determined. This should include that a number of sites are earmarked and
         development ready, to host worker accommodation in advance of the projects occurring.
         The lands that are identified should also be able to be reused for other purposes once their
         need to host workers accommodation has expired.                That is, temporary workers’
         accommodation should also be developed in a way that could accommodate seasonal




Final Report                                      P. 92
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




         workers, tourists, or other permanent residents once the need for the construction
         population has dissipated.


    6.   Most operational workers and population associated with natural increase and migration
         should be accommodated within the existing residential and future residential areas.


    7.   Worker accommodation in Bowen needs to set new standards of accommodation provision.
         Aside from the social benefits to workers and communities, higher quality worker
         accommodation can be justified economically given the longevity of the SDA, the
         anticipated ongoing need for worker accommodation, and the ability to adapt and reuse the
         facilities for other demand groups once the need for construction workers eases.            Some
         examples of the good and the bad outcomes that can occur needs to be communicated
         early with the existing community.


    8.   The worker accommodation should have regard to and be compatible with adjacent land
         uses. Thus, it is likely that the worker accommodation will need to be proximate to, but
         not directly within existing townships. The exception to this would be where the amenity of
         the workers accommodation within the existing townships was on a par with the
         surrounding residential environment and where the scale of the accommodation was small
         or interspersed within the existing urban fabric.


    9.   Residential workers accommodation is incompatible with the industrial and major project
         intentions of the SDA. The inclusion of residential areas may be a health hazard and may
         also limit the economic potential of the SDA, which is contrary to the State’s overall intent
         of the SDAs. Even in the early stages of development of the SDA, allowance of workers
         accommodation in the SDA would set unwanted precedents and is therefore not
         recommended.


    10. The location of workers accommodation in Collinsville for the SDA is not suitable due to the
         large    distance     (85kms)   between    the   SDA   and    Collinsville.    However,    worker
         accommodation in Collinsville should be considered for any major project in close proximity
         to Collinsville.


    11. The location of worker accommodation for the SDA outside the Merinda township may be
         considered for temporary workers’ accommodation provided a number of key issues are
         satisfactorily addressed. These include:
               valuable good quality agricultural land that surrounds Merinda is not unnecessarily
               impacted (as noted earlier GQAL is significant to the ongoing economic benefit of the
               region, Queensland and Australia);
               access to essential services can be achieved (i.e. community, social, recreational,
               health, etc);
               potential social impacts on Merinda are acceptable;
               land use conflicts do not result (e.g. health hazards associated with pesticide and
               herbicide application and use, noise and light spill); and
               potential flooding impacts are addressed.




Final Report                                        P. 93
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




These and the higher order principles below, have also guided the solutions proposed in the
following section.


Higher Order Principles


The recommended planning principles are based on the following higher order principles:



    Economic Prosperity and Housing


        State Development Areas promote economic prosperity for all Queenslanders. The
        objectives for the APSDA must be maintained.


        The critical role of adequate accommodation for economic prosperity should be facilitated
        for future development in the study area, as details of major development proposals are
        made known.


        The critical role of housing in community well-being should be recognised by Federal and
        State government frameworks and strategies, and by Local Government.


        The importance of well serviced settlement patterns, choice in mix and tenure, affordability
        and appropriate design should be facilitated to achieve optimal housing outcomes.


        The State and Local Government and the private sector should facilitate sustainable
        communities through a diversity of housing for both residents and non-residents.
        Sustainability will be achieved through the mitigation of the social, economic and
        environmental impacts of projects.


        Corporate social responsibility will be demonstrated by all levels of governments and the
        private sector to ensure sustainable communities through the processes available to them.


        Consideration should be given to ways in which the major project sponsors and workers
        can contribute to the community, such as skills and training for locals or shared use of
        facilities such as multi-purpose community centres.


    Housing


        Planning and development processes should be recognised as the appropriate mechanisms
        to advance housing outcomes. Efficient and appropriate housing outcomes are essential to
        community well being. To ensure the community is adequately provided for with regard to
        housing, the planning and development system should:


               o   Enable a sufficient supply of land for a range of residential densities and
                   opportunities;
               o   Encourage housing types and diversity at different price points to meet different
                   housing needs;




Final Report                                      P. 94
                                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




               o    Facilitate development at locations with good access to infrastructure and services;
                    and
               o    Recognise the value of existing housing stock and need to replace over time.12


        The construction, amenity and level of infrastructure provision for permanent and
        temporary accommodation should be of an adequate quality, as determined through policy
        controls and the approvals process;


        A diversity of housing options for residents and non-residents should be facilitated through
        the private housing market, by improving land supply of various zoning types, facilitating
        diverse housing through flexible planning controls, and improving development assessment
        efficiency.


        Local government should recognise the importance of an overall residential strategy as the
        mechanism to implement the objective of maintaining and encouraging a diversity of
        housing options through the use of codes, PIPRICS and conditions of approval.


        Where there is a need for large scale temporary workers’ accommodation, adequate land
        parcels that are able to accommodate temporary housing over a short period of time
        should be readily available, by identifying them now and providing basic infrastructure.


    Planning and Infrastructure


        New development should be provided in a manner which corresponds with the timing of the
        need for adequate accommodation to meet future demand for permanent and temporary
        residents.


        Adequate         housing     for   non-residents,       including   temporary   workers   (predominantly
        construction based, but with potentially including some operational), must be provided in a
        manner which supports, enhances and maximises benefit to the existing communities.


        All new development must be evaluated for its impact on the existing and future supply of
        housing and be conditioned where necessary to ensure any negative impacts are mitigated.


        All new residential development should be located in or proximate to existing communities.


        Worker accommodation in other locations should also respect constraints arising from
        conflicts with adjacent uses and the potential for social impacts.


        All residential development should be located in a manner that can be served efficiently
        with the required infrastructure, and have adequate access to services, including
        emergency services.




       12
            From the Framework for National Action on Affordable Housing




Final Report                                                P. 95
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        Major project workforces are to be accommodated in good quality dwellings with adequate
        infrastructure and access to other essential services, while minimising the adverse impacts
        on the existing communities.


        The development of accommodation for major projects must minimise impacts on the
        private ownership and rental market as well as the existing short-term accommodation for
        tourist and seasonal workers. This should be accomplished through appropriate planning
        scheme amendments (supported by planning policies). Until those amendments and
        policies are integrated into the local planning scheme this should be accomplished through
        an ‘Accommodation Management Strategy’ as a condition of development approval.                 The
        ‘Accommodation Management Strategy’ will provide policies and commitments for:
               o   The provision of accommodation for the project’s construction workforces that
                   minimises impact of housing demand on existing residents, and provides the
                   flexibility of reuse for other accommodation needs;
               o   The provision of accommodation for the project’s operational workforces that
                   integrates housing provision into the existing communities;
               o   The provision of necessary infrastructure and related services, including access to
                   emergency services and key transport linkages;
               o   Actions to manage and mitigate adverse impacts on the affordability and
                   availability of the local and regional housing markets; and
               o   The provision of measures to monitor the effectiveness of the strategies’ actions.


        Potential locations for accommodation for temporary workers should be identified by State
        and Local Governments. These areas should be infrastructure ready, in time for when the
        need arises from major projects, which is becoming urgent. Infrastructure costs should be
        borne fairly by those who are likely to benefit from the accommodation being present. This
        would include the proponents of the major project and may also include State and Local
        Government.


        Accommodation for non-residents associated with the operational and construction phase of
        major projects should be negotiated between the employer, and both State and Local
        Governments, and the results should be at acceptable community standards through the
        development of specific planning scheme code. An appropriate Social Impact Assessments
        policy should be present to assist this process.


        Accommodation for non-residents associated with the construction phase of major projects
        (also allowing for a proportion of operational workers) should be provided for through a
        range of options, with the objective of minimising the concentration and scale of any
        temporary dwellings.       The results should be based on acceptable community standards
        through planning scheme controls.          An appropriate Social Impact Assessments policy
        should be present to assist this process.


    Communication


        Collaboration between stakeholders leading to strong alliances, sharing of resources and
        providing for innovative responses to accommodation needs.




Final Report                                        P. 96
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        Communication among stakeholders should be transparent and the community should be
        informed and involved through the use of appropriate mechanisms.


        Good quality examples (and bad quality examples to provide some context) of temporary
        accommodation should be communicated to all stakeholders.




8.2            Possible Solutions & Recommendations for
               Fulfilling Gaps in Temporary Workers’
               Accommodation
As has been noted in the previous section, seven sites hosting up to 500 workers each may be
required within the region for a 2-3 year period. Based on previous examples, each of these sites
could be anywhere between 5 to 10 hectares each, depending on site conditions and design of the
accommodation.     At the workshop held on the 4th August 2009, nine sites were identified as
possible locations for worker camps. The identification of these sites is preliminary in nature, and
therefore must remain confidential. Selection of these sites was based on the planning principles
noted above as well as local knowledge of the sites.      The potential limitations of the sites were
outlined by Whitsunday Regional Council representatives.


Council has identified limitations associated with the development of many of these sites, including
potential environmental, infrastructure and amenity constraints. SGS has recommended a series of
further investigations associated with each of these sites.    These further investigations may rule
out the use of some of the sites.      It should be noted, however, that many of the identified
limitations may be able to be mitigated through good design, high environmental standards and
innovative solutions.


It is noted as well, that Council has indicated that all the sites have infrastructure constraints. SGS
do not consider the existing lack of infrastructure a hard constraint to enabling these sites,
however, as it was understood from the outset that augmentation of infrastructure would be
required if development was to occur outside the draft PIA boundary.          Innovative solutions and
some site-contained solutions may be appropriate in some instances. Should potential solutions be
possible, it is emphasised that high standards in infrastructure provision such that environmental
impacts are negligible would be needed.       Innovative solutions would need to satisfy Council’s
requirements.


Issues regarding amenity and urban design are considered by SGS to be soft constraints that are
likely to be overcome through good design.      This is particularly the case given that the type of
accommodation that is recommended for Bowen (in this report) is best practice and of a good
quality amenity-wise.


It is recommended that further investigations recommended below for the selected sites be
completed in the immediate term. Should these further investigations rule out some of the sites,
further land will need to be considered for workers’ accommodation.              Given that extensive
investigations were conducted here, the potential for further sites is minimal unless GQAL or the
SDA were to be considered further.




Final Report                                     P. 97
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




8.2.1          Recommendations for Temporary Workers’
               Accommodation Requirements

Given the above and preceding discussions, the following recommendations for fulfilling temporary
accommodation needs of construction and some operational workers’ are proposed.                It is noted
that due to the pressing timing of the likely onset of major projects, these recommendations should
be implemented in the immediate term:


    1.   Adopt the Higher Order and Bowen Specific Planning Principles recommended in this report
         as the basis of a Permanent and Temporary Residential Needs and Solutions Strategy.


    2.   Complete the proposed investigations for the sites identified as having potential for fulfilling
         the needs of temporary workers’ accommodation.


    3.   Should the investigations in 2. Not identify sufficient land to meed identified needs,
         reconvene stakeholders to assess any other potential sites.


    4.   Develop a planning scheme code (with supporting planning scheme policy as required)
         dedicated to ensuring that temporary workers’ accommodation is developed at acceptable
         standards of amenity and service (this is explained in further detail below).


    5.   Host discussions with potential providers of temporary workers’ accommodation to ensure
         that the standards align with Council’s requirements, and reflect best practise in terms of
         sustainability, efficiency and facilities/services offered to residents.


    6.   Commence a communication and consultation strategy to ensure that the Bowen
         Community are clear about the likely housing solutions for the region. Ensure that good
         examples of the types of developments that would be required within the community are
         clearly communicated and examples of the impacts if poor approaches are adopted.


    7.   Update the Draft PIPRICS to ensure that the sites that are suitable for hosting temporary
         workers’ accommodation are included in the PIA, and that appropriate plans for trunk
         infrastructure are in place. This is only possible if the land is zoned for urban purposes and
         if this is the case it could either be rezoned or subject to conditioning requiring the
         provision of necessary trunk infrastructure.


    8.   Develop a Social Impact Assessment policy within Council to ensure that social
         infrastructure and housing impacts associated major projects are adequately accounted for.
         The planning scheme would be amended to require development of a certain scale or type
         to address this policy.


    9.   Ensure recommendations from this report for dealing with social impacts are taken into
         account in any required social impact assessments.              Formulation of Social Impact
         Assessment policy should be informed by Community Infrastructure Study (completed by
         Anita Eggington). .




Final Report                                        P. 98
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




The level of amenity that The MAC provide should be mandated in the Bowen region as at least a
minimum standard and this should be facilitated through the Temporary Local Planning Instrument
- Code for assessing temporary worker accommodation (developed by WRC). It is considered that
the design of temporary accommodation should consider uses beyond the project life (e.g.
accommodating seasonal workers or backpackers). Depending on the location and possible future
uses, the level of amenity and design may vary.           However stand alone facilities should consider
adequate       open   space,   good   quality   landscaping,   communal    space,   recreational   facilities,
convenience retail, a range of accommodation options (e.g. for couples), telecommunication and
internet services, small scale library services, and programs of social activities.



8.3            Possible Solutions & Recommendations for
               Fulfilling Residents and Permanent Resident
               Operational Worker Accommodation
               Requirements
As was noted in Section 7, the maximum amount of land (237 hectares) that would be required to
house the residential and permanent resident operational workers over the planning period is able
to be accommodated within the existing urban fabric. This conclusion is based on broad constraints
mapping and a yield analysis utilising the current density provisions for residential development
within the Bowen planning scheme.


However, the ability for the market to respond to these demands is not certain as no market
feasibility investigations were undertaken for the study. Therefore, it is recommended that broad
market feasibility analyses should be undertaken by suitably qualified staff or consultants to
determine whether development within the urban fabric is viable from a market perspective.


An efficient and broad approach to the market feasibility analyses could include a residual land
value assessment. One way of completing such assessments for Bowen would be as follows:
        Create a number of development typologies to provide examples of the type of
        developments that would be considered acceptable within the Bowen community.                  These
        typologies would need to abide by the current planning requirements as noted in the
        Planning Scheme
        Determine the broad cost of building the typologies by applying expected development
        costs. Convert this to a cost per square metre.
        Obtain typical sales prices for the typologies in different locations throughout the region
        and convert this to a value per square metre.
        Subtract the per metre building costs from the per metre likely sales prices for each of the
        typologies within the region – this can be termed the net value of the land.
        Obtain average land values for sites throughout the region on a per square metre basis
        Compare the square metre land values with the net value of the land – this is called the
        Residual Land Value – and is the value of the land to the developer taking into account
        expected returns and all development costs. If this cost is positive, then the development
        is considered feasible.       If it is negative, then the development is not feasible and it is
        unlikely that the market will take up the options to develop the typologies within the
        region.




Final Report                                          P. 99
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




A second approach would involve identifying any other limitations on land supply. It is typically the
case that not all land that is zoned and unconstrained is available. Some areas may be held by
owners unwilling to sell or develop. There may also be site conditions that, while not absolute
constraints, add to site development costs affecting the development potential of the site.


Should the broad market feasibility assessments indicate an unviable situation, there are a number
of investigations that could occur as a follow up. Although the building costs and market values
are outside Council’s control, Council does have a direct role in influencing elements that impact
development costs.       Issues such as dwelling yields and densities permissible, preferred site
frontages, minimum site areas, built form, car parking requirements, local amenity considerations
and land use characteristics including the location of recreation and service centres all impact upon
the desirability and viability of development.


In the absence of proactive approaches, shortages will arise until dwelling prices are forced high
enough to make the economics of development attractive, but this is likely to lead to short term
disruption in the housing market with shortages, difficulty in attracting or holding labour required,
and loss of moderate paid key workers, (teachers, health care, etc.) from the region.


Another issue that needs to be considered within the Bowen region is not only whether the market
can provide the quantum of dwellings that might be required, but also whether there are
appropriate price points for dwelling types.         Affordability and the need to ensure that this is
maintained or improved, has been raised as an issue throughout the study process. It has been
noted that rental properties and properties for purchase in the region has seen great increases in
recent years.


There is now growing recognition that affordable housing underpins social mix which is a vital
ingredient in healthy, harmonious and prosperous communities.               Under this view, questions of
social mix in new and established communities become a legitimate planning consideration,
potentially leading to the utilisation of land use controls to extract various forms of contributions
from developers for affordable housing.           Recent years have seen a plethora of ‘innovative
affordable housing measures’ such as development contribution requirements for affordable
housing creep into Australian planning practice. However, some of these can have adverse effects
on housing market efficiency and/or are patchy and small scale in their impact on the affordability
problem.


Several mechanisms can potentially be applied to positively affect housing affordability. These can
be generally assembled under 6 categories as follows13.


    1. Housing market efficiency. These are policies and programs designed to improve the
        operation of the housing market generally so that it produces and allocates dwellings at
        lowest cost and prices for a given quality rating. These measures generally relate to the
        promotion of competition, removal of barriers to entry and the improvement of information
        flows in the market to promote more rapid adjustment to changing demand / supply
        conditions.    Other measures include undertaking demonstration projects in new tenures,



       13
         This discussion draws extensively from a review of housing affordability ‘levers’ conducted by SGS &
       KPMG in 2003 for the State & Territory Members, Housing Ministers Advisory Committee.




Final Report                                         P. 100
                                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        housing forms and financing products; and overcoming market failures involving, for
        example, land assembly difficulties in urban consolidation locations.


    2. Affordable housing market efficiency.               These policies and programs are designed to
        improve efficiency in the management / delivery of affordable housing. That is, housing
        opportunities specifically targeted to households in the bottom two quintiles of the income
        distribution provided by organisations such as community housing. Whereas the initiatives
        in the first category all apply to the housing market in general, the levers in the second
        category      specifically   ease      the    operation    of    subsidised    affordable    housing
        suppliers/financiers, etc. In general these can be regarded as institutional arrangements
        more than policy levers as such. They are likely to be useful, even essential, channels for
        some of the other policies to be effective.


    3. Supply side subsidies. These levers provide explicit or implicit supply side subsidies for
        the expansion of the stock of affordable housing. Many of these mechanisms require the
        State or another agency to forego revenue in order to assist particular players in the
        housing market.       The arrangements in 2. above can allow access to National Rental
        Affordability Scheme (NRAS) and Housing Affordability Fund (HAF) contributions that make
        housing available at lower cost that the market can provide.


    4. Demand side subsidies. These are policies and programs that provide explicit or implicit
        income assistance for lower income renters and buyers. These include First Home
        Ownership Grants (FHOG) and Rent Assistance (RA)


    5. Fund raising regulatory or taxation measures.                    These include administrative and
        taxation measures designed to raise cash or in-kind resources to fund the subsidies
        deployed in the mechanisms described in categories three and four.


    6. Ethical investment and charities. These are measures and initiatives designed to tap
        ethical investment and benevolence as a means of funding affordable housing subsidies.


SGS has identified almost 60 levers under these headings. These are listed and briefly profiled in
Appendix F.


It is highly recommended that the Permanent and Temporary Residential Needs and Solutions
Strategy have a significant focus on Affordability. Affordability is generally defined as housing that
costs less than 30% of gross income for households in the lowest two quintiles of equivalised
income14. All the levers recommended in Appendix F should be considered and their applicability to
the region identified, although relatively few are directly under the control of local government.


It is also recommended that discussions with the Whitsunday Housing Company be established to
determine the extent to which joint ventures for affordable housing might be able to be
progressed. This should include a broad group of stakeholders including Council and the State, at a
minimum.




       14
            Equivalised income adjusts household income for household size.




Final Report                                          P. 101
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




The results of all these potential investigations / strategies should feed into the PIPRICS being
completed for Council.     A key focus of the PIPRICS should be on how infrastructure can be
adequately provided for and equitably funded.              Adopting a fair and equitable approach to
infrastructure charging is essential, and application of the fair apportionment process for users of
that infrastructure should be present. However, given the significant benefit to the State and local
economies, determination of the role of State and Local Government contributions should also be
considered.


8.3.1          Recommendations for Residents and Permanent
               Resident Operational Worker Accommodation
               Requirements

Given the above and preceding discussions, the following recommendations for fulfilling residential
and permanent resident operational workers accommodation needs are as follows:


    1.   Complete broad market feasibility assessments to determine the likelihood of the market
         responding to the future demand for permanent accommodation within the region;


    2.   If the market feasibility indicates a non-viable result for some development types within
         the region, review the planning requirements for these development types to see if these
         can be adjusted to improve costs;


    3.   As part of the recommended Permanent and Temporary Residential Needs and Solutions
         Strategy, focus on how affordability can be maintained and enhanced;


    4.   Commence discussions with the Whitsunday Housing Company regarding affordable
         housing opportunities - this should include a broad group of stakeholders including Council
         and the State, at a minimum.


    5.   Engage with the community (e.g. through the BAPCCG) to ensure that there is a clear
         understanding of the likely development outcomes within the region with the onset of the
         expected major projects;


    6.   Update the PIPRICS and ensure that adequate infrastructure solutions are present. Council
         should consider the costs and potential increased revenue of an Infrastructure Charges
         Schedule (ICS – based on actual infrastructure costs) versus the current Regulated
         Infrastructure Charges Schedule (RICS – “off the shelf” charges).           A RICS allows low
         growth Councils to apply minimal infrastructure charges without the expense of more
         extensive infrastructure planning, but this is likely to recoup a much smaller proportion of
         trunk infrastructure costs unless minimal new infrastructure is required.       Given that the
         Bowen Abbot Point study area is expected to experience high growth in the short to
         medium term, and the fact that current infrastructure has little “spare” capacity, the cost of
         an ICS may be justified.     This should be examined further by Council’s infrastructure
         planning consultants. However it should be noted that development outside of the Priority
         Infrastructure Area can be charged on the basis of actual cost of new trunk infrastructure.
         Council should explore options for funding infrastructure through user pays systems




Final Report                                      P. 102
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        coupled with those entities that are likely to benefit from the additional development being
        attracted to the region.



8.4            Possible Solutions & Recommendations for
               Fulfilling Tourists and Seasonal Worker
               Accommodation Needs
Section 7 indicated that the maximum accommodation shortfall for tourists and seasonal workers is
an additional 1,584 rooms, and that there is a gradual increase in demand until 2015.                The
majority of this demand come from seasonal workers, and this group generally demands cabins,
backpacker beds, caravan sites and in some cases, motel rooms. There is also a small component
of this demand attributable to tourists.


The investigations conducted here indicate that this is likely to equate to approximately 13
additional motels and 15 additional hostels (at 30 rooms and 80 beds each respectively).


The motels/resort style accommodation is likely to be most demanded in the beachside suburbs
and to a lesser extent in the town. Backpackers are likely to be accommodated within the town
where people can walk to required amenities, and also have reasonable access to the beach. The
land capacity analysis for this type of use indicates that there may be the appropriate amount of
land available. However, this will need to be further considered as the land may not be suitable for
other reasons such as slope, incompatible adjacent uses or costs of infrastructure.           Given the
importance of the agricultural sector, and the assessed need for further accommodation currently,
it is recommended that site investigations be undertaken to determine the capacity of the currently
appropriately zoned land as a matter of priority.


As noted throughout the report, having the available land capable of hosting these types of
development is only a small part of the solution.           Given the seasonality of the ‘picking’
requirements, operators have indicated that it is very difficult to increase supply due to the several
months of the year whereby occupancy is well below break even.            As such, further discussions
should be held with backpacker and motel providers to determine how further product can be
provided on the market. This should be completed as part of a broader Economic Development
Strategy for the region.   Although the Strategy would consider the issues within the region in a
holistic way, a key focus should be on Tourism and how the tourism industry in can successfully
deal with the peaks and troughs associated with seasonal workers and the seasonal demands of
the tourist market. In addition, the Strategy should investigate how other key stakeholders in the
region, such as the major project proponents, Council and State agencies could utilise some of the
unoccupied rooms within these types of accommodation, either for visiting members or for
meetings etc.


An investment prospectus should also be developed as a part of the Economic Development
Strategy to best attract developers regarding the range of development opportunities in the region
across a range of industry sectors.


Should the workers accommodation be developed to the level of amenity suggested in this report,
another potential solution for the seasonal worker accommodation issue would be in allocating the




Final Report                                     P. 103
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




sites identified for temporary workers’ accommodation as seasonal workers’ accommodation in the
longer term. However, it is noted that the seasonal workers include a broad range of people such
as international backpackers, skilled migrants, families and some grey nomads. Therefore, a range
of accommodation options would be needed in these areas so temporary workers accommodation
would only suit a portion of seasonal workers.


8.4.1          Recommendations for Seasonal Workers and Tourist
               Accommodation Requirements

Given the above and preceding discussions, the following recommendations for fulfilling seasonal
workers and tourist accommodation needs are as follows:


    1.   Conduct, as a matter of priority, further investigations regarding the appropriateness and
         ability of the existing, suitably zoned land to accommodate the needs of the identified
         seasonal workers and tourist accommodation.


    2.   Complete an Economic Development Strategy for the region, which would consider the
         holistic range of issues to best maximise the economic potential of the region.               An
         investment prospectus should also be developed as a part of this Strategy to best attract
         developers regarding the range of development opportunities in the region, including
         tourist activities and accommodation.       One of the key focus areas of the Economic
         Development Strategy should be in determining how best to facilitate tourism, particularly
         in the off-peak ‘picking’ seasons. Ensure that discussions with motel providers, backpacker
         operators, caravan park operators and potential developers occur in a bid to maximise the
         potential for further supply of this type of accommodation within the region.


    3.   Explore the potential to use some components of the temporary workers’ accommodation
         as sites to host seasonal workers and some tourist groups.



8.5            Other Recommendations that would benefit the
               long term sustainability of Bowen
As well as the recommendations noted so far, there are other actions that would benefit the region
and its ability to adequately house all elements of its population and visitors. These include:


    1.   Completion of a Flooding Study – Flooding is a major constraint on further development in
         Bowen and understanding the costs of flood mitigation and potential risks of a flooding
         event will become increasingly important as the population increases.        It is essential that
         flooding and potential solutions be investigated as a matter of priority.


    2.   Updating the GQAL Information Base – It is understood that the GQAL demarcated in the
         region is based on relatively dated information. Given the importance of the agricultural
         sector to the regional, state and Australian economies, it is considered essential that the
         most recent information on the GQAL is available. There should also be a framework
         establishing to quantify the viable and sustainable holding size(s) for the predominate
         agricultural systems of the Bowen region.




Final Report                                      P. 104
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




    3.   Incorporation of Community Infrastructure Recommendations – There are a range of
         important community infrastructure recommendations that must be addressed in detail.
         These include facilities for the permanent population as well as specific facilities to be
         provided within workers camps. Some of the specific community facilities and actions likely
         to be required include;
               an upgrade to the Bowen Library;
               addition aged care (nursing care and retirement village);
               additional child care and school facilities;
               improved health care;
               youth services and facilities;
               TAFE and training programs; and
               Library services targeted to temporary workers


         A separate Community Infrastructure Assessment Report has been prepared by Anita
         Egginton and this should be referred for more detailed community infrastructure planning in
         addition to the information in this report (Sections 11-12).


    4.   Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Implementation Strategy – Implementing
         the tasks required to provide the level of accommodation and community infrastructure
         outlined in this report will require a coordinated and rapid response to ensure projects are
         not delayed. It will also require a number of agencies and stakeholders working together.
         Implementation will require the development of appropriate planning mechanisms,
         community consultation, design, approval, and construction of temporary workers’
         accommodation and input by community infrastructure providers. It is recommended that
         an action plan, together with allocated responsibilities and timings be determined in
         consultation with all stakeholders in the immediate term.


    5.   Completion of a Retail and Commercial Needs Study – Although beyond the scope of the
         current report, the onset of a significant influx of people to the region is likely to trigger the
         requirement for further retail and potentially, commercial needs. Given the relatively short
         length of stay expected from some of the population, innovative solutions to fulfilling
         further needs may be required.         It is recommended that a retail and commercial needs
         study be progressed in the near term. Note that an Industrial Land Demand study is to be
         conducted by DIP in the near future.


    6.   Ongoing Land and Development Monitoring – As noted throughout the report, the nature of
         some of the projects noted here is less than certain.        In addition, new projects that are
         likely to have an impact on the accommodation situation are likely to arise over time. As
         such, an essential requirement for the region will be to ensure that all information within
         this report is maintained and kept current. An ongoing land and development monitoring
         system should be put in place immediately. This system should consider both the supply
         of, and demand for accommodation overtime.




Final Report                                        P. 105
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   9             Community Infrastructure Supply Analysis
This section highlights the range of findings about the current provision of community
infrastructure in the Bowen District. This includes: a list of guiding documents and plans, and an
overview of the existing community infrastructure assets. The Community Infrastructure Report is
an integrated component of this study, however further comprehensive information data regarding
community infrastructure can be obtained from the Community Infrastructure Report.



9.1            Guidelines Plans & Policies
The main guiding plans and policies influencing the provision and production of community
infrastructure in the Bowen District include:
        Bowen Shire Planning Scheme (2006)
        Bowen Shire Arts & Cultural Policy (2005)
        Bowen Shire Recreation & Sport Plan (2000-2010)
        WHAM Regional Plan (2008)
        WHAM Regional Plan - Social Facilities Infrastructure Audit (2008)
        Burdekin Dry Tropics Board ‘A Caring for Country Plan’ (2005)
        Girudala Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Community Development Plan (2002-07)
        Northern Economic Triangle (NET) Infrastructure Plan (2007-2012)
        Bowen Abbot Point Industrial Land Concept Plan and Infrastructure Plan (2008)
        Ports Corporation Land Use Plan for the Port of Abbot Point (2008).


These key documents have been reviewed, and have influenced the scope and key issues for
consideration in the subsequent assessment activities.


In addition to these specific local, regional and state plans and policies already reviewed, there are
a large number of discrete government and non-government agency policies and programs that
influence how community infrastructure is planned for, provided and managed. Consultations with
key agencies have been undertaken with a view to identifying any additional critical information,
and outcomes have been incorporated into the body of this work.



9.2            Investment in Infrastructure
Funding for infrastructure is a critical factor influencing its production. Federal, State and Local
government policies greatly influence the type of funding available, in direct and indirect ways – for
example, direct funding could be provided through a grant to a non-government service provider or
event organiser; or indirect funding could come about because of negotiated agreements with
private land developers to achieve some provision and/or ongoing maintenance of community
infrastructure within a discrete development. Funding for and resourcing of infrastructure comes
from a variety of sources, generally under ad hoc arrangements or conditions. This has a direct
influence on how community infrastructure is produced, but also how it is managed and
maintained, and upgraded over time.




Final Report                                     P. 106
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




9.3            Funding for Facilities
There are a number of ways that community facilities are funded. Facilities are often achieved
through government capital infrastructure (works) programs, which are not necessarily needs
based. They are also achieved through public-private partnerships or initiatives, whereby there is
an agreement in place that highlights the different obligations of parties to fund or resource
different elements of the facility’s life span. Naturally, many facilities are also privately owned by
commercial or other interests (e.g. Church, Incorporated body, private practitioners), but provide
some type of public benefit. User-pays systems are also in place in order to fund the
establishment, operation and ongoing maintenance of facilities.



9.4            Funding for Services
There is often no long term commitment or ‘master plan’ for funding non-commercial (community)
services – many services operate from year to year or from service agreement to service
agreement. These agreements are often inflexible in terms of allowing service providers to adapt or
change services in time with changing needs or expanding demands for service. New funding will
often be achieved because opportunities suddenly present themselves, in the form of new
initiatives, gifts, or one-off grants. This new funding often brings with it additional (non-integrated)
service agreements and reporting requirements. These arrangements have a significant impact on
the effectiveness of services delivered to the community at any point in time.



9.5            Funding for Networks and Events
Networks and events usually rely heavily on volunteer resourcing and/or participation, with some
donation and sponsorship of part of the funds required to achieve discrete objectives. Funding may
come from private, government or community sector sources.




Final Report                                     P. 107
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   10           Existing      Supply                               of             Community
                Infrastructure
A comprehensive ‘Inventory’ has been compiled that provides a further level of detail to this
assessment of the existing supply of community infrastructure assets across the District. These
infrastructure assets have also been mapped in order to provide a good understanding of the
location and spread of existing infrastructure, although the location of the majority of facilities,
services and networks, unsurprisingly, is in the Bowen urban centre and the Collinsville town centre
and surrounds.


The majority of this infrastructure is or has been funded by federal and state government agencies,
and supported by the not for profit (and voluntary) sector. A number of the medical and allied
health and aged care services are operated commercially.


For the purposes of this report, community infrastructure refers to “social and community
networks, organisations, services, facilities and other important places, events and activities”.



10.1           Summary Analysis of the Hierarchy of Provision
               in the Study Area
“Community facilities and services generally operate within a hierarchy of provision, with
different scales of infrastructure servicing varying sized catchments. For example, primary
schools, child care centres and community halls generally service local catchments; secondary
schools and community health centres generally service district catchments; and hospitals,
universities and correctional centres service sub-regional or regional catchments.


“Catchments refer to both geographical areas and the size of the population serviced. They
are determined by geography (including topography, physical barriers and distance between homes
and social infrastructure), population densities, relationships between centres (e.g. transport
accessibility) and the capacity of existing social infrastructure. It is noted that the boundaries of
regions and catchments are often difficult to define”.


In terms of undertaking an assessment of community infrastructure within the study area with any
level of accuracy, it is necessary to consider the service catchments and the different scales of
infrastructure provided in the District. The following findings result from a range of site visits,
reviews of existing published information about infrastructure in the area, and consultations with
local service providers.


        Two distinct service catchments are obvious – the primary catchment is the Bowen urban
        centre, and the secondary catchment is the Collinsville town centre and surrounds.



        The Bowen District has some district and sub-regional level infrastructure provided,
        primarily located in the Bowen urban centre. This includes the Bowen hospital which now
        services the Collinsville and Bowen communities for many of their emergency medical




Final Report                                      P. 108
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        requirements, the TAFE college, the District offices (and chambers) of the WRC, and the
        Bowen Art Gallery. A number of the social services provided in Bowen also have a district
        catchment, including Girudala Community Cooperative and Bowen Flexicare.


        There are a number of visiting (outreach)and phone based sub-regional and regional
        services that operate in the area, including specialist services delivered at Bowen hospital
        (e.g. monthly paediatrician), a (bi-monthly) rural women’s GP service delivered by the
        Royal Flying Doctor Service in both Collinsville and Bowen, housing support, and women’s
        (domestic violence) services that operate from the Whitsunday area.


        The majority of infrastructure is provided in the Bowen service area, particularly around the
        urban centre.


        The majority of existing infrastructure consists of local level services and facilities.


        There is minimal existing infrastructure in the locality (centre) of Merinda, although there is
        a small primary school in operation. The infrastructure that does exist includes publicly
        provided and privately provided infrastructure (including that provided at the Merinda
        Village workers camp).


        There is minimal existing infrastructure in the Whitsunday Shores development area to the
        south of the Bowen urban centre.



10.2           Summary Analysis of Types and Capacity of
               Community Infrastructure by Location
As stated, there are fewer regional, sub-regional and district level community services and facilities
than local level services and facilities in the Bowen and Collinsville service areas, and the
predominant service types are sport and recreation, and health. Bowen is the primary service
centre for the District.


Site visits, a review of existing studies and other information about the capacity of infrastructure in
the District, and consultations with local service providers have also identified a range of challenges
to the capacity of existing infrastructure to meet current and emerging needs of different
population groups.


Bowen service area


In the Bowen service area, there are around 150 different services and facilities that have been
identified and listed in the Community Infrastructure Inventory, as well as more than 60
community events, 13 networks, and a number of important places/ landscapes. A summary
analysis of the services and facilities indicates that:
        The majority of infrastructure provided consists of local level services
        35 of the 150+ services and facilities are sport and recreation clubs
        17 of the 150+ services and facilities are health related




Final Report                                       P. 109
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




According to a range of sources, the main challenges to the capacity of existing infrastructure to
meet the current and emerging needs of different population groups includes the following:


        Unmet demand for health/ medical services – for example, the Girudala Health Scoping
        Study identified that there is a two week (minimum) waiting list for new patients at
        Doctor’s surgeries, there are six month waiting lists reported for Dentists, and there is
        increasing pressure on the Outpatient’s Services provided at the hospital (flow on effect of
        lack of GPs).


        Unmet demand for aged care services – for example, Queensland Health staff, local
        Councillors, and local aged care service providers have all identified that there is an
        existing shortage of aged care accommodation (including high and low care beds), and an
        increasing pressure on in-home aged care support services.


        It is difficult to attract new professional people to the area to increase servicing – for
        example, Education Queensland staff and other community leaders have identified the
        ongoing difficulty of attracting maths and science teachers to the District, the Police Officer
        in Charge identified the difficulty in retaining people in the area due to the lack of housing
        and other lifestyle opportunities for young families.


        Discrete service providers indicate that child care and individual and family support services
        are near capacity (for the funding they receive).


Private sector investment (associated with the operation and/or development of the Port and
SDA)


There is little evidence to date that community infrastructure in the Bowen service area has been
greatly enhanced by companies who employ or provide accommodation and other support to non-
resident workforces, apart from some activity by the Ports Corporation of Queensland (Ports Corp).


        Ports Corp, who are the ‘owners’ of the Merinda Village camp, have established a small
        advisory group which involves the site manager, a village resident, and a couple of people
        from the Bowen business community.


               o   The site is managed by Cater Care Services, who provide services to a number of
                   other accommodation villages across Australia.
               o   At this point there is limited interaction with the surrounding residential
                   community, and there is no formal ‘community relations’ plan or policy in place.
               o   The Village provides individual accommodation units for workers, as well as a
                   common kitchen/dining area, laundry, and a recreation room with limited facilities.
               o   At this stage there are no first aid or other health related services provided on the
                   site, and no facilities or services open to the broader public.


        In terms of other investments in local networks and community initiatives, Ports Corp has
        an Indigenous Employment Strategy, and they sponsor a number of local groups (Bowen
        Business Forum), and events (annual Show).




Final Report                                        P. 110
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Use of existing            community         services       and     facilities    by    non-resident
workforces


Apart from some emergency or unplanned usage of health and medical services and use of
everyday convenience (retail and hospitality) services, non-resident workforces are considered to
have little interaction with existing infrastructure in the Bowen service area.


        There is some anecdotal evidence that workers who come to town and live in commercial
        accommodation with others, and with their families are more likely to make use of
        infrastructure and more likely to engage in every day community events.
        There has been some increase in the up-take, for example, of family support and child care
        services in the Bowen service centre by families of temporary workers at the Port area.


Collinsville service area


In the Collinsville service area, there are around 50 services and facilities identified, with four
networks and four key annual events. A summary analysis of the services and facilities indicates
that:


        The majority are local level services
        14+ are sport and recreation clubs


The main pressure on existing services identified by local service providers and community leaders
relates to aged care and health services and facilities which are already considered to be over
capacity.


        According to the Director of Nursing, there is existing pressure on the Accident &
        Emergency service at the multi-purpose health services hub created by demands from
        (non-resident) construction and operational workforces, due to the limited availability of GP
        services; and there is pressure on the available beds in the facility to provide high and low
        care services to older people who cannot live independently but who cannot get services in
        existing aged care facilities in the District.


As well as challenges facing health and aged care services and facilities:


        there is also a reported struggle to make sport and recreation clubs viable because of the
        loss of younger people in the community, and because of the limited time that working
        aged people have (especially people employed in mine related employment and shift
        workers)
        according to service providers, community leaders and local residents there is a shortage of
        child care and other family related services and facilities in the area, which affects whether
        new (younger) families are willing to settle in the area.


Private sector investment (mining & associated contract companies)


It would appear that minimal community infrastructure has been provided by companies who
employ or provide accommodation and other support to non-resident workforces in the Collinsville
area.




Final Report                                       P. 111
                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        That which does exist includes a Morris Corp common kitchen/dining facility which is
        located in the middle of the residential area in Collinsville where small, dispersed clusters of
        single person quarters have been developed; and a community sponsorship (benefit)
        program established by the Sonoma mine.


Use of existing            community         services       and     facilities     by    non-resident
workforces


Apart from some emergency or unplanned usage of health and medical services and use of
everyday convenience (retail and hospitality) services, non-resident workforces are considered to
have little interaction with existing infrastructure in the Collinsville service area.


Anecdotal evidence suggests that many workers are encouraged by their employers to live in other
areas – for example, the local Councillor understands that many mine and contract company
workers are given incentives or bonuses if they live more than 80 kilometres from the work site.
This is considered to have a negative effect on creating benefits for the existing community.


Table 28 provides summary comments of the existing community infrastructure by location.




Final Report                                       P. 112
                                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 28 .            Community infras truc tur e types , b y loc a tion ( Bow en D is tr ic t)

Universal                                    Targeted

such as education, training, health,         such as those for children, young                      such as families, people with a
open space, recreation and sport,            people and older people                                disability, Indigenous and culturally
safety and emergency services,                                                                      diverse people, and non-resident
religious, arts and cultural                                                                        workforces
facilities, and community meeting
places
LOCATION: Bowen (population 8, 077 + 2,911)
   35+ sport and recreation clubs               5 child care services dispersed                        An         active           Indigenous
   and    facilities,     catering     for      across        Bowen       and          Queens          organisation that offers a wide
   different    genders         and   age       Beach,        operating      at    or     near         range     of    services,    and    that
   groups, that are largely under-              capacity                                               seeks to operate in a whole of
   utilised                                     3-4      youth     focused             groups,         community way
   3 (State and Catholic) primary               including the proposal for a new                       An active neighbourhood centre
   schools, 1 State high school,                PCYC facility and service                              (and associated family centre),
   and 1 very under-utilised TAFE               6     aged      care      services            and      offering individual and family
   college                                      facilities,     including         in     home          support services, ER, and access
   Hospital and medical services                support       services,      as        well    as      and     referrals     to     specialist
   that are at/ over capacity                   independent            and        supported            services
   Community        health       services,      (aged) accommodation.                                  An active disability support and
   including child health, mental                                                                      advocacy service, operating at/
   health, and visiting services                                                                       over capacity
   Limited      arts      and     cultural                                                             A tenancy support service
   facilities and services                                                                             Two            community           based
   Community meeting places are                                                                        counselling and support service
   generally commercial in nature                                                                      (including gambling help)
   – e.g. cafes, boat club, hotels                                                                     4 employment services
   A family centre that provides a
   range of services and programs
   and seeks to engage with the
   whole of community
   9     churches         of     different
   denominations
   3 charitable organisations
   A range of emergency services,
   including Police (17 officers),
   Fire & Rescue, Ambulance, and
   Marine Safety
   A range of other government
   services,        many          visiting
   (outreach)
   A     limited       daily    transport
   service, operating locally and
   between             Bowen          and
   Collinsville,   and     Bowen      and




Final Report                                                    P. 113
                                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Universal                                            Targeted

   Proserpine
   A     range      of      festivals       and
   community events.
LOCATION: Merinda (population 242)
   One primary school, operating                       One local park, with children’s               Merinda    Village      –   kitchen/
   under capacity.                                     play equipment.                               dining facility and recreation
                                                                                                     room
                                                                                                     Merinda Village Advisory Group.
LOCATION: Collinsville (population 2,140)


   14 sport and recreation clubs                        1 family day care service (over           An active Community Association,
   and       facilities,     catering          for      capacity), and one playgroup              that provides individual and family
   different      genders          and      age         1 youth focused group, with a             support, ER, and is the (limited
   groups, that are largely under-                      facility for meeting and other            hours) Centrelink office
   utilised                                             activities                                Q Coal Sonoma Community &
   3 (State and Catholic) primary                       3    aged     care     services    and    Environment Liaison Officer (Dave
   schools, 1 under-utilised State                      facilities,   including    in     home    Nebauer)
   high school                                          support services (outreach from           Morris Corp kitchen/dining facility
   Hospital and medical services                        Bowen and from Hillside Haven),           to support smaller dispersed SPQs
   that are at/ over capacity                           as well as a supported (aged)             in residential neighbourhood.
   Community             health      service,           accommodation facility with 12
   including visiting services, and                     beds which is over-capacity
   regular         healthy           lifestyle,         7 high (aged) care and 8 acute
   chronic disease management,                          care beds in the multi-purpose
   wellness, and youth & family                         integrated health services hub
   programs                                             Community networks focused on
   Mining related cultural facility                     older people and their interests
   Community meeting places are                         (e.g.   CWA,     Pensioners,      Lions
   generally commercial in nature                       Club)
   – e.g. United Mine Workers
   Club, hotels
   5       churches         of       different
   denominations
   3 charitable organisations
   Basic       emergency            services,
   including      Police     (2     officers),
   Fire and Ambulance
   A   one      stop       shop     of     state
   government          services,         and    a
   local     government           office    and
   library
   A very limited transport service
   between               Bowen              and
   Collinsville, with no taxi service
   operating currently.
Source: Various documents and consultations




Final Report                                                          P. 114
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   11           Community Infrastructure Need Analysis
This Section provides an analysis of existing and new information regarding the current and likely
future needs relating to community infrastructure in the Bowen District.


For the purposes of this report, community infrastructure refers to social and community networks,
organisations, services, facilities and other important places, events and activities.


Four different types of ‘need’ have been considered in order to come up with the best information.
This includes expressed, indicative, normative and comparative need. Likely future needs are also
identified using agreed population growth scenarios and comparative rates of infrastructure
provision.



11.1           Existing Community Infrastructure Needs
The current priority needs for both resident and non-resident populations in the Bowen District
relate to health services and facilities – in particular GP services, and a range of allied and
specialist services (e.g. dentists, maternal health services, aged care services).


        In keeping with the ageing population there is an increasing need for specialist aged care
        services, and the unmet demand for these services is creating unintended impacts on
        public health facilities in the District that are having to provide services that are not
        specifically in their remit (e.g. high and low care beds for people not able to live
        independently are being provided by the Bowen Hospital and Collinsville multi-services
        health hub).


        In keeping with the increasing numbers of non-resident workforces, there are emerging
        pressures for infrastructure that is of interest to this particular population group. This
        includes infrastructure that is located in purpose-built accommodation as well as more
        universal services (e.g. medical and allied health) that workers need to access in
        emergency and other unplanned situations.


Other identified needs for both resident and non-resident populations relate to cultural facilities and
services, tourism infrastructure, local economic development programs, local skills development
and employment programs that match the emerging job opportunities in the District, and family
oriented public facilities.



11.2           Future Community Infrastructure Needs
Based on ABS figures and growth trends to date, the resident population of Bowen (S) is projected
to grow to 17,862 by 2031, which is an increase of around 4,727 from 2006.

        This medium series projection represents an average annual change of 189 people (or 1.2
        per cent) over the interim period, continuing the modest growth trend seen since 2001.




Final Report                                     P. 115
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        This means Bowen’s population would reach 14,180 in 2011, exceeding its former peak of
        14,000 in 1986.

        Following this projection, the population would be 15,127 by 2016.


Using more recent growth estimates developed for the purposes of this Study, the growth rate for
the District that is inclusive of predicted resident and non-resident populations is not expected to
exceed these medium series projections (see Scenarios A, B, C, and D as outlined in Section 6.2).


        Using the different growth scenarios developed, there is expected to be a peak in future
        populations between 2011 and 2014, largely associated with non-resident construction
        workforces, which then decreases again with completion of major projects associated with
        the Port of Abbot Point and adjacent SDA.


Community infrastructure needs associated with this type of growth will be influenced by
resident/non-resident population status, as well as by how the non-resident population is
accommodated (and serviced).


Desired standards of service developed in this part of the report will be applied loosely to these
future population projections, but they must also be informed by the breakdown and characteristics
of population type.


Summary of likely future needs based on different growth scenarios


A range of likely future needs have been identified at the local level and the district level, including
universal and targeted infrastructure. Of particular note is the potential variation in need which is
directly influenced by the actual size of the non-resident (workforce) populations that come to the
area between 2010 and 2014.


The conditions under which these workers are employed and also accommodated while in the
district will directly influence those people’s infrastructure needs.




Final Report                                      P. 116
                                                                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 29 .   Likely future need for local leve l infras truc tur e (2011, 2016)




Final Report                                                  P. 117
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 118
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 119
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 120
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 121
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 122
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 123
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 124
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 125
                                                                                                  Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




T ab l e 30 .   L ik e l y f u t u r e n e e d f o r d is tr ic t l evel infras truc tur e (2 011, 201 6)




Final Report                                                                P. 126
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 127
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 128
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 129
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 130
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Final Report   P. 131
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




   12           Potential Responses and
                Recommendations to Address Community
                Infrastructure Gaps
This chapter summarises Part Four of the Community Infrastructure Report for the BAPACI Study,
which highlights the existing and likely future gaps in the provision of community infrastructure,
and suggests future requirements for the study area based on agreed growth scenarios. These
scenarios have been determined using known and likely major infrastructure, industrial and mining
developments in the study area in the next 10 years, as well as population projections for seasonal
workforces, tourists, and resident populations.



12.1           Gaps in Community Infrastructure Provision
There are a number of obvious gaps in the provision of community infrastructure in the Bowen
District that are created by existing supply and demand issues, as well by likely future
requirements identified in the previous section on ‘need’ for different population groups, using
different growth scenarios.


These ‘gaps’ involve universal and targeted infrastructure (including services, facilities and
networks), at the local and district levels, and are more or less pronounced when considering the
maximum and minimum growth potentials for the resident and non-resident populations between
2009 and 2016.


Generally speaking, there are recognised gaps in:


        local and district level medical and allied health services
        local and district level aged care services and facilities
        targeted services and facilities to cater for the needs of a range of non-resident
        populations, including workers associated with mining, industrial and infrastructure
        development activities, seasonal workers, and tourists
        local and district level family oriented services and facilities (including child care centres,
        and child/young person friendly public domains)
        district level community leadership processes (groups) that are well coordinated and
        inclusive of a diverse range of age and interest groups
        district level employment and training programs that up-skill local people for future
        employment in emerging industries
        district level cultural facilities and (other) tourism infrastructure that create social and
        economic benefits
        funding for local and district level individual and family support services (including domestic
        and family violence support and crisis support)
        targeted services and facilities that cater for the needs of (other) specific interest groups,
        including young people, ASSI people, and Indigenous people
        maximise benefits received from and provided to tourism development.




Final Report                                       P. 132
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




These gaps in provision are very likely to become more pronounced with the increasing aged
population, as well as with demands placed on services and facilities by non-resident (FIFO/DIDO,
seasonal workers and tourists) and new in-coming populations. There will be peaks and troughs in
demand that relate directly to the influx and outflow of construction workers associated with major
projects in and around the district.


According to state government agencies in the region it is unlikely that the supply factors are going
to reverse themselves quickly – for example, current policy positions support the centralization of
maternal health services, specialist services, and high care health services to tertiary centres like
Townsville and Mackay; as well as there being an overall reduction in budgets due to the economic
downturn, and this will add to the pressure on existing services, and increase the need for people
to travel to access services or move from the District.


Unless there is a pre-emptive approach taken to improve the provision of health, education,
retail, and social/recreation facilities and services, that happens in time with an increase in the
availability, diversity and quality of housing (for different household and income types), it will
continue to be difficult to attract and retain a younger population and/or professionals required to
manage key services in the District (e.g. schools, medical services).


Currently there are no standards for service or plans for provision of services and facilities in place
in the District apart from reports and studies that outline discrete agency intentions (that are not
generally resolved into any type of publicly available plan). Given the policy position and
aspirations of government, and experience from other communities, this in itself is a gap in the
system.


Greater resolution and integration of community leadership groups involved in planning, delivering
and/or managing community services and facilities is required to address this and other issues –
for example, Girudala Community Cooperative recently funded a health services scoping study
which recommended integrated leadership around health planning and provision in the District, and
better connection by this leadership group with key development activities occurring in the District.



12.2           Future Requirements
Given the relatively comprehensive and detailed nature of the information discovered in this
assessment of community infrastructure in the Bowen District, it is possible and useful to prioritise
and respond to community infrastructure requirements for the next five to ten years with some
degree of insight. As this report (and these findings) is one part of a broader Study it is important
that the requirements identified in this work are consistent with and informed by the requirements
identified by SGS and PIFU relating to accommodation.


For the purposes of this report, community infrastructure requirements for the Bowen District are
expressed in the following broad plan format, including:


          The desired outcome for community infrastructure in the District
          Principles for planning and providing community infrastructure, including guides to
          responding to the particular needs of non-resident (visiting) populations



Final Report                                       P. 133
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Strategy areas that highlight priority requirements, key interests, existing initiatives, as well as
providing good practice stories that offer insights for local action.


It is envisaged that this work will inform state government planning and policy making as well as
local level planning and action.


Desired Outcome


It is envisaged that:


       Local and District level infrastructure will be provided that supports the future growth of
       communities within the Bowen District (including Bowen, Merinda and Collinsville) as
       ‘sustainable regional communities’.


In order to achieve this desired outcome it will be necessary to ensure community infrastructure
addresses the needs of resident and non-resident populations, maximising integration and positive
relationships between different population groups and locations, while recognising local distinctions.
It will be necessary to:


        Utilise and build on existing networks to create partnerships for planning and providing
        required and desired community infrastructure (includes government, private and
        community sector interests); and
        Ensure all new development adds value to community infrastructure outcomes for existing
        and incoming residents and businesses; and
        Ensure central agency planning and development functions (e.g. Health, Education, Police)
        are informed by local level knowledge of need and most effective approach to service
        delivery.


Principles


A number of general principles for planning, providing and producing community infrastructure
have been developed based on the findings of this Study. These general principles include the
following.


Planning


        Any and all planning, provision and production of community infrastructure in the Bowen
        District contributes to the achievement of:
               o   well   serviced   communities     with   affordable,   efficient,   safe   and   sustainable
                   development; and
               o   conserved and enhanced areas and places of special aesthetic, architectural,
                   cultural, historic, scientific, social or spiritual significance; and
               o   integrated networks of pleasant and safe public areas for aesthetic enjoyment and
                   cultural, recreational or social interaction.




Final Report                                           P. 134
                                          Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        It is important that community infrastructure be planned and integrated with physical,
        environmental and economic planning and that it be sensitive to local, cultural and heritage
        issues.
        Community infrastructure should be designed and provided so that it progresses with
        and/or pre-empts the community as the community grows, changes and evolves.
        There are a range of interests involved in the planning, provision and production of
        community infrastructure, including community, government and commercial interests.
        It is essential to achieve community involvement and leadership in the planning,
        development, management and maintenance of community infrastructure for it to be
        successful and sustainable.
        Planning for the needs of a diverse range of resident and non-resident populations is
        required, recognising social, cultural, economic, and physical differences and interests.
        It is necessary to mitigate the social, physical and economic effects of any rapid
        introduction of large numbers and/or proportions of non-resident workforces on host
        communities, including the need to protect against distortions in local service provision and
        community life.
        Growth pressures on social infrastructure relate (but are not limited) to affordable housing
        options, health and other social services, community safety, recreation and sport, arts,
        culture and cultural heritage, employment and training opportunities.
        An improved integration between the former Whitsunday and former Bowen shire areas in
        terms of future community infrastructure planning and provision is desired.


Provision


        Adequate and appropriate provision of community infrastructure that attracts, supports and
        retains workforces and their families is required to build sustainable regional communities.
        This provision may have to be pre-emptive to create the necessary shift and broadening in
        the population profile required in the Bowen District.
        Community infrastructure provision should be guided by fundamental principles that
        underpin social justice, including:
               Equity (fair distribution of resources and power)
               Access (to good quality services and facilities needed to support a decent lifestyle)
               Participation (community voice in social and political life and decisions which affect
               individuals)
               Equality (of opportunity without discrimination)
               Reconciliation (harmony between individuals and groups).
        Community infrastructure should provide:
               Focal points of community interaction, and contribute to development of centres,
               Places that build a community's identity
               Places and resources where residents can meet, organise and carry out activities
               Places that strengthen the relationships of the community, building responsible self-
               supportive and safe communities
               Places and resources for delivering community services, including office space for the
               staff and volunteers who provide services.
        It is a priority to maximise the utilisation of existing community infrastructure through
        upgrading and encouraging multiuse of facilities, co-locating compatible activities and




Final Report                                        P. 135
                                           Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




        services, and partnering and/or integration to deliver services and programs and desired
        goals.
        Public-private partnerships or initiatives to plan and provide infrastructure will occur
        wherever possible.



12.3           Responding to the                            Needs          of      Non-Resident
               (Visiting) Populations
        Non-resident populations in the Bowen District include (i) non-resident workers involved in
        mining, industrial and infrastructure development activities, (ii) seasonal workers involved
        in the fruit and vegetable growing industry, and (iii) tourists; and these non-resident
        populations will include single people, couples, and/or couples with children.
        The planning, provision and production of community infrastructure that responds directly
        to the needs of non-resident workforces is influenced by the approach taken to
        accommodating them. This could include one or more of the following approaches:
               1.   Creation of construction and/or operational accommodation villages (single persons
                    quarters) that are self contained and separate from the existing housing stock –
                    will accommodate between 250 and 2000 persons (mainly single males) and have
                    basic infrastructure provided on site
               2.   Utilisation of existing housing stock and commercial accommodation in an area –
                    including purchase of existing caravan parks and retrofitting them to accommodate
                    and service workforce/s
               3.   A mixed approach, including #1 and #2 (above), as well as new residential
                    developments by key employers or contract companies (servicing key employers)
        Good quality standards are achieved for any discrete (self contained) accommodation
        villages catering for non-resident workforces in terms of the location and types of
        accommodation and infrastructure provided.
        The specific effects of Fly-in/Fly-out (FIFO) operations on individuals, their families, and on
        the host communities they work in when it comes to the planning and provision of
        community infrastructure will be incorporated into all decision making.
        Targeted approaches are used to achieve physical, social and economic integration of non-
        resident workforces into the host community.
        The wellbeing of non-resident workers is prioritised when making decisions about the best
        way to accommodate and service them.



12.4           Strategy Areas
When considering the existing and emerging community infrastructure requirements and priorities
for the Bowen District, it is both possible and useful to group them into five inter-connected
strategy areas (see Diagram 1).




Final Report                                         P. 136
                                       Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study




Figure 17.      Co mmun ity In fr as truc tur e Prior ities ( Bowen D is tric t)




This part of the Community Infrastructure Report provides a resolution of the information, values
and ideas that have been identified in Parts One, Two and Three; and seeks to provide broad level
advice on the strategic direction for community infrastructure in the Bowen District for the next five
to ten years given minimum and maximum population growth potentials.




Final Report                                      P. 137
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 138
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 139
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 140
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 141
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 142
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 143
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 144
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 145
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 146
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation Study




Final Report   P. 147
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




   13              Conclusion
As noted at the outset, the purpose of this study was to determine the accommodation and
community infrastructure needs for all components of the population and visitors within the Bowen
Region.


The need for the study arose due to the potential for a number of significant industrial projects to
be developed over the short, medium and long-term in the Bowen Abbot Point Region, particularly
in the APSDA.      The projects that were considered for this study included:
          Abbot Point Coal Terminal stage 3 expansion (X50);
          Abbot Point Coal Terminal stage 4 expansion (X110);
          Proposed Chalco Alumina Refinery within the SDA;
          Expansion to the Port of Abbot Point, including a Multi-Cargo Facility);
          Goonyella to Abbot Point Expansion (Missing Link) rail project (Q-Rail);
          Water for Bowen project (SunWater); and
          132 KVA Collinsville to Bowen power line project (Powerlink).
          Export of coal from the Galilee Basin (Waratah Coal and Hancock Prospecting) to Abbot
          Point.


This report has highlighted the significant impact that the proposed major projects will have on
accommodation and community infrastructure in the Bowen Region. The report also revealed the
importance of the agricultural sector to the region and its significant existing and ongoing
accommodation problem in relation to seasonal workers. Managing the impacts of these projects
and the agricultural sector is an important part of ensuring the success of these projects and their
contribution to economic prosperity at the local, state and national level.


As has been highlighted throughout this report, a range of solutions will be required if the
accommodation needs are to be met.              Furthermore, these solutions are required as a matter of
urgency given the expected timing of the major projects and the existing issues with
accommodation for the seasonal workers that visit the region.                        Among the immediate
needs/actions required will be the consideration of augmentation to the infrastructure systems, and
how these will be funded. Given the infrastructure limitations within Bowen these solutions and the
recommended planning principles upon which development proceed within the region, key
infrastructure will require upgrading for the existing community as well as any temporary workers’
accommodation sites that have been suggested, or are yet to be identified.


The planning processes, planning approval, and construction of a number of temporary workers’
accommodation sites will also be required if most projects proceed and identified accommodation
needs are to be met. Should the major projects considered here be implemented within their
expected timeframes, these sites will be required within the next 2 years. To house the expected
increases in residential and operational workers accommodation (which is assumed to be located
within the existing community), investigations regarding the likely feasibility of the market taking
up the options of increasing densities within the existing zoning area should be undertaken, albeit
the time pressure for this is less pressing. Through all these investigations, the community should




Final Report              P. 148
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




be consulted and kept well informed of progress made through the existing community consultation
committee.


Community infrastructure is a vital component of community wellbeing and must be well planned
to cater for needs of both permanent and temporary residents.                A high standard of community
infrastructure provision also has the potential to act as a drawcard for the region to attract a higher
level of permanent resident workers, rather than fly in/ fly out workers.             Specific facilities should
be provided within workers camps to ensure a high standard of community infrastructure to this
sector of the community.


Some of the specific community facilities and actions likely to be required include;
        an upgrade to the Bowen Library;
        addition aged care (nursing care and retirement village);
        additional child care and school facilities;
        improved health care;
        youth services and facilities;
        TAFE and training programs; and
        Library services targeted to temporary workers


Like accommodation requirements, community facilities that are required are linked to the
population associated with the number and scale of major projects that proceed over time.


The well planned provision of appropriate accommodation and community infrastructure solutions
will enable the Bowen region to respond positively to the challenges association with major projects
in the area, maximise the number of permanent residents attracted to the area, and achieve
positive and sustainable social outcomes.


A summary of recommendations made in this report are noted below.                    It is suggested that an
action plan and prioritisation of these actions be determined by Council in consultation with State
Government immediately.


13.1.1 Summary of Recommendations

Recommendations pertaining to the accommodation needs of temporary construction workers
are summarised below.         It is noted that due to the pressing timing of the likely onset of major
projects, these recommendations should be implemented in the immediate term:


1.   Adopt the Higher Order and Bowen Specific Planning Principles recommended in this report as
     the basis of an overall Permanent and Temporary Residential Needs and Solutions Strategy:
        a.     Residential use in the SDA will limit the potential of the SDA to develop.
        b.     Worker accommodation should be at a safe distance from the SDA, in a location that
               would maximise the benefit to the existing Town areas, and provide workers with
               access to services and facilities.
        c.     Worker accommodation in other locations should also respect constraints arising from
               conflicts with adjacent uses and the potential for social impacts.




Final Report              P. 149
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




         d.    Further accommodation within or adjacent to the township of Bowen would be desirable
               given expected demand for construction workers on a longer term basis.
         e.    The location of worker accommodation adjacent to the Bowen township is most
               desirable as it ensures efficient provision of infrastructure and services, promotes
               community cohesion and provides more flexibility in the use of the worker
               accommodation for other future uses
         f.    Ensuring that a component of the worker population can be located within the existing
               town centre allows some workers to bring their partners or families with them, and
               assist in longer term community sustainability.


2.   Complete the proposed investigations for the sites identified as having potential for fulfilling the
     needs of temporary workers’ accommodation.


3.   Should the investigations in 2. exclude any sites identified in this process, reconvene
     stakeholders to assess other potential sites.


4.   Develop a Planning Scheme Code with supporting Planning Scheme Policy dedicated to
     ensuring that temporary workers’ accommodation is developed at acceptable standards.


5.   Host discussions with potential providers of temporary workers’ accommodation to ensure that
     the standards align with Council’s requirements.


6.   Commence a communication and consultation strategy to ensure that the Bowen Community
     are clear about the likely housing solutions for the region. Ensure that good examples (and
     bad examples for contextual purposes) of the types of developments that would be required
     within the community are clearly communicated.


7.   Update the Draft PIPRICS to ensure that the sites that are suitable for hosting temporary
     workers’ accommodation are included in the PIA, and that appropriate plans for trunk
     infrastructure are in place. This is only possible if the land is zoned for urban purposes and if
     this is the case it could either be rezoned or subject to conditioning requiring the provision of
     necessary trunk infrastructure.


8.   Develop a Social Impact Assessment policy within Council to ensure that social infrastructure
     and housing impacts associated with major projects are adequately accounted for.


9.   Ensure that any Social Impact Assessment policy takes into account the recommendations of
     this report and further detail contained in the Community Infrastructure Study (completed by
     Anita Egginton).


Recommendations ensuring that the residential and permanent resident operational workers
accommodation needs are met include:


1.   Complete broad market feasibility assessments to determine the likelihood of the market
     responding to the future demand for permanent accommodation within the region;




Final Report              P. 150
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




2.   If the market feasibility indicates a non-viable result for some development types within the
     region, review the planning requirements for these development types to see if barriers can be
     addressed;


3.   As part of the recommended Permanent and Temporary Residential Needs and Solutions
     Strategy, focus on how affordability can be maintained and enhanced;


4.   Commence discussions with the Whitsunday Housing Company regarding affordable housing
     opportunities;


5.   Engage with the community to ensure that there is a clear understanding of the likely
     development outcomes within the region with the onset of the expected major projects;


6.   Update the PIPRICS and ensure that adequate infrastructure solutions are present.               Explore
     options for funding infrastructure through user pays systems coupled with those entities that
     are likely to benefit from the additional development being attracted to the region.



Given the above and preceding discussions, the following recommendations for fulfilling seasonal
workers and tourist accommodation needs include:


1.   Conduct, as a matter of priority, further investigations regarding the appropriateness and
     ability of the existing zoned land to accommodate the needs of the identified seasonal workers
     and tourist accommodation.


2.   Complete an Economic Development Strategy for the region, which would consider the holistic
     range of issues to best maximise the economic potential of the region.                  An investment
     prospectus should also be developed as a part of this Strategy to best attract developers
     regarding the range of economic development opportunities in the region.               One of the key
     focus areas of the Economic Development Strategy should be in determining how best to
     facilitate tourism, particularly in the off-peak ‘picking’ seasons. Ensure that discussions with
     motel providers, backpacker operators and potential developers occur in a bid to maximise the
     potential for further supply of this type of accommodation within the region.


3.   Explore the potential to use some components of the temporary workers’ accommodation as
     sites to host seasonal workers.


Recommendations for community infrastructure to support learning & local enterprise
include:


1.   Improve opportunities for local people to gain skills required to gain employment in emerging
     industries.


2.   Implement local business arrangements that actively support and promote the development of
     local businesses to service the growth that will occur over the next 5-10 years.




Final Report            P. 151
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




3.   Improve the quality and capacity of the learning and education environment to keep young
     people and families in the District and cater for influxes of new resident and non-resident
     families.


4.   Maximise learning and earning opportunities created by the production and/or improvement of
     cultural and tourism infrastructure.


5.   Ensure learning about local initiatives and/or experiences is not lost.


Recommendations for community infrastructure to support health and ageing in place
include:


1.   A joint collaborative leadership effort occur involving public and private medical and allied
     health agencies, in order to develop a Health Business Plan for the District. This includes
     providing leadership around priorities that include:
                 GP recruitment and retention
                 Health promotion activities and knowledge
                 Transport and roads
                 Emergency health management
                 Securing allied health worker positions
                 Other employment and training initiatives (includes targeting partners of construction
                 and operational workforces who come to town).


2.   Respond to pressures created by a disproportionately older and less wealthy population who
     want to age in place, including:
                 Additional aged care beds and associated nursing supports in both Bowen and
                 Collinsville (dementia, high and low care)
                 Additional retirement village (hostel) beds in Collinsville
                 Respite services
                 Day services for people with a disability.


3.   Upgrade emergency services and facilities to enable them to respond to the demands of
     resident and non-resident populations with particular reference to managing peak demand
     periods (construction).


4.   Council to facilitate an increase in the supply of adaptive housing that allows older people to
     ‘age in place’ more comfortably.


Recommendations for community infrastructure to support family friendly environments
include:


1.   Ensure the development of family and child friendly public environments by improving the
     quality, functionality, and identity of the public environments, in central areas and in local
     residential areas (neighbourhoods).


2.   Increase the availability of child and family focused services and facilities in both Bowen and
     Collinsville and at the same time improve their physical connectivity.



Final Report                P. 152
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




3.   Resource the increase in primary and secondary school and out of school hour care places that
     are required, in time with increases in student numbers.


4.   Enhance youth focused facilities and services, catering to non-resident and resident
     populations, including;
                 Gym and other indoor recreation facilities
                 Internet and satellite TV
                 Safe place to drink/not drink and socialise
                 Community education initiatives
                 Cultural activities
                 Employment and training initiatives, linked to existing and emerging business and
                 industry opportunities


Recommendations for community infrastructure to support arts, cultural & community
development include:


1.   Develop cultural infrastructure that recognises needs and interests of the Australian South Sea
     Islander community.


2.   Protect valued places and routines that underpin local people’s quality of life and sense of
     identity.


3.   Better use and promotion of sports and recreation facilities in Bowen and Collinsville.


4.   Develop and promote the link between nature-based recreation, community activities/events
     and tourism.


5.   Upgrade key community facilities to accommodate future demand for services and programs –
     including:
                 Collinsville Community Association to a Neighbourhood Centre
                 Collinsville and Bowen libraries
                 Cooinda Family Centre
                 Girudala Community Cooperative.


6.   Increase funding to existing individual and community support services to allow them to
     adequately service future resident and non-resident populations.


7.   Integrate, empower and enhance local and district community reference and advisory groups to
     maximise effectiveness and representation of a diverse range of voices.


8.   Build in a monitoring role so that impacts of change are constantly reviewed and responded to


9.   Build or retrofit a multipurpose civic building in Bowen, focused on the performing arts and
     other creative industries, and that adds value to local community and business development
     aspirations




Final Report                P. 153
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




10. Build a sub-regional art gallery in Bowen (by 2021) that is integrated with the performing arts
     space and other existing cultural facilities and activities.


Recommendations         for   community        infrastructure     to   support     non-resident     [visiting]
populations include:


1.   Apply     common     ‘standards     of   service’   for   infrastructure   provision   in   purpose   built
     accommodation villages that are responsive to the needs of tenants and include such things as:
               Meeting room/s
               Welcome/ orientation to community program delivered by existing service provider/s
               Health and medical services
               Gym and other recreation facilities
               Activity program that provides opportunities for workers to positively engage with local
               community members and groups, and with local places and facilities
               Local transport service
               Laundry and catering services
               IT and communications services.


2.   Ensure conditions of development and/or project approval include the need for Employer
     programs that create links between new workers and their families (not staying in
     accommodation villages) and the local community:
               Welcome/orientation to community, in partnership with local service provider/s and
               businesses
               Sponsorship of local events, festivals and other initiatives
               Community relations plan, including local employment and training programs, local
               buy policy, community benefit program, and community engagement strategy


3.   Resource existing community services and programs to deliver targeted services to incoming
     (construction and seasonal) workers, including:
               Welcome/ orientation to community program delivered by existing service provider
               Community health information and support initiative
               Safe public places
               IT and communications services.


4.   Develop and implement a local tourism infrastructure strategy that includes a public and
     community infrastructure improvement plan.


5.   Develop and implement a community impact assessment policy for any future accommodation
     villages or other major commercial accommodation developments that utilises the principles
     and other information identified in this report.


6.   Establish a mechanism to identify, measure and mitigate the cumulative effects of
     accommodation villages and other commercial accommodation developments.


7.   Local and state government officers to use good practice knowledge about growth management
     in resource areas to inform decision making and negotiations around the development, design,
     management, and exit (deconstruction or reuse) of accommodation villages, in order to



Final Report              P. 154
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




     mitigate the negative impacts of non-resident workforces on community life and community
     infrastructure

Other actions that would benefit the region and its ability to adequately house and provide
community infrastructure to all elements of its population and visitors include:


1.   Completion of a Flooding Study;


2.   Updating the GQAL Information Base for the Bowen Region, including a review of viable and
     sustainable land holding size(s) for the predominate agricultural systems of the Bowen Region;


3.   Addressing Community Infrastructure Recommendations (see below for detail);


4.   Completing an Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Implementation Strategy;


5.   Completing a Retail and Commercial Needs Study (noting that an Industrial Land Demand
     study is to be undertaken by DIP in the near future);


6.   Developing and Implementing an Ongoing Land and Development Monitoring Process.


7.   Develop a tourist strategy for the region in order to boost tourist numbers and ensure an
     adequate supply of tourist accommodation (of various types).




Final Report            P. 155
                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Appendix A – PIFU Demographic Report




Final Report   P. 156
                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Appendix B – Planning Context

Housing System Roles and Responsibilities
A range of players impact on the housing market and the delivery of housing outcomes.                    The
housing system is indirectly and directly influenced by all levels of government, the private and
not-for-profit (community) sector.


The Commonwealth influences housing particularly through macro-economic policy such as
taxation policy, economic policies that influence investment decisions and through micro-economic
reform such as the level of interest rates. The Commonwealth also funds social housing provision
and housing related income support in partnership with the States.                 Traditionally the State
government role in housing has been to assist those citizens who can not access housing
independently and was for many years focussed on home ownership.                     Trends highlight the
Commonwealth’s preference for allocation funds directly to people through income support rather
than to increase the supply of affordable housing.


Local government is responsible for the local regulation of building, planning, health and other local
laws that impact on housing and for providing support to resident populations. Priorities for local
governments in relation to housing vary across the state. Some are involved in the direct provision
and management of housing.


The private sector makes up the largest part of the Australian housing system.               Functions and
mechanisms operating in the private housing sector include:
        Providing finance and investment for housing and residential development;
        Providing involvement in the planning and design of houses and residential developments;
        Major sources of development and construction resources for housing;
        Acting as the dominant player in the exchange of housing, through private markets fro the
        sale of property and residential renting; and
        Acting as the dominant player in the ownership and property management of housing.


The not-for-profit or community sector also plays an important role in the delivery of housing
assistance.    Under the management of voluntary committees the not-for profit sector receives
funds from the State to provide housing assistance. Their involvement spans community housing
provision, housing information and referral tenancy law advice, emergency housing, home
modification and supported accommodation.


This study presents research, analysis and recommendations which reflect the importance of
participation by all sectors which impact on the housing market and the delivery of housing
outcomes if the study area’s accommodation needs are to be met.




Final Report           P. 157
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Federal and State Frameworks and Strategies
The Framework for National Action on Affordable Housing was endorsed in 2008 by the Council of
Australian Governments (COAG) Local Government and Planning Ministerial Council and recognises
the essential role of housing in the long term sustainability of communities.


Queensland has also endorsed the critical role of housing in communities through the State
Planning Policy on Residential and Housing Development15 (SPP) and the Queensland Housing
Affordability Strategy16.       The SPP recognises the importance of community housing needs
assessments as the means to using an evidence base approach to understanding the direct
relationship between a community’s demographic profile, both current and future, to the
identification of the amounts, diversity and price points that are needed to respond effectively to
the identified community housing need.


These frameworks and strategies emphasise the importance of all sectors taking appropriate
actions to ensure that the study area’s accommodation needs are to be met.




Queensland Government Sustainable Resource
     Communities Policy
In September 2008 the Queensland Government released the Sustainable Resource Communities
Policy which focuses on resource communities where rapid development is having significant
impacts. This policy was developed in response to the rapid expansion of mining activities in the
Bowen Basin, which has been accompanied by significant economic, social and environmental
impacts on local communities, and also on regional communities.


There are four key themes include a commitment by Government to: strengthen the Government’s
role in coordination; improve linkages between social impact assessment and regional planning;
foster partnerships with local government, industry and the community; and an enhanced
regulatory environment for social impact assessment.


Government has an interest in managing the immediate and long term effects of industry
expansion, particularly recognizing and responding to the fact that there is a cumulative dimension
to change, which is not necessarily picked up in traditional methods of major project assessment
and approval. The policy indicates that multiple concurrent and overlapping proposals for new and
expanded development may result in significant cumulative and regional impacts presenting in
resource communities17. These impacts need to be considered by all stakeholders in decision
making and planning.

15
     Queensland Government (2007) State Planning Policy 01/07: Housing and Residential Development,
     www.housing.qld.gov.au
16
     Queensland Government (2007) Queensland Housing Affordability Strategy, www.ulda.gov.au
17
      According the Policy, resource communities are those local or regional communities that depend on or are
 affected by mineral extraction and associated activities, including petroleum and gas proposals. P2




Final Report              P. 158
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




The themes in this policy, although targeting resource communities, have many similarities with
the study area including the potential for rapid expansion of industry and its associated community
impacts. It provides guidance and emphasises the need to plan for potential social impacts such as
rapidly escalating housing prices due to the influx of resource workers, pressure on support
services due to the increased population, significant increases in vehicle traffic affecting road safety
and changes to the community dynamic resulting from non-resident workers moving to the
community.



A Sustainable Future Framework for Queensland Mining
      Towns
In response to the increased demands for accommodation as a result of the resources sector boom
over the last several years, in February 2007 the former Department of Local Government,
Planning, Sport & Recreation completed a Sustainable Future Framework for Queensland Mining
Towns.18       The aim of this framework was to provide an overview of existing and potential growth
management issues for mining towns in the Bowne and Surat Basins, to examine existing and
proposed responses and outline a proposed framework for the sustainable growth of these
communities.


Because of the similarities of the impacts experienced in resources impacted communities and
those potentially impacted by large scale infrastructure and industrial projects, this framework is
useful for consideration for this study.


The framework, among other things, identified the likely impacts of mining industry expansion and
key planning issues. The likely impacts of mining industry expansion include: local and regional
economic development; employment and skills; government coordination and service provisions;
housing demand and supply; housing choice; housing affordability; home ownership; rental
housing; short-term accommodation; strategic planning and infrastructure; environmental impacts
and EIS process for mining projects; and social impacts.


The framework also noted that planning considerations are critical and identified the following key
planning issues:      cumulative social, economic and environmental impacts; managing the urban
lifecycle stages of growth, decline and renewal; managing risks; cultural impacts; capacity for
economic diversification; and balancing productive mining industry and sustained and vibrant
communities.



Whitsunday Hinterland & Mackay Regional Plan
The Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay (WHAM) Regional Plan19 was released in June 2006 by the
then Queensland Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation (now known as


18
     Queensland Government (2008), Sustainable Resource Communities Policy: Social Impact Assessment in the
        Mining and Petroleum Industries, www.regions.qld.gov.au
19
     Queensland Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation (2006), WHAM Regional Plan.




Final Report              P. 159
                                    Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




the Department of Infrastructure and Planning) to guide sustainable development in the region20
for the next 15 to 20 years. The Plan is considered the principal strategic framework for guiding
growth and development in the region. The Regional Plan focuses on the comparative strengths of
the region and establishes a broad policy framework for advancing those strengths based upon the
principles of ecological sustainability and social justice. The Regional Plan is a concise framework
which:
           Sets out the Regional Vision for the future direction of the region in an integrated set of
           goals and strategies to achieve the vision;
           Advises and guides future policy, investment proposals, planning and budgetary processes
           within the region to ensure the Regional Vision will be met;
           Creates greater confidence, certainty and support from the community and investors as to
           the opportunities and future direction of the region; and
           Assists in obtaining funds and resources to implement the Regional Plan outcomes.


The Regional Vision’s seven major themes are: regional identity, leadership and management;
environmental and natural resources; economic development; social infrastructure; settlement
pattern; infrastructure; and transport.         Of relevance to this project is the themes relating to social
infrastructure and settlement pattern. These are described in further detail below.


Social Infrastructure


One of the key outcomes associated with this Vision relates to Social Infrastructure. The Plan states
that underpinning social infrastructure are social justice principles relating to:
           Equity (fair distribution of resources and power);
           Access (to good quality services and facilities needed to support a decent lifestyle);
           Participation (community voice in social and political life and decisions which affect
           individuals);
           Equality (of opportunity without discrimination); and
           Reconciliation (harmony between individuals and groups).


The provision of social infrastructure is linked to the establishment of the highest quality of life for
all people in the region. It is further emphasised in the Plan that infrastructure services and
facilities should be provided in an efficient and timely manner to meet the needs of the community.


There is a focus on a network of ‘learning communities’ that are characterised by:
           Communication mechanisms;
           Local leadership;
           High levels of social capital (networks based on trust, commitment and shared values);
           The nurturing of creative potential of all people to generate wealth and address problems;
           and


20
     Prior to Council amalgamations, the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Region included the following 8
LGAs: Mackay, Belyando, Bowen, Broadsound, Nebo, Mirani, Sarina and Whitsunday. Bowen Shire together
with the Whitsunday Shire together forms the Whitsunday Regional Council which is considered the boundary of
the study area.




Final Report               P. 160
                                        Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




            A healthy futures oriented base for each community, which helps them respond rapidly and
            positively to external influences.


Five separate Social Infrastructure Goals are highlighted in the Plan that relate to (1) Community
Voice, (2) Collaborative Planning, (3) Services and Facilities (4) Social Impact Assessment, and (5)
Native Title, these are summarised in the Table below.


T ab l e 31 . Soc ia l In fras tr uc tur e G oa ls

    Key Strategic Direction                                     Goals

    Community Voice                                             Develop and enhance a community voice in the
                                                                future planning and development of the region
    Collaborative Planning                                      Ensure decision making structures and collaborative
                                                                planning mechanisms are in place to achieve regional
                                                                planning objectives and outcomes.
    Services and Facilities*                                    Meet the current and future needs of regional
           People & Communities                                 communities through coordinated and timely
           Health                                               planning and provision of social infrastructure and
           Education, Training & Learning                       services and facilities.

           Safe Communities
           Social Housing
           Sport & Recreation
           Arts, Culture & Cultural Heritage
    Social Impact Assessment                                    Ensure that the social impacts of development and
                                                                change throughout the region are managed
                                                                effectively.
    Native Title                                                Recognise ATSI people’s inherent association with
                                                                the land and sea environments, and to ensure NT
                                                                and Indigenous rights issues are considered in an
                                                                appropriate manner.
*     There are 56 Strategies that relate to the Services and Facilities Issue and associated Goal, outlined in the
   Plan on pages 58-61.
Source: WHAM Regional Plan, 2006


Settlement Pattern


Settlement Pattern refers to urban development that encompasses a range of residential housing
types and tenures including tourism and short term worker accommodation.                            According to the
Regional Plan, it is envisaged that the region over the next 20 years will have a settlement pattern
which:
          Is efficient, serviceable, accessible and provides a range of lifestyle choices;
          Focuses on the development of discrete and sustainable urban nodes;
          Recognises the nexus between employment centres and residential areas; and
          Encompasses a hierarchy of regional, sub-regional and district centres that are mutually
          reinforcing.




Final Report                   P. 161
                                  Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




As noted above, Settlement Pattern is a key outcome associated with the Vision of the Regional
Plan.   There are 6 key strategic directions outlined in the Plan that are intended to help guide
residential development in the WHAM, these are summarised in the table below.


T ab l e 32 . Settlement Pattern Goals

 Key Strategic Direction                   Goals

 Urban Form and Structure                  To provide efficient, functional form and structure to the region’s
                                           existing and future urban areas that utilises and manages natural
                                           resources effectively and maintains a high level of urban amenity.
 Rural-residential Development             To manage existing and future rural-residential developments in a
                                           sustainable manner.
 Urban Character and Design               To reflect the climate and distinct natural, cultural and lifestyle
                                           values of the region, sub-regions, districts and towns in housing
                                           design and the built environment to create unique and desirable
                                           living environments.
 Housing Affordability                     To increase the proportion of affordable housing and rental
                                           accommodation in a range of appropriate locations.
 Urban Centres                             To develop a strong network of regional, sub-regional and district
                                           level centres which together provide a support structure for
                                           economic growth in the region and maintain specific key functions to
                                           provide for the needs and represent the vibrant individual identities
                                           of their distinct communities.
 Rural Communities                        To revitalise rural communities, towns and villages and assist rural
                                           and remote communities experiencing decline and reductions of
                                           services.
Source: WHAM Regional Plan, 2006


The Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan is the key planning document for the region.
Several issues identified within the document will influence the Accommodation and Community
Infrastructure Study for the Bowen Abbot Point, these are summarised below and specific issues
relating to Social Infrastructure and Settlement Pattern are summarised accordingly under each
sub heading:
    The WHAM is considered a significant growth area – population growth in the coastal areas has
    led to changes in land use on the fringes of the region’s larger urban areas with expansion of
    urban development onto good quality agricultural land;
    Over recent years there has been a mixed pattern of growth and decline in the region’s mining
    and service towns;
    There is evidence of an ageing population and declining of population, particularly in the 18 –
    24 year age bracket;
    Population and economic growth have increased pressures for urban development and
    infrastructure provision particularly along the coastal plain;
    Approximately 85% of the population live along the coastal plain;
    The City of Mackay and the Shires of Whitsunday and Sarina are predicted to attract the major
    share of population growth;



Final Report             P. 162
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




    The region has a high transient workforce due to the nature of industries i.e. mining,
    seasonality of the region’s rural and tourism industries. Bowen is dominated by mining with an
    average unemployment rate of 2.1%; and
    Tourist, holiday and business visitors make up a significant proportion of the population in the
    region.


Social Infrastructure


The following are key issues specific to Social Infrastructure:
    The WHAM Region has a higher percentage of people living outside an urban centre than
    Queensland as a whole;
    There will be a challenge to providing flexible services to areas like Bowen with highly transient
    communities that are up to 300km away from the regional centre of Mackay;
    Currently, there is a lack of mechanisms to facilitate and coordinate community participation,
    and enhance community leadership to ensure each sector has a voice;
    Further developmental resourcing is required to enhance the platform of partnership and
    collaboration in planning for social infrastructure;
    The diverse planning boundaries and budgetary systems of government limit whole of
    government responses to regional issues;
    There is limited capacity to facilitate the appropriate linkages with Indigenous people, people
    from diverse linguistic backgrounds and Australian South Sea islanders;
    There is also inadequate planning for isolated communities;
    State agencies in the region are under considerable resourcing pressure to provide levels of
    servicing to meet community expectations; and
    Inadequate coordination in the provision of social infrastructure on a local area basis.


Settlement Pattern (Residential Development)


The following are key issues specific to Settlement Pattern:
    Population growth is placing pressure on coastal land resources, good quality agricultural land
    and the coastal zone environment;
    Activities associated with urban development in the past have had direct and indirect adverse
    impacts on the regions environmental values;
    The scattered nature of the development pattern, particularly in rural and remote areas is also
    straining the ability of service providers to ensure equitable access to the social and transport
    infrastructure;
    Urban areas need to be based on improved yields from available urban land;
    Rural-residential developments typically, are provided with minimal services and are remotely
    located and therefore have poor access to employment opportunities and, social infrastructure
    services, retail and commercial services and community facilities; and
    Access to affordable housing and rental accommodation in the region is a pressing issue for
    some sectors of the community, particularly for low income and other disadvantaged sectors.
    In particular there are limited accommodation options available in some rural areas and mining
    towns.




Final Report            P. 163
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




With current trends in growth and development, a range of regional issues and their implications
need to be addressed for the Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study for the Bowen
Abbot Point. Of particular importance to this study are issues (as outlined above) associated with
the need for greater provision of serviced land, improved levels of services and infrastructure to
isolated communities and access to a range of housing types including accommodation options and
lastly protection of environmentally significant areas and reduced impacts on amenity.



Whitsunday Regional Council/Bowen Planning Scheme
As per other planning schemes throughout Queensland, the Bowen Planning Scheme21 sets out a
statutory framework for development by which development proposals are assessed. The primary
purpose for reviewing the planning scheme in this report is to outline the strategic direction for
housing provision, tourism area and accommodation development and the implications of the
statutory requirements of the plan for the project, particularly the constraints mapping component.
The provisions of the planning scheme are also the basis on which we can determine the density
that existing land can be redeveloped in Bowen and subsequently the number of additional lots
(additional land yield) that can be developed to meet future need.



Housing Needs Assessment for the Bowen - Collinsville
      Region
The Housing Needs Assessment for the Bowen-Collinsville Region22 was instigated and managed by
the Bowen Housing Working Group and was funded by the former Department of Local
Government, Sports and Recreation under the through the Blueprint for the Bush initiative. This
assessment identified a number of issues associated with the housing needs of the Bowen and
Collinsville communities and suggested some actions to address the identified issues.


As part of this project a series of interviews and forums were undertaken with local business,
government agencies and members of the public. In addition, a survey was developed and
distributed to the broader community to gather issues relating to housing in the Bowen Collinsville
area. Housing issues identified throughout this report are summarised below:
          Difficult to attract staff to positions in the area due to the current high rental and
          purchasing cost for housing.
          There is currently no low cost housing available in the area and developers are not being
          encouraged to build them.
          Land is a premium commodity in both the Collinsville and Bowen areas and this is driving
          up the price of land making affordable housing solutions less attractive to developers.
          There are many issues within the community that are related directly to the lack of
          affordable housing in the area. Such issues are homelessness (either people living in the
          open or being forced to live in environments that are unsuitable), family stress as families


21
     Bowen Shire Council (2006), Planning Scheme 2006: Statutory Instrument.
22
     Bowen Housing Working Group (2008), Housing Needs Assessment for the Bowen-Collinsville Region,
      prepared by U-No Solutions Pty Ltd.




Final Report              P. 164
                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




        are living in unsuitable housing arrangements, aged persons isolation and safety as they
        continue to live in homes that are unsuitable for their conditions.
        There is a proportion of the population that requires special housing and support needs.
        There are few if any suitable housing options for people requiring this type of
        accommodation.
        There is currently no appropriate accommodation for builders, traders and labouring
        workers.
The issues raised in this assessment have been considered in this project.               In doing so, it is
envisaged that the results and recommendations from this study be used to inform future actions
by the Whitsunday Regional Council.




Final Report           P. 165
                                    Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Appendix C – Background Research

Key Issues from Research
There are a variety of circumstances which require the provision of accommodation for temporary
or transient workforces. The establishment of temporary worker camps has been particularly
prevalent in Queensland and Western Australia over the last 10 years as a result of the resources
boom and the inability of the local labour force to meet the demands of the developments.


In the context of Bowen, temporary accommodation has traditionally been required for seasonal
labour for fruit and vegetable harvests; however the growth in industrial development has also led
competing demand for temporary accommodation for construction workforces. Despite this
however, as noted in the AHURI positioning paper23 the housing impacts of the resource boom on
rural centres has received scant attention from researchers and policy makers. Early research by
AHURI does suggest nevertheless that the resource boom has had a direct influence on the
demand for housing in four resource impacted communities in Queensland and Western Australia.
Key impacts observed to date in Queensland include significant increases in rent and house prices,
limited housing options, with low vacancy rates for rental accommodation and limited social
housing and an increase in temporary and informal accommodation and extensive use of single
person quarters for mine workers.                 It is this increased use of informal and temporary
accommodation which this section will focus on.


In addition to the increase in demand for labour during the resources boom, there has been a
change in employment patterns towards the increased use of variations of fly in/ fly out (FIFO)
operations and other temporary workforces.24 This has come about due to a range of factors
including the cost of building permanent accommodation for employees, the increased difficulty of
attracting     and   retaining      people   in   non-metropolitan     settings,   reductions   in   flying   and
communication costs and considerable differences in the size of construction and operational
workforces.


There is broad agreement that FIFO operations and other influxes of seasonal and temporary
workers impact on the social and economic fabric of regional communities (Haslam Mackenzie
2008). Key issues identified include the lack of community commitment or sense of place by the
transient workforce, limited local investment or expenditure, and local employment strategies being
secondary to FIFO workforce. If not appropriately planned for, transient workforces can lead to the
marginalisation of other industries such as tourism and retail due to traditional forms of temporary
accommodation such as caravan parks and hostels being taken over by transient workforces who
spend their discretionary income at their place of residence rather than in the community which
they are temporarily residing. Other issues raised in social impact assessments include the



23
     Haslam Mackenzie et al (2008), A review of contextual issues regarding housing market dynamics in
      resource boom towns, prepared for the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI) Western
      Australia Research Centre.
24
     Ivanova et al (2006) Social and Economic Issues Associated with the Bowen Basin Coal Industry: Community
      Engagement to Reduce Conflict Over Mine Operations, www.anzsee.org




Final Report               P. 166
                                    Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




perception of a loss of safety as a result of an influx of large numbers of single males and an
increased use of drugs and alcohol.


However, in some regions temporary workforce accommodation is often the only way to ensure
sufficient supply of labour for major projects related to industry, resources, infrastructure
development and seasonal work due to factors including a lack of serviced land, inadequate supply
of housing, a shortage of trades people to construct new dwellings and local labour force skills gaps
(Haslam Mackenzie et al 2008). A report prepared for the South Australian Department of Regional
Development into Regional Workforce Accommodation Solutions25 suggested that the shortage of
regional workforce accommodation has the potential to hinder economic growth by restricting the
ability of industries to attract and retain labour and the inability of local economies and existing
social infrastructure to capitalise on the demand for their products and services.


Furthermore, some regional Councils have acknowledged that with respect to major projects with
clearly identified time frames, custom built temporary accommodation is the best solution on the
condition that it fits with existing infrastructure and social networks (Queensland Dept of Local
Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation 2007).                  This is particularly important given the
enduring challenge regarding the provision of services and infrastructure (including housing)
without a clear understanding of the longevity of major infrastructure, industrial and resource
projects (an issue particularly important in the current economic climate).


Although efforts should be made to attract permanent workers to the region, this must be done in
a planned and considered way, taking into account the potential need for additional temporary
housing and the ability to be able to attract and retain professional and key workers. Evidence
suggests that additional demand placed by contract workers on low cost temporary accommodation
(such as caravan parks, hostels etc.) and other rental accommodation, often utilised by socio-
economically disadvantaged residents and key workers, leads to higher levels of homelessness,
increased demand on crisis accommodation an inability to attract and retain the necessary
workforce to service the growing population (Haslem Mackenzie 2008).


Therefore it is absolutely essential that associated with the approval of major projects, appropriate
accommodation and workforce strategies are required which deal with the potential need for
additional temporary accommodation (for employees as well as contractors), the use of local
workforces and in the context of Bowen, the impact that the incoming workforce may have on the
accommodation available for the seasonal harvest workers. It is also important, as noted in the
Gladstone Growth Initiative, that short term accommodation complexes can be used as a means of
creating economic activity for existing business (Design Properties 2002).



Planning for Temporary Accommodation
In response to the increased demand and development of temporary accommodation related to the
resource sector boom, state government and local governments in affected areas have, or are in
the process of developing housing strategies and temporary accommodation planning policies.

25
     Hassell (2002), Regional Workforce Accommodation Solutions Study: Overview of Regional Issues and
      Solutions, Prepared for SA Office of Regional Development.




Final Report               P. 167
                                    Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Because of the extensive similarities of the impacts experienced in resource impacted communities
and those potentially impacted by large scale infrastructure and industrial projects, these
government responses are useful for consideration in the Bowen Abbott Point study area.


State Government


In September 2008, the Queensland State Government released the Sustainable Resource
Communities Policy. This policy has been developed in response to the significant environmental,
social and economic impacts that mining expansion in the Bowen Basin and accompanying
population growth has had on local communities. The policy notes that although mining and
associated infrastructure developments have helped to strengthen local economies, they also place
significant pressure on social infrastructure, such as housing and community services and facilities,
and create quality of life issues, such as choice in education services and the availability of health
services.      Although the policy predominantly deals with revising the current social assessment
requirements for mining and related infrastructure developments, it also proposed the development
of a Major Projects Housing Policy. This policy will set out the Government’s requirements for the
provision of housing to accommodate major project workforces. The Major Projects Housing Policy
will provide a framework within which housing for major new and expanded mining and petroleum
development proposals can be consistently considered.


Although the WA government doesn’t have an explicit planning policy relating to temporary or
transient workers accommodation, the Western Australian Government's land and property
developer,      LandCorp   is   proactively     planning   for   the   development    of   temporary    workers
accommodation in Karratha specifically for tradespeople involved in the housing development
industry in order to progress the delivery of much needed permanent housing. This is unusual in so
far as temporary workers accommodation has traditionally been provided by resource companies
for their employees and associated contractors in that State. This solution has been proposed to
help meet demand for new homes by attracting builders to the region and to support Landcorp’s
accelerated land release program. The accommodation will be of a higher quality than the normal
workforce camp and will provide motel-style facilities to house up to 1,000 civil works contractors,
builders and tradespeople working on residential developments in Karratha.


Local Government


Over the last two years, a number of local councils that include resource impacted areas such as
the Pilbara and mid west region of WA have responded to the increased or potential demand for
temporary workers accommodation by developing local planning policies. The aim of these policies
is to provide direction for development proponents and Council in the assessment of applications
for planning consent for temporary or transient accommodation/workers camps. All policies
reviewed sought to maximise the social benefits of the accommodation and minimise potential
social costs of temporary accommodation. In addition to specific requirements regarding location,
amenity and service provision (discussed below), two of the policies require that applications
provide a detailed explanation of the need for such a facility and the extent to which to local
community will benefit from the proposal.




Final Report               P. 168
                                   Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




City of Geraldton-Greenough Temporary Accommodation Camps Planning Policy has been reviewed
in greater detail due the region’s contextual similarity to Bowen and the Whitsunday Regional
Council area. However, it is noted that the extent to which temporary workers will be required in
this region at any one time is likely to be on a smaller scale that then Bowen example.


This policy is based on a model jointly developed by the Shires of Chapman Valley, Mullewa and
Northhampton, the City of Geraldton-Greenough, Mid West Development Commission and
Department of Planning and Infrastructure to provide guidance should the demand for a
construction camp arise as a result of the Oakajee Port. An agreement was signed in 2009 between
the State and the proponent for development of the multi-billion dollar deepwater port at Oakajee,
25 km north of Geraldton and integrated rail network to service iron ore miners and other port
users in the mid-west region. Key provisions of the policy are shown in Box A and B below. It is
noted that this is there current policy, however, once applications are comprehensively considered
it may be necessary to review some of the elements below.



   Box 1: Provisions of the City of Geraldton-Greenough Temporary Accommodation Camps
   Planning Policy


   Location: The particular location of any proposed camp is at the discretion of the local government and will
   depend on the capability, suitability and appropriateness of the site for the proposal. In general, unless the
   local government grants approval otherwise, temporary accommodation or construction camps shall not be
   located in a position or area that would adversely affect residential, rural residential or rural smallholdings
   uses or lifestyles or that would detract from any particular scenic or visual attraction, adjacent to recognised
   tourist routes, unless suitably screened or designed for permanent use,           within any environmentally
   sensitive areas or buffer zones and the local government would give favourable consideration to proposals
   which enhance existing tourist accommodation facilities.
   Density: Camps within urban areas will not exceed 200 beds and camps remote from existing urban uses
   will not exceed 500 beds. The local government may consider variations to the above requirements, subject
   to the proponent providing adequate justification for the proposed variation(s) to the satisfaction of the local
   government.
   Variety of Accommodation: Council's preference is for the camp(s) to provide for a variety of
   accommodation (married and single) units within any camp to promote good social integration and well
   being in keeping with local community aspirations and standards.
   Recreation and Community Facilities: It is preferred that the workers utilise the recreation and
   community services available within the existing towns and settlements throughout the region when the
   camp is located within reasonable proximity to these facilities.




Further provisions in other Local Government temporary accommodation planning policies include
requirements for the facility to be strategically located within close proximity (10km) of the
construction site, and within reasonable commuting distance to a range of community and
commercial services and for planning applications to include details of the extent to which the
proposed facility places demands on physical and community infrastructure. The Shires of
Ashburton and Roebourne both require the preparation of Community Impact/Management Plans
for larger facilities and management statements for all facilities dealing with emergency




Final Report              P. 169
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




management, catering, liquor licensing, tenants’ rights and responsibilities, transportation and
security and public awareness. Some of these are outlined below.


   Box 2: Provisions of the Chapman Valley Temporary Accommodation Camps Planning Policy


   Definition: For the purposes of the policy, ‘temporary accommodation camps’ are defined as “Development
   which remains in place on a temporary basis and provides accommodation for construction or construction-
   related workers and their dependents, and which consists of buildings or other structures which by virtue of
   their design, layout, density and/or location, is not specifically provided for within the Town Planning
   Scheme and can only be approved pursuant to the ‘use-not-listed’ provisions contained within the Scheme.”
   Demonstration of Need: Applicants under this policy must demonstrate that there is a need to develop a
   facility of the size and location proposed for the period of time which the period is sought.
   Location: For applications relating to Industrial and Port Development, camp sites must be located within
   ‘General Farming’ zones land, be strategically located within close proximity (i.e. 10km radius) to the
   primary construction site, and is within reasonable commuting distance to a range of services including
   social, recreational, commercial, retail and medical, have direct access to an established ‘road of regional
   significance’ as classified by Main Roads WA and not be located in an area of perceived environmental, social
   or visual sensitivity.
   Value Added Benefit: Applicants are required to demonstrate ‘value added’ benefit for the re-use of the
   camp infrastructure, either in part or whole, beyond the life of the temporary accommodation use.
   Camp Management Plan: Applicants are required to demonstrate that the facility will be effectively and
   appropriately managed, with management practices outlined in a Camp Management Plan. This plan should
   outline strategies to resolve conflicts with adjacent landowners, transportation of workers, strategies to
   manage the consumption of alcohol and strategies to ensure noise, dust, light etc are acceptably managed.




Whitsunday Regional Council Community Consultation
      Summary
On Friday the 20th February 2009, a workshop was convened by Whitsunday Regional Council to
discuss planning considerations regarding the location of temporary workers accommodation and
associated infrastructure within the Bowen Abbot Point region.                    Three broad approaches to
temporary accommodation were provided to stimulate discussion. These included: accommodation
contained on one or two key sites; dispersed across a variety of accommodation types—including
smaller scale villages; and absorbed into the existing market without any intervention.


Key stakeholders that were involved in the workshop included representatives from Whitsunday
Regional Council, Department of Natural Resources and Water, Department of Infrastructure and
Planning, Sun Water, Environmental Protection Agency, State Development Authority, Queensland
Fire and Rescue, Department of Communities and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries.
The workshop provided these stakeholders with the opportunity to express their particular
knowledge, issues or concerns regarding accommodation and community infrastructure within the
study area.




Final Report                P. 170
                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




A number of key issues were raised during the workshop. These included:
        the need for suitable locations to accommodate future accommodation and community
        infrastructure needs;
        the need for infrastructure, especially electricity and sewerage, transport options;
        the current limited range of accommodation and community facilities available;
        the high diversity of residents in the study area;
        the opportunities associated with the considerable number of parcels of unallocated State
        land as having substantial potential for future development;
        the intent of the Abbot Point State Development Area to provide land for light and heavy
        industrial uses;
        the potential for the existing showgrounds site to be utilised for future accommodation
        needs;
        the need to protect good quality agricultural land and minimise the loss to development;
        the safety issues including attention to flooding, fire and other emergencies;
        the need for additional community facilities and services to support accommodation; and
        the need for preference to be given to mixed use developments and adaptable spaces and
        consolidated development.




Final Report           P. 171
                                                                                                         Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Appendix D – Accommodation Audit
T ab l e 33 . Temporar y Accommodation Audit for Bowen


                                                                                                                                                                 Expansion/
 Accommodation Name Accommodation Available                   Location           Capacity                  Main Clientel                     Price             Redevelopment

Caravan Parks
                               Self-contained cabins,                                              Tourists and seasonal workers
Queens Beach Tourist         powered/unpowered sites,          Queens          16 cabins, 108      and 3 construction companies        C abins: $80-$95
Village                         drive through sites            Beach            caravan sites            headleasing cabins             Sites: $23-$28                 NA
                                                                                                                                         C abins: $65
                                                                               4 cabins, 200                                           Onsite Van: $27
Bowen Village C aravan     C abins, on-site vans, mobile        South        caravan sites (160                                       Overnight Van: $46        Room to expand
Park                            homes, camp sites               Bowen            licensed)               Seasonal workers               Sites: $22-$27         but no plans as yet
                                                                                                   Tourists and seasonal workers
                             Powered/unpowered sites,          Queens                              with some sites being booked                                4 powered sites to
Wangaratta at the Beach        tent sites, park units          Beach          1 cabin, 86 sites       for construction workers                NA                   be added

                                                                            5 cabins, 19 on-site
                                                                             vans, 37 powered
Bowen Palms C aravan       C abins, on-site vans, powered       South       sites, 16 unpowered    Workers and some tourists and                                 2 extra cabins
Park                       sites, ensuite sites, camp sites     Bowen                sites               seasonal workers                     NA                   approved

                                                                              11 x 2 br villas,                                      2br villas: $133-$145
                                                                            10 x 1 br villas and                                     1 br villas: $112-$128
Discovery Holiday Parks    C abins and powered van sites        Bowen        57 powered sites                 Tourists              Powered sites: $26-$38             NA
                                                                                                                                       C abins: $60-$115
Harbour Lights C aravan      Powered sites, villas and                         13 cabins, 140                                         C amp and powered
Park                                 cabins                    Harbour          caravan sites              Mixed clientel                sites: $30-$33        14 cabins to added
                                                                                                 Mainly tourists and construction                               Approved to be
Horseshoe Bay C aravan                                        Horseshoe     70 powered sites, 21  workers. Not really seasonal                                 redeveloped as a
Park                         Powered sites and cabins            Bay              cabins                     workers                          NA                180 unit resort
                                                                               10 cabins, 40
Tropical Beach C aravan        C abins, powered and                          caravan sites and     Tourists and some construction
Park                              unpowered sites               Bowen        some on site vans                workers                         NA                No land available
Rose Bay C aravan Park      Powered van and tent sites        Rose Bay               NA                          NA                           NA                       NA
Molongle C reek C aravan
Park                                     NA                     Gumlu                NA                          NA                           NA                       NA
Gumlu Van Park                           NA                     Gumlu                NA                          NA                           NA                       NA
Motels/Resorts/Apart
ments
North Australian Hotel
Motel                                 17 rooms                  Bowen                NA                          NA                           NA
                                                                                                                                        Studio: $135 to
Rose Bay Resort             Executive style apartments        Rose Bay         21 Apartments       Half workers and half tourists      Penthouse: $280          No land available
                                                              Horseshoe                                                                  1 br: $210 to
C oral C ove Apartments     Executive style apartments           Bay           37 Apartments                  Tourists                 Penthouse: $500      No land available
                                                                                                                                                                Withdrew
                                                                                                                                                            expansion plans
                                                                                                                                                           due to Abbott Point
                             Units and rooms some are                                               Tourists and workers (10 units $159 Studio to $265 for      and GFC
Blue Water Harbour Motel           self contained               Bowen            19 Rooms          leased for workers at the time)   a 2 br family room        uncertainty
                                                                             20 motel units and                                     Motel units: $106-$118
                           Motel units and self contained     Horseshoe       44 self contained                                      Self C ontained Units:
Whitsunday Sands Resort                 units                    Bay                units          Half tourists and half workers          $80-$161         Receptionist unsure
Queens Beach Motor                                             Queens                                                               $69 - $100 depending
Hotel                               Motel rooms                 Beach             50 beds                       NA                   on number of people            NA
                                                                            2 x family rooms, 5     Overnight stays mainly eg.
                                                                            x double rooms and     Truckies and some short term     $85 for a single to $120
Pearly Shell Motel              Budget motel rooms              Bowen          5 x twin rooms        workers eg. Tradespeople          for a family room               No
                                                                                                                                                               C urrently for sale
                                                                South                                                                                            due to lack of
Motel Bowen Arrow                   Motel rooms                 Bowen                NA                          NA                           NA                     clients
Ocean View Hotel               Motel rooms and units            Bowen            12 rooms                        NA                           NA                       NA
Port Denison Serviced
Units                                    NA                    Bowen                 NA                          NA                           NA                       NA
                                                               Queens
Ocean Breeze                            Units                   Beach          16 x 1 br units          Workers and tourists                  NA                       No
                                                              Horseshoe
Beachside Units                         Units                    Bay           6 x 1 br units                 Tourists                        NA               2 units to be added
C astle Motor Lodge                     Units                  Bowen              32 units                    Workers                         NA                   approved
Palm View Holiday                                             Horseshoe
Apartments                          Apartments                   Bay           7 Apartments                      NA                           NA                      NA
                                                              Horseshoe                                                                                          8 more units in
Sky View                                Units                    Bay              13 Units                 Mainly tourists                    NA                approval process
Montes Reef Resort                   Bungalows                C loucester       8 bungalows                      NA                           NA                       NA
Backpacker Hostels
                                                                            80 beds in rooms of
Barnacles Backpackers               Dorm rooms                  Bowen       3, 4, 6 or 10 people                 NA                           NA                       NA
Bogie River Bush House                   NA                     Bowen             50 beds                        NA                           NA                       NA
                                                                                                                                                                 Off season too
                                                                                                                                                                 quiet, closed 3
                                                                            88 beds in rooms of    Mainly fruit pickers. Work and                                 months over
Bowen Backpackers                   Dorm rooms                  Bowen          4 or 8 people        transport arranged on site           $18 - $27.50               summer
Bowen Beach
Backpackers                              NA                     Bowen                NA                          NA                           $30                      NA
C entral Hotel                           NA                     Bowen                NA                          NA                           NA                       NA
Denison Hotel                            NA                     Bowen             7 rooms                        NA                           NA                       NA
Glen Erin Farm Stay                      NA                     Bowen                NA                          NA                           NA                       NA
Aussie Nomads                            NA                     Bowen                NA                          NA                           NA                       NA


Source: SGS Economics and Planning, 2009




Final Report                                                                    P. 172
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Appendix E – Constraints Mapping
As part of the project, an Urban Capacity Analysis, which is a land constraints mapping exercise,
was undertaken in order to determine the land available for accommodation in the former Bowen
Shire area.        Each of the constraints considered in this exercise are outlined below and a summary
of the outcome is also provided in this section as well as a description as to how they exist in
Bowen, Merinda and Collinsville.


The Urban Capacity Analysis method overlays a series of individual constraint layers one by one to
gradual exclude constrained areas from the overall area, in this case the former Bowen shire area.
A series of constraints that either directly or indirectly influence the availability of land for
residential and accommodation purposes has been developed that specifically suit the former
Bowen local government area.            These constraints are not always absolute (development can
definitely not occur) but may be a partial constraint that does not preclude development from land
that still has limited development potential (such as the development is more expensive or is less
desirable in some way).            Where possible, these constraints aligned with existing planning
provisions, particularly from the Bowen Planning Scheme but also with instruments such as state
planning policies, state department and agency guidelines and development legislation.


The maps included in this section illustrates zoned residential land (coloured green) which
encapsulates the residential and park residential zones, and shows how each of the constraints
(both complete and partial) are located in relation to these residential zones.         At the conclusion of
this analysis (the results of which are located in the main body of this report), a map will be
produced that will outline the land suitable for residential development that is free of constraints
and that which is partially constrained.


The boundary of the Bowen Shire Priority Infrastructure Area (PIA), which is currently being
development by Council as part of the Bowen Shire Priority Infrastructure Plan (PIP) has also been
overlaid.      It is important that the PIA be considered when evaluating the suitability of future
residential land as this boundary is designated to accommodate the next 15 years of growth in
Bowen Shire and is an important instrument in local government land use planning.


This process does not designate buffer areas or determine the degree to which the constraints limit
development (such as a land suitability rating).


Complete Constraints

The complete constraints considered in the constraints mapping include:


        Transport
               o     Port and Airport lands


        Environmental
               o     Wetlands



Final Report                                           P. 173
                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




               o   National Parks
               o   Creeks and Rivers
               o   Good Quality Agricultural Land


        Zoning and Subdivision
               o   Industry zone
               o   Open space zone
               o   Special Purpose zone:
                           Schools
                           Community buildings
                           Police and emergency services buildings
                           Council buildings
                           Utilities, telecommunication
               o   Rural zone
               o   Tourism residential
               o   Minimum lot configuration sizes


        Miscellaneous Land Uses
               o   The Abbot Point State Development Area
               o   Properties of heritage and cultural significance
               o   Public Housing


Transport


Port and Airport lands constitute the only complete transport constraint as the land that is currently
occupied is reserved for future air and sea transportation.       In the case of Bowen, such constrained
land exists around the Bowen Airport to the south west of the town centre.




Final Report                                          P. 174
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 18.      Airpor t and Seapor t Cons tra ints , Bowen Town and Mer inda




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 175
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 19.      Airpor t and Seapor t Co ns traints , Collins ville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 176
                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Environmental


In a naturally diverse area such as Bowen, the environmental constraints on residential and
accommodation uses are a major consideration.         The constraints identified as complete include,
wetlands, national parks, creek and river corridors however, whilst these constraints do exist in
Bowen shire they do not constrain land near the towns of Bowen, Merinda or Collinsville and are
hence not included in the mapping of this section.         Good Quality Agricultural Land (GQAL) is a
complete environmental constraint that will significantly influence the provision of suitable
residential land and can be seen in the maps below.




Final Report                                      P. 177
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 20.      G o o d Q u a l it y A g r ic u l tu r a l L a n d C o n s tr a in ts , Bow e n Tow n a n d Mer in d a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                            P. 178
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 21.      G ood Qua l ity Agr icultur al Land Co ns tra ints , Collins ville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 179
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Zoning and Subdivision


Amongst the most easily identifiable constraints on the availability of land for residential
development are those outlined in the zoning provisions made within the Bowen Shire Planning
Scheme.        The zones that are completely incompatible with residential or tourism land use
development include the industrial zone, open space zone, the rural zone and the special purpose
zone, which is intended to accommodate local and state level infrastructure and miscellaneous uses
such as schools, community buildings, police and emergency services buildings, council buildings,
rail lines and yards, utilities and telecommunication.        Collectively, areas affected by zoning and
subdivision constraints occupy the majority of the shire land area, which predominantly consists of
rural zoned land.    It should be noted that all mining lease areas fall within the rural zone and since
the rural zoning in a complete constraint in this particular analysis, a separate mining constraints
layer has not been included.


The only subdivision related constraint designated as being complete is occupied lots of minimum
subdivision size.    This constraint is based on the parameter that lots that are occupied by any form
of dwelling (irrelevant of density) and are less than the planning scheme minimum lot size cannot
accommodate any further population through further subdivision and is therefore removed from
the available land pool.


The tourism zone has been included as a complete constraint as it is unsuitable for residential
development as per the provisions made in the planning scheme that prefer that the land be
developed for tourism accommodation only.          Given this, the capacity of this land to meet tourist
accommodation demands was considered separately.


The following maps outline these areas affected by the aforementioned constraints.




Final Report                                         P. 180
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 22.      In dus tr ia l Z one d La nd C ons tra in ts , Bow en T own a nd Mer ind a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 181
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 23.      Indus tr ial Z oned Land C ons traints , C ollinsville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 182
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 24.      Specia l Purpose Zoned Land Cons tr a i n ts , B o w e n T o w n a n d Mer in d a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 183
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 25.      Spec ial Purpose Zoned Land Cons tr aints , Collins ville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 184
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 26.      T o u r ism R e s id e n t ia l Z o n e L a n d C o ns tr a in ts , Bow e n Tow n a n d Mer in d a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                           P. 185
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 27.      T o u r ism R e s id e n t ia l Z o n e L a n d C o n s tr a in ts , C o l li n s vil l e




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                                P. 186
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 28.      Non- Sub dividable Res idential Lots , Bow en and Mer inda




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 187
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 29.      Non- Sub dividable Res idential Lots , C ollinsville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 188
                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Miscellaneous Land Uses


The category of constraint entails any constraint that is not directly associated with the other
categories.    An obvious exclusion in this category is the Abbot Point State Development Area.
Another important constraint given the historical importance of the former Bowen Shire and the
provisions made in the planning scheme is properties of heritage and cultural significance of which
subdivision may negatively affect.   State land on which public housing is located is also listed as a
complete constraint.




Final Report                                      P. 189
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 30.      Her ita ge Are as Cons tra in ts , Bowe n Tow n an d Me rinda




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 190
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 31.      Her ita ge Are as Cons tra in ts , C ollins ville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 191
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 32.      S t a te P u b lic H o u s i n g L a n d C o n s tra in ts , B o w e n Tow n a n d Me r i n d a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                            P. 192
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 33.      S t a te P u b lic H o u s i n g L a n d C o n s tra in ts , C o l li n s v il le




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                                P. 193
                                    Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Partial Constraints

Partial constraints included in this analysis have been deemed to not completely restrict
development of land parcels that they affect but rather denote land that is more costly or is less
desirable to develop for whatever reason and that land free of constraints should be developed in
preference.        Identified partial constraints include:


        Environmental
               o     Acid Sulphate Soils
               o     Vegetation biodiversity status (of concern and endangered)
               o     Storm Surge areas (Highest Astronomical Tide)
               o     Flooding (all of the floodplain area)
               o
        Zoning and Subdivision
               o     Business Zone
               o     Strata title
               o
        Transport
               o     Road and Rail Corridors


These constraints are discussed in detail below.



Environmental


In the constraints mapping undertaken for this project, the majority of the environmental
constraints tended to be partial given the varying effects of these constraints.                In the case of
flooding, this is obviously a more severe constraint at lower levels of elevation and as a result
some land is more constrained than others.               Also certain measure can be taken to reduce the
effects of flooding, such as more extensive drainage infrastructure or elevation of sites through
earthworks, which results in greater cost but does not preclude development.                      In regard to
flooding, land is considered partially constrained if it falls within the Don River Floodplain Special
Management Area.           Acid Sulphate Soil areas also form a partial constraint, given the greater cost
incurred when developing these areas in ensuring that compounds produced as a result of
upturning soil during construction do not adversely affect the natural environment.                   Given the
propensity for severe cyclone and other storm event occurrences, storm surge levels are an
important constraint in a similar manner to flooding.              Land that is partially constrained by the
occurrence of storm surge have been deemed in this exercise to be land which is below the Highest
Astronomical Tide (HAT) level as outlined in the planning scheme.               At-risk vegetation areas have
also been considered a partial constraint which is determined from Vegetation Management Status
data from the Queensland Herbarium and the Queensland Environmental Protection Agency.                      Any
land that the data indicates contains vegetation that is either ‘of concern’ and ‘endangered’ has
been listed as a partial constraint.          These partial environmental constraints are included in the
map below.




Final Report                                              P. 194
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 34.      Acid Sulphate Soil Cons tr ain ts , Bowen and Mer inda




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 195
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 35.      Acid Su lphate Soil Constr aints, Collinsville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 196
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 36.      F lo od ing Co ns tra in ts , Bowe n an d Mer ind a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 197
                                  Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 37.      F lo o d in g C o n s tr a in ts , C o l li n s vi l le




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                                  P. 198
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 38.      V e g e ta t io n C o n s tr a in ts , Bow e n Tow n a n d Mer in d a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                          P. 199
                                  Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 39.      V e g e ta t io n C o n s tr a in ts , C o l li n s vil l e




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                                   P. 200
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Zoning and Subdivision


Land that is designated as the business zone within the Bowen Planning scheme has been included
as a partial constraint given that the planning scheme does not prohibit the development of certain
residential development within this zoning, allowing for mixed use development.         Dwellings that
are subject to strata title, whilst few in number within the former Bowen Shire area, has also been
included as a partial constraint.   The specific locations of where these three constraints apply are
derived from Council GIS data.      Zoning and subdivision partial constraints are illustrated in the
map below.




Final Report                                        P. 201
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 40.      Bus iness Zone, Bowen Town and Mer inda




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 202
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 41.      B us iness Zo ne , Co l li ns v il le




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                            P. 203
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 42.      S t r a t a T i tl e C o n s tr a in ts , Bow e n Tow n a n d Mer in d a




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                            P. 204
                                  Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 43.      S t r a t a T i tl e C o n s tra in ts , C o l li n s vil l e




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                                    P. 205
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Transport


Land that contained transport infrastructure that was excluded as a partial constraint included road
and rail corridors, as well as land that contains airport or seaport uses.




Final Report                                       P. 206
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 44.      Road and Rail Cons traints , Bowen Tow n and Me rinda




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 207
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Figure 45.      Road and Rail Corr idor C ons tr aints , C ollinsville




Source: SGS Economics and Planning




Final Report                                       P. 208
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Appendix F – Profile of Affordable Housing Levers
Source: SGS & KPMG in 2003 for the State & Territory Members, Housing Ministers Advisory
Committee.




Housing Market Efficiency

Housing Finance

1A Superannuation applied to deposits


This is a proposal to enable fund holders to draw upon their superannuation assets to pay a deposit
on a home. The fund holder would not be required to repay the principal amount borrowed. Under
some proposals, repayments would be made on an ‘interest only’ basis, at a rate nominated by the
fund holder. Other proposals also allow the fund holder to borrow in excess of the superannuation
account balance and service this ‘debt’ in part or in full through regular superannuation
contributions.


At present, preserved superannuation funds cannot be readily drawn upon for housing needs in
Australia. A recently proposed NSW model would allow means tested households to withdraw up to
a maximum of $20,000 from their superannuation fund to use towards a home deposit26 (Davies
2003).      This proposal does not allow the fund holder to ‘overdraw’ or access all of their
superannuation capital.


Proposals which do not incorporate means testing have been criticised.                 It is contended that
households with sufficient income to have established significant superannuation capital are less
likely to be suffering from non-voluntary housing stress. Without means testing, the proposal may
have the perverse effect of increasing housing consumption amongst higher income groups,
causing house prices to rise whilst being of limited relative value to lower income groups.


Without sufficient controls, allowing superannuation funds to be drawn upon for housing needs may
also result in low-income households being significantly worse off upon retirement. Whilst such a
mechanism may reduce Government housing support costs in the short term, it is possible that an
increase in aged pension payments may be sustained in the long run.


1B New finance products


New commercially available finance products generally result from deregulation and competition
within the banking and finance sector.        Whilst some products may be of benefit to low income



       26
          This proposal assumes that an average couple in their early thirties would have approximately $37,00
       in combined superannuation savings




Final Report                                        P. 209
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




households or households living in housing stress, most are not explicitly targeted at these groups.
Products available in the Australian marketplace include:


    Low start loans where repayments are low initially but increase as income and asset values
    rise over the period of the mortgage. Low initial repayments have the effect of extending the
    period and the overall cost of the loan.


    Whilst low start loans were readily available in the 1980’s, they are less common today –
    especially amongst commercial lenders.


    Interest only loans where repayments are made on an interest only basis for a defined
    period of time, after which principal repayments are made. Interest only loans are used most
    commonly by investors and high income earners seeking the taxation advantages.


    Whilst – in strong housing markets - interest only loans for housing purposes are relatively low
    risk (recovery of the principal is effectively guaranteed by rising real estate values),
    commercial lenders are not likely to offer interest only loans to low-income borrowers,
    especially in more volatile housing markets.


    Fixed interest loans are normally at a higher interest rate but provide a hedge against
    interest rate rises. Cost savings are apparent in markets where interest rates are escalating,
    however in markets where interest rates are stagnant or declining, relative debt servicing costs
    are increased.


    Interest saver loans are a product that links a mortgage account balance to a saving or
    cheque account balance in order to reduce the mortgage principle on which periodical interest
    calculations are made.


    Interest saver loans are commonly offered to and are most effective when used by higher
    income households. The cash flow patterns of low-income borrowers make these products less
    attractive.


    Shared Equity loan schemes are a recently revived finance product that vest part of the asset
    value in a dwelling with the occupier and part with another investor. This arrangement reduces
    the amount of capital to be borrowed by the occupier in order to establish a part ownership
    interest in a dwelling.


    Recent reports released by the Prime Ministerial Taskforce on Home Ownership advocate for
    the introduction of (shared) equity housing finance.          The report contends that “when a
    ‘representative’ younger family use a mixture of debt and equity, the upfront costs of home
    ownership, and the interest and principal payments required thereafter, decline by around 30
    percent. There is also a dramatic reduction in the household’s risk of default, and a 70 percent
    rise in their liquid assets once they leave the workforce…” (Joyce et al 2003, p. 15)


    Critics of shared equity loan schemes suggest that by simply improving access to housing
    finance, increased housing consumption will catalyse further escalations in housing prices.




Final Report                                     P. 210
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




    Concerns also surround the equitable sharing of risk and returns between the dwelling occupier
    and silent investor (usually a bank or financial institution).


    Reverse or equity release mortgages allow existing homeowners to access the equity
    vested in their home.      This can assist households with significant housing assets but low
    incomes to meet living expenses, without having to relocate or leave their established
    residence.


    Equity release products are not of any benefit to non-home owners or those without significant
    equity in their home.


    Equity release products may also have the perverse effect of encouraging the under-occupancy
    of dwellings in cases where older homeowners choose to draw upon their equity rather than
    relocating to a more suitable, lower cost dwelling.


In addition to the abovementioned products, a range of other innovations in finance products were
outlined in the Reserve Bank of Australia’s (RBA’s) Submission to the Productivity Commission
Inquiry into First Home Ownership.       (RBA 2003, pp. 46-47).        The RBA’s description of these
innovations is presented in the text box below.


Home-equity loans
“These loans provide a line of credit secured by a mortgage against an existing property and can be
used for a range of purposes, including renovations or the purchase of an investment property. In
some cases no repayments are required for a number of years, provided the outstanding debt
remains below an agreed limit (generally up to 80 per cent of the value of the property).


Mortgages with flexible repayment schedules and redraw facilities
These arrangements allow borrowers to manage a temporary loss of loan servicing ability or to
access loan repayments that have been made in excess of the minimum repayments required by
the lender. As such they reduce the need for borrowers to maintain precautionary savings in low-
interest deposit accounts and can offer a tax-efficient form of saving. The most flexible of such
arrangements combine a home loan account, a transactions account and credit card account into
the one facility”.


Deposit bonds
“These bonds remove the need for the purchaser of a property to pay a deposit at the time
contracts are exchanged.     Instead, the purchaser pays the bond’s issuer (typically an insurance
company) a fee in return for a guarantee that an amount equivalent to the deposit will be paid at
settlement. For short-term bonds, this fee can be measured in hundreds of dollars rather than the
tens of thousands required for a conventional deposit. Even bonds with terms of up to three years,
used to purchase property “off-the-plan”, are relatively cheap, allowing investors to gain a highly
leveraged exposure to the property market during the property’s construction phase. Developers
report that deposit bonds have been used by up to 70 per cent of purchasers in some projects. It
is estimated that they are used in up to 20 per cent of Sydney residential transactions, the market
where their use is most widespread”.




Final Report                                      P. 211
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




High loan-to-valuation ratio (LVR) loans
“A range of financial institutions offer loans of between 97 per cent and 110 per cent of the
property’s purchase price. While such products have been available for at least two years, most
high LVR loans have been made in the past six months.              Various restrictions on the type of
property (for example, investor and/or inner city) are imposed in an effort to reduce the lenders’
credit exposure. In addition, high LVR loans usually attract a higher interest charge”.


Low documentation loans
“These loans are designed for borrowers that are unable to gain approval for traditional lending
products due to insufficient documentation – usually due to their employment situation (self-
employed, seasonal or contract workers). These loans typically carry an interest rate 60–80 basis
points above the standard variable mortgage rate and have a maximum LVR of 75–80 per cent”.


Acceptance of other security
“One financial institution has recently introduced a home loan that allows customers to use the
equity in their car as part of the security for the loan.         The loan is principally designed for
borrowers who wish to consolidate an existing mortgage and other outstanding debts, but are
otherwise unable to meet minimum LVR requirements”.


Split-purpose loans
“These loans allow a borrower to split a loan into two sub accounts, one for a home loan and the
other for an investment loan. In the initial years, all loan repayments are directed to the home
loan account with the interest due on the investment loan being capitalised. Subsequent interest
payments and tax deductibility relating to the investment property are thus greater than otherwise.
The Commission of Taxation has recently been granted leave to appeal to the High Court regarding
the Federal Court’s decision that this type of product is not primarily designed to obtain a tax
benefit”.


Vendor finance loans
“Under these arrangements, a “mortgage wrapper” obtains a standard mortgage over a property
from a mainstream lender and on-sells the property to a third party (who occupies it) under an
installment sales contract.    The wrapper retains ownership of the property until the occupant
makes all of his/her installments, that is, until the wrapper’s loan to the occupant is fully repaid.
The interest rate paid to the wrapper is typically 2–2½ percentage points higher than the standard
mortgage rate.     In addition, the mortgage wrapper usually requires the occupant to make
repayments of principal well in excess of the purchase price paid by the wrapper – sometimes up to
25 per cent in excess”.


1C Government backed mortgage insurance


Mortgage insurance is currently offered by private sector insurers, with premiums established
according to an assessment of risk.         Arguably, the re-introduction of a government-backed
mortgage insurance scheme would enable a greater number of households to gain housing finance.
This argument is centred around the contention that, relative to a Government backed scheme,
private sector insurers may be excluding marginal borrowers through their risk management




Final Report                                     P. 212
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




techniques, tighter credit controls on lenders and aggressive competitive action (Berry 2001, p.
12).


From the early 1960’s until late 1990’s, the Commonwealth owned Housing Loans Insurance
Corporation (HLIC) underpinned Australia’s mortgage finance insurance market.              The HLIC was
privatised in the late 1990’s when purchased by GE Capital Services (Berry 2001, p. 12).


The re-introduction of a Government owned mortgage insurer may result in greater access to
housing finance and marginally reduced finance costs, however it may be argued that the impact
would not be sufficient enough to drastically improve home ownership affordability, particularly for
those most in need.


1D Development of community banks


Encouraging and facilitating the development of Community Banks and Credit Unions in Australia
may represent a method of directing the finance sector to be more responsive to local needs.
Community Banks and Credit Unions may also act as a vehicle for securing local capital for
investment in local affordable housing initiatives.       The attraction of this investment would be
primarily derived from the institutions local market knowledge and commitment to viable local
housing outcomes.


In Australia’s regional areas particularly, the Community Banking sector is expanding in response
to community dissatisfaction regarding the customer service and infrastructure networks offered by
major banking institutions.       Generally, Community Banks and Credit Unions add positive
competition to the finance and banking sector, particularly in relation to their locally responsive
approach to housing and business / regional development objectives.


Whilst the growth in Community Banks and Credit Unions is positive, as a policy lever directed at
the provision of affordable housing specifically, potential impact is limited.




Planning and Infrastructure

1E State and Local Government Planning Policy


A lack of consistency in planning policy and development frameworks can result in delayed,
inflexible and inefficient development processes, in turn adding to the ‘unit’ cost of developing
individual dwellings. In addition, objectives regarding the provision of affordable housing may not
be explicit, or they may be contradictory to objectives associated with other recognised
environmental attributes. In many cases, the need to provide affordable housing in key locations
needs be considered against the need to preserve and recognise other, environmental, economic
and social values. An outcome that maximises community benefit needs to be achieved.


Creating a consistent, best practice, just and efficient suite of state planning policies and provisions
would appear to be a priori desirable.      However, the elements which comprise a ‘best practice’




Final Report                                     P. 213
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




model must first be defined and agreed upon. The need for planning policies to be responsive to
local environments and contexts means that ‘best practice’ policies will vary across individual
settings.


This lever incorporates a potentially wide ranging suite of planning policy reform measures.                   In
general, the reforms would reward, encourage or at least permit lower cost forms of construction in
areas where housing affordability is a priority outcome. Measures may include policies to permit
higher densities in appropriate locations or the facilitation of alternative housing types such as
mobile homes, demountable homes, rooming/boarding houses, studios, shop top housing, and
mixed use developments.


In addition, the lever incorporates reforms concerning improvements to the administration of
planning policy, whether measured in time taken, predictability of outcomes or consistency of
application. Maintaining this ‘administrative efficiency’ is an ongoing challenge that is necessary in
its own right.


A number of the levers profiled in latter sections are more specific sub-components of this general
reform framework.


1F Efficient infrastructure provision and equitable user pays arrangements


User-pays      infrastructure   charging   arrangements      generally   refer   to   a   transferring   of   the
infrastructure funding burden from recurrent charging and taxing mechanisms (e.g. local rates), to
up-front and pre-notified developer charges. These charges are usually apportioned according to
the projected share of beneficial usage which the development is expected to generate
(Development Contributions Review Steering Committee 2001, p. iv).


Ensuring that infrastructure is supplied efficiently and equitably may contribute to increased
housing production efficiency and therefore to increased housing affordability. This process would
occur in two primary ways. Firstly, if user pays infrastructure charging plans (ICP’s) are prepared
on the basis of genuine ‘cost reflectivity’, that is, with adequate differentiation of charges in line
with differences in the cost of servicing the lands in question, a pricing signal is sent encouraging
the early use of land which can be more readily supplied with infrastructure. Provided steps are
taken to combat land withholding, the use of more efficiently serviced land should reduce housing
production costs, all other things being equal (SGS P/L 2003, p. 20)


Secondly, pre-notified infrastructure charges remove the element of uncertainty (and therefore
commercial risk) attaching to how infrastructure items will be funded. Where the providers of debt
or equity capital for housing projects are subject to ad-hoc negotiation arrangements, a premium is
required to cover the risk of delays and adverse outcomes. This premium is ultimately passed on
to home buyers.


Pre-notified user pays infrastructure charging plans are employed most notably in Victoria and
Queensland.       In the latter state, a development sequencing model (QDS) has also been
implemented.      The QDS aims to balance the competing objectives of a demand responsive land
market and the timely delivery of social infrastructure (SGS P/L 2002, p. 137)




Final Report                                        P. 214
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




The majority of mechanisms related to efficient infrastructure provision are founded on robust
strategic land use planning, in order to accurately forecast development, assess current and future
infrastructure requirements, calculate charges and determine ‘roll out’ strategies.          Ideally, this
process would be formalised by the development of metropolitan development and ‘sequencing’
plans, such as the QDS.


Whilst the general efficiency of the housing market is enhanced by all of the processes involved
with developing efficient and equitable infrastructure funding and delivery systems, no element of
targeting is explicitly apparent.




Land Supply

1G Government businesses - competition in land supply


Government owned organisations with significant land holdings would be principally engaged with
stabilising land prices by responding to land supply and demand imbalances as they occur in the
market. This role may range in scope from strategic land release, to complete land development
and finished lot retailing. Ongoing monitoring of supply and demand would inform the organisation
and ‘trigger’ market entry. Such organisations would normally be commercially viable and return
dividends to their owner (the respective State Government).


Landcom in NSW, VicUrban in Victoria and the Land Management Corporation (LMC) in South
Australia are examples of currently operating, Government owned land management and
development organisations (LMDO’s). Whilst Landcom and VicUrban engage in comprehensive land
development and finished lot retailing projects as well as strategic land release, the LMC is
primarily concerned with the latter of these tasks.


Although Government owned LMDO’s do not require any subsidy to remain viable, most capture
‘betterment’ value when land on the urban fringe is released for development (the value of the land
– which was originally purchased as a Greenfield site - increases once it is released for urban
development). In this way, LMDO’s may be seen as a vehicle for ensuring that, wherever possible,
betterment is captured for public good, rather than private.


Whilst LDO’s may improve general market efficiency and contribute to stabilising housing prices, as
commercially oriented organisations operating without subsidy they have limited application
regarding the direct provision of affordable housing.


1H Government organisations to engage in land banking


Generally, land banking initiatives would be designed to empower the market efficiency role of
Government owned LMDO’s (see lever 1G above). In this way, land banking refers to the strategic
purchasing of land to ensure that an affordable supply of land is available into the future. This land
may or may not be used specifically for the provision of affordable housing. The need to maintain




Final Report                                     P. 215
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




fair competition in the market would need to be weighted against the need to release land at a
discounted or subsidised rate if affordable housing outcomes beyond those created via enhanced
market efficiency were required.


The South Australian Land Management Corporation (LMC) is an example of an LMDO that has
traditionally engaged in significant land banking initiatives.    Approximately 40 percent of South
Australia’s total un-serviced future land supply is ‘held’ be the LMC and other South Australian
Government agencies (South Australian State Housing Plan 2003, p. 31).


Whilst the opportunity cost of land banking schemes requires consideration (it may be more
effective to utilize the required funds in another way, rather than ‘hold them up’ in a long-term
land banking scheme), there may be potential for Government agencies to strategically purchase
land in areas where development is either directed or forecast to occur. As described under lever
5H, betterment value is effectively captured upon later release of this land, generating a significant
public windfall.   The betterment value captured upon land release may be directed towards the
provision of affordable housing.


As land banking is primarily designed to empower Government owned LMDO’s, the initiative has
merit as a general housing market efficiency tool, but limited application for specifically generating
affordable housing in the shorter term.


1I Assemble land in urban consolidation areas


In many cases, land in urban consolidation areas is owned by a number of stakeholders.
Government owned LMDO’s (see lever 1G) could play a role in assembling sites that would
otherwise be passed over by ‘standard’ market players because of the difficulties in dealing with
multiple property owners.


Land assembly in urban consolidation areas can be seen as a similar initiative to land banking and
land release initiatives, all of which are administered by Government owned LMDO’s. Whilst the
latter two initiatives are primarily associated with land and development on the urban fringe, land
assembly initiatives are particularly focussed on established urban areas.


Whilst land assembly in urban consolidation areas is warranted and has merit as a general tool for
expanding the supply of affordable housing in key urban areas, the scope of the initiative is limited
to negotiations based on ‘ad-hoc’ opportunities.


1J Punitive rates to promote the release of land for development


Punitive rates and charges would be designed to discourage the withholding of land that is ‘in
sequence’ and ready for development. Generally, such land would have been identified through a
development plan and the anticipated sequence and timing of its development made clear.
Punitive measures could include the imposition of urban rates on broad hectare sites that have
passed beyond a certain time threshold with respect to their designation for release and
development under the respective development plan.




Final Report                                    P. 216
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




A development sequencing plan may also be backed by an explicit system of infrastructure
acceleration charges in the case of out of sequence development. In this way, proponents would
be required to meet the marginal cost of servicing land at an earlier stage than was planned for (it
is more expensive to provide infrastructure services on land that is remote or ‘out of sequence’).


Development sequencing models that are backed up by punitive and acceleration charges generate
greater efficiency in the housing market, equitable and efficient infrastructure services provision
and therefore reduced costs.      However, they are not mechanisms that are specifically targeted
towards the provision of affordable housing, especially for those most in need.




Other Housing Market Efficiency

1K Demonstration projects promoting innovation


Programs would be put in place to directly utilize or facilitate the use of demonstration projects to
promote and exemplify the advantages of innovations in land development, housing design and
construction practices.


Innovations might include more efficient lot packaging, more efficient infrastructure provisioning,
changes to construction practices and the use of materials, more efficient construction
management, environmentally sustainable design (ESD) and the tapping of economies of scale in
house and land packages.


The programs may incorporate an emphasis on suitable housing types and construction techniques
for a specific target group, such as low income first home buyers, or they may inform the
development of more cost effective social housing.


There may also be opportunities to broker arrangements with suitable manufacturers and housing
related businesses, resulting in further cost savings.


Example: Landcom Smart Housing, NSW27.


The Landcom Smart Housing program was launched as a design and construct competition, aimed
at encouraging architects and developers to design innovative housing products to meet the needs
of          changing      household       structures       and        low       income         households.


All Landcom Smart Housing projects incorporate a mix of household styles, with dwellings designed
to suit varying income levels. One of the principles of the program is that affordable housing must
not be drastically different from regular housing in external quality or design.




       27
         Adapted from: Climo, D, ‘Landcom Launches Building Competition’, in Building Products
       News, November 9, 2000
       http://www. infolink. com. au/articles/d0/0c0026d0. asp



Final Report                                      P. 217
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Dwellings in the Smart Housing projects of Forest Glade and Parklea are significantly more
affordable than comparable dwellings in their respective localities.      Forest Glade incorporates 63
‘smart’ homes, of which 20% are set aside for households with means tested, moderate incomes
(Landcom 2003).


Innovative housing programs are a positive feature of the contemporary responses to housing
affordability and environmental issues, which should be encouraged per se. However, as a policy
lever the potential impact of such programs is difficult to assess, particularly with regards to scale
and scope.


1L Appropriately structured and skilled workforce in housing sectors


The viability and effectiveness of the housing sector is directly affected by the availability of an
appropriately skilled workforce. In regional areas particularly, relatively small labour pools and the
lure of higher income potential in urban locations act to exacerbate skill shortages.


Of particular concern is the ageing profile of workers in the construction industry - a trend that is
underpinned by a diminishing numbers of new entrants into the trade industries.


Skill shortages can result in lengthy construction times, artificially inflated costs and general
market inefficiency.


In facilitating the availably of an appropriately skilled workforce, factors such as workforce entry
points, training and education systems, barriers to entry, and licensing and regulation frameworks
would be reviewed and amended to ensure that the labour market operates as efficiently as
possible.


1M Provision of improved market information


More detailed and improved market information concerning pricing trends and housing sector
changes can raise investor confidence and stimulate activity.          The wider availability of robust
information for major housing sub-markets would also remove a major barrier to institutional and
professional investor participation in those markets.


While such information is available in some markets, it is not widely published. Other Australian
housing markets depend on the reporting of median or average sale prices, complied into trend
data. These data sets are often skewed by shifts in market composition, and can be misleading
(for example, the price effects of improving the condition of a property are not usually separated
from general price trends).


Whilst improved market information may result in more robust market analysis, it is not possible to
say that investment in affordable housing will be increased as a result. If housing is revealed to be
an attractive investment for professional and institutional investors, additional funds will be
directed to the sector, however the supply of affordable housing may even diminish, rather than
escalate.




Final Report                                     P. 218
                                      Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Affordable Housing Market Efficiency
2 A S u p p o r t c o s t e f f e c t i v e , n o t f o r p r o f i t d e l i v e r y v e h i c l e s 28


Catalysed by growth in the Commonwealth Rent Assistance program, a declining public housing
system and a small community housing sector, governments around Australia are exploring the
potential benefits of new “affordable housing delivery vehicles” (AHDV’s).                                 These AHDV’s aim to
leverage more housing from government capital by tapping new sources of subsidies, as wells as
utilising mixed financing approaches - especially with regards to bringing in various forms of
private finance.


New AHDV’s are being created to manage the roles spanning the raising of finance, portfolio
development and management, and socially responsible tenancy management. To be successful in
all roles, the AHDV’s need to manage the involvement of several sources of funds (both public and
private sector sources), take a long term portfolio management approach to their assets, and
recognise the link between the financial viability of the housing and the way it is priced, targeted
and managed. These organisations also need to ensure that tenancy management operations and
client    services     are    consistent      with    community         expectations       about     a      supportive   housing
environment.



Examples of Australian Affordable Housing Delivery Vehicles


     NSW has had the longest experience with a specialised vehicle for developing and managing
     affordable housing. The City West housing company, established in 1994, is funded through
     equity grants from state and federal governments and proceeds of a developer contribution
     scheme that operates in the local area (Pyrmont/Ultimo).


     In 1999 the ACT government established a public company, Community Housing Canberra Ltd
     (CHC), to hold assets transferred from public housing, with the initial purpose of improving the
     viability of community managed housing in Canberra. This organisation may now to play a role
     in developing new affordable housing. In 2002, CHC completed a project in partnership with a
     private sector developer, using private sector finance. The project involved the redevelopment
     of an old public housing estate into new affordable and market-priced housing.


     In 2002, the Queensland Government has established the Brisbane Housing Company (BHC) in
     partnership with the Brisbane City Council. The Brisbane Housing Companies primary objective
     is to develop new affordable housing in the inner suburbs of Brisbane.                                  The BHC has also
     received considerable equity funding from the government partners as well as the proceeds of
     voluntary developer contributions for affordable housing.



         28
            Information presented to describe this lever has been adapted from: SGS Economics and
         Planning P/L (2003), Preserving Affordable Housing in South Australia: Regulatory and
         Market Mechanisms, for Planning South Australia.



Final Report                                                  P. 219
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Each of the abovementioned organisations is an “arms length” entity, essentially owned by
government but operating with sufficient separation to achieve public benevolent institution and
charitable institution status.


Although included in the final group of levers, AHDV’s are in effect an administrative means to
manage affordable housing programs and subsidy sources, they are not a direct source of housing
production or finance. Modelling may take account of the specific tax or other circumstances that
may apply to AHDV’s in delivery of housing services.




Supply Side Subsidies

Tax Based Subsidies

3A Low income housing tax credits


The income earned on housing provided for low-income households would be subject to a reduced
taxation rate.    The recipient of the tax credits would need to guarantee that the housing being
provided would remain affordable to the target group for a defined period of time.


This lever is specifically aligned with the need for an increased supply of new affordable housing, as
it makes investment in new dwellings that are leased at an affordable rate more attractive. Low
income housing tax credits (LIHTC’s) would be a subsidy provided by the Commonwealth
Government.


Whilst LIHTC’s are not currently applied in Australia, they have been a feature of the affordable
housing policy framework in the U. S. A since 1986. Berry et al state that “the program delivers
tax credits to selected developers who must contract to maintain low to moderate income
occupancy of the dwellings for a period of thirty years” (2001, p. 106).


The U.S.A experience reveals a number of issues with LIHT’s, including the following:


    The scheme wanes in escalating housing markets because strong capital gains attached to
    ‘regular’ properties outweigh the benefits of the subsidy.            Preventing an exodus in strong
    housing markets can be achieved by appropriately managing the rules of eligibility and exit (if
    permitted).


    Social mix has not been achieved as most LIHTC developments are uniformly low income in
    nature


    LIHTC’s do not generate the same level of housing affordability as other subsidy programs
    (public housing provision for example). The dwellings produced under such programs do not
    always reach those most in need.




Final Report                                        P. 220
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




3B Concessions to affordable housing rental investment


This lever is primarily associated with restructuring the existing negative gearing framework to
make investment specifically in affordable housing more attractive relative to investment in other
property assets. It may be possible to do this in such a way that net tax revenues are unchanged.


Arguably, increasing the scope for depreciation claims on affordable housing as well as increasing
the ability to offset tax losses on affordable housing (against other income streams) would
generate further investment at the lower end of the housing market.            These changes may be
commensurate with a restructuring of the framework as it applies to the ‘higher’ end of the market.


Example of the importance of negative gearing in Australian property investment

In a submission to the Productivity Commission Inquiry into Home Ownership, the Reserve Bank of
Australia state that:

“The overall importance of negative gearing and depreciation deductions in Australia is evident in
the fact that in 1999/00 (the latest year for which relevant data are available), 54 per cent of
Australian taxpayers earning rental income recorded a tax loss on their investment. 25 In both
2000/01 and 2001/02, as in a number of other years over the past decade, investors, in aggregate,
recorded an income tax loss on their investment in rental properties. In each of the other
countries studied, investors, in aggregate, earned a positive return.” (2003, p.42)




It is argued that negative gearing is most attractive when applied to properties that benefit from
capital gain (assuming that it does not make financial sense to purchase a ‘loss making’ property if
it is not accruing capital value). Consequently, an investor intending to maximise the benefit from
negative gearing will select properties according to capital gains potential, which may preclude
housing at the lower end of the market.


It may also be argued that low value housing achieves its greatest capital gain when located in an
area subject to rapid gentrification. In this scenario, it is in the interest of the investor to aid the
process by converting low value housing to higher value in order to capitalise on that gain.


A biased form of negative gearing would require evidence that tenants are in the target group and
that affordable rentals were being charged.       It would also only be applicable where negative
gearing applies.


Overall this lever presents administrative complexity and is constrained by a variety of factors. The
RBA suggest that “any modifications to the current taxation system should apply, wherever
practical, to all investments so as to ensure the neutrality of the taxation system across investment
classes”. (2003, p. 55)


3C Capital gains tax indexation for affordable housing


Capital gains taxes associated with the sale of affordable housing would be reduced according to
the length of time the housing had been offered for rent at affordable rates, and also according to
the ‘degree’ of affordability which the housing represented. Either or both of these indexes could



Final Report                                     P. 221
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




be adopted or modified. An entirely different index may be developed. This would be a subsidy by
the Commonwealth.


Arguably, this lever provides a targeted subsidy for investment in affordable housing with little or
no effect on other housing. Capital gains taxation rates are not indexed to affordable housing in
Australia at present.


This lever is potentially susceptible to perverse effects in escalating housing markets.         Investors
would maintain affordable rents during their period of ownership, however when gentrification and
price escalations were apparent, the investor would be encouraged to ‘cash in’ and sell the
property.      In this way, the investor receives a tax break whilst contributing to the process of
gentrification and the loss of affordable housing.


3D Land tax rebates for affordable housing


Land tax rebates would be applied to properties offered as affordable housing. In this way, the
return on investment in affordable housing would be maximised. As the rebate would be linked to
land value (i.e. a percentage amount), escalations in the size of the subsidy would be
commensurate with the increasing need for affordable housing in high value areas.              The rebate
may also be scaled according to the ‘degree’ of affordability that the housing represented.


A verification and compliance system would need to be implemented to ensure that the housing on
the land subject to land tax rebates was appropriate and affordable, relative to the needs of the
target groups.


As this lever would be a recurrent state Government subsidy that applies only when land is used
for affordable housing, it avoids the perverse effect of increasing housing consumption at the
‘higher’ end of the market, leading to housing price escalations.


Whilst land costs and land holding costs are significant drivers of housing costs and affordability -
particularly in inner urban areas – the impact of this lever may be limited as land tax represents
only a small part of the total cost of housing.


Land Tax rebates would be a state Government subsidy that applies to both private investors and
not-for-profit housing providers.


3E GST exemptions for social and affordable housing


Affordable housing landlords (including public housing authorities) would not be required to pay the
GST on items associated with the operation, maintenance or administration of their housing
investment. The specific processes and items being exempted from GST would need to be carefully
considered.      To the extent that GST income is directly transferred to the States, this would
effectively be a subsidy by the States.


It may be argued that the Commonwealth has already compensated for the effect of GST on
housing prices by implementing the FHOG, which was principally designed to offset the GST cost




Final Report                                      P. 222
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




burden sustained by first home buyers. Government may also be resistant to setting a precedent
for ‘giving in’ to other GST exemption pressures.


Should the argument be won that GST exemptions for affordable housing are acceptable, the
initiative may only have a modest impact on housing costs. Ostensibly the initiative would reduce
applicable costs by 10%, however the reduction would not affect the basic cost of dwellings unless
the reductions also applied to construction costs.


The impact would be relatively greater on older housing stock if maintenance expenses were
included. The proportional impact would be less in inner city housing where land prices dominate.


3F Accelerated depreciation of affordable rental housing


This lever would reduce the costs of establishing new affordable housing by way of tax relief for a
defined period of time. This would be a subsidy by the Commonwealth.


Ensuring that benefits apply only to affordable housing in the longer term may be problematic.
Houses constructed and initially leased at affordable rates could be sold after the majority of the
depreciation benefit had been captured.     Unless a covenant were attached to the land requiring
that the dwelling be used for affordable rental for a fixed length of time or in perpetuity, there
would be no controls over the buyer’s use of the property. The impost of such a covenant is likely
to reduce the properties value, substantially offsetting if not eliminating the benefit of accelerated
depreciation.


Restricting this lever to not-for-profit housing organisations would overcome the abovementioned
problem to some extent. However, these organisations may subsequently look to maximise their
flow of benefits by continuously building and selling housing, rather than retaining it for useful
periods of time.


3G Local Government rate rebates and fee waivers


General rates and fees would be reduced or removed where the subject property is classified as
contributing to affordable housing. Rebates and waivers would most likely be attached to privately
owned rental housing or newly developed affordable housing. The timing and duration of rebates
would need to be considered. This would be a subsidy by local government.


Any taxation and subsidy measures applied at the local government level would be subject to the
effects of differentiation between adjacent Local Government Area’s (LGA’s).           If a municipality
becomes more attractive to low-income households and less attractive to higher income
households –relative to adjacent LGAs – an overall ‘distillation’ of the LGA’s population toward
lower average incomes would occur, creating a number of undesirable outcomes.               A state-wide
approach to the subsidy scheme would be required to ensure that at least a minimal degree of
uniformity and social mix between LGA’s was encouraged.          Such an initiative may be politically
challenging.


Any targeted reduction in rates or fees would require some form of compliance monitoring.




Final Report                                    P. 223
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




In broad terms, affordable housing is already subject to lower rates because of its lower value.
Fees are less related to housing type or value however, relative to rates, they are a smaller
component of housing costs.




Other Subsidies and Transfers

3H Government issued bonds for affordable housing


State Governments would raise money to invest in affordable housing by issuing fixed interest rate
bonds to the market (i.e. investors would buy bonds from the Government as an investment
vehicle with a fixed rate of return).    The funds raised would be allocated to the State Housing
Authorities or other recognised affordable housing providers for direct investment in affordable
housing.


The difference between the actual rate of return on the affordable housing properties and the
guaranteed commercial rate paid to investors would be met by a subsidy provided by the
Commonwealth Government.           The State government would have to absorb any other financial
losses arising from the investment.


Affordable housing bonds represent an alternative method of raising funds for capital expenditure,
in preference to general taxation mechanisms.


3I Fast tracking development assessment and approvals


Lengthy approval processes increase development costs and housing prices.                 Reform of the
approval process may produce cost savings for developers, which – in efficiently operating and
competitive housing markets – would be passed on to home purchasers and renters. Under this
lever, planning authorities would ‘prioritise’ affordable housing development applications in order
to minimise delays.


A number of municipal councils have implemented ‘fast track’ approval systems for particular types
of development. At this stage, affordable housing is not an explicit subject of the reforms.


These programs and proposals have been most controversial where a net gain to the community is
not explicitly apparent.


This lever is essentially a sub-component of lever 1E.


3J Rent Controls


Rent controls apply a limit to the amount of rent that can be charged for a particular dwelling. In
general, the permissible rent is benchmarked to a defined affordability objective and indexed to
inflation or another cost index.




Final Report                                     P. 224
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Rent controls effectively reduce the returns available to landlords without compensation (the
permissible rental value is lower than market value). Whilst rent controls are of short run benefit
to tenants, they can result in under-investment in housing (both construction and maintenance)
and, consequently, greater long term housing stress.         Rent controls also impose a substantial
burden on the authority responsible for their administration and enforcement.


Rent controls are not the same as regulated rent increases which benefit from government subsidy
and/or fiscal concessions.


There are no rental controls on housing in the private rental market in Australia.


3K Government guarantees for borrowings by recognised affordable
housing providers


Guarantees would form part of a package of support for recognised affordable housing providers,
such as State and Community Housing Authorities and Affordable Housing Delivery Vehicles (see
lever 2A). Government guarantees would effectively reduce the risk profile attached to affordable
housing providers, allowing them to more easily obtain a greater quantum of finance at a wholesale
interest rate.   This lever would require Governments to effectively absorb the risk attached to
investment in affordable housing.


Any financial cost incurred would most likely be met by the Commonwealth, but could also be
provided by the states.


3L Affordable housing subsidy program


This is a general lever that describes the provision of an additional funding stream to affordable
housing providers.


Operating subsidies provided to recognised affordable housing providers would be passed on to low
income tenants.


The subsidy would be received as recurrent payments, and would either be calculated as a
percentage of costs, established on a per capita basis or set at a fixed amount. This would be a
subsidy by the Commonwealth and/or State Government.


3M Capital grants


Capital grants can be received as direct funding or via land gifting or land price discounts. They
are received by recognised affordable housing providers.


Capital grants are the primary alternative to the recurrent affordable housing subsidy program
outlined above (lever 3M). The Commonwealth and/or State Government would provide the grant,
which is effectively passed on to the affordable housing tenant in the form of rental subsidy,
subsidised home purchase loans, or another mechanism designed to lesson the cost of housing.




Final Report                                    P. 225
                                     Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Capital grants are the primary form of housing assistance provided under the current CSHA. The
CSHA is a multilateral agreement between the states, territories and Commonwealth to fund the
provision of public housing, as well as other housing related purposes.                    The Commonwealth
allocates grants on a per capita basis, which are then matched by State contributions.


There may be opportunities to reform current CSHA arrangements by introducing new funding
sources.


3N Developer assistance


Developer assistance may take a number of forms, however the primary aim of any assistance
would be to lessen the risk and/or cost burden attached to the provision of affordable housing.
Most forms of developer assistance would involve some form of subsidy transfer form the
Government to the developer.


The provision of bridging finance for affordable housing developers would be a form of assistance
that lessens the cash flow burden associated with overlapping debt and / or land holding costs.
Proponents wishing to develop affordable housing would receive bridging finance for a defined
period of time.


To be effective, Government would need to either provide the bridging finance at below market
interest rates, offer better terms and / or accept a greater risk than private financiers. In each of
these cases a subsidy is apparent.


This lever is extremely wide ranging in scope.                  The amount of subsidy involved will directly
influence the levers impact on affordable housing outcomes.                 An initiative such as Government
provided bridging finance would be most effective if provided as part of a wider package of
initiatives.


3 O P u b l i c P r i v a t e P a r t n e r s h i p s 29


“Public Private Partnerships (PPP’s) are projects jointly funded by Government and private
enterprise, each providing financial leverage and reducing a variety of risks for the other.”
(Ballardin et al 2001, p.66).


Whilst PPP’s have historically involved sale and lease back arrangements, Berry suggests that
current Loan Council regulations and taxation rulings preclude arrangements that include buy back
or explicit (or implicit) government guarantees. (2001, p.97)
It is also suggested that the legal, financial and taxation complexities surrounding PPI’s have
constrained their development. The schemes must also be large enough to absorb high start up
costs.


         29
           The information presented on Public Private Partnerships has been adapted from: Ballardin
         and Trudgett (2001), ‘Australia’s Housing Affordability Crisis: The Policy Choices’, in Social
         Investment in Housing and Urban Development – Round Table Papers, August 2001.



Final Report                                               P. 226
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




The arrangements between the NSW SHA and AMP Society are a prominent example of currently
operating PPP’s.


Example: Public Equity Partnership Schemes (PEP1 and PEP2)


[The following information has been extracted from: Berry et al 2001, Policy Options for Stimulating Private
Sector investment in Affordable Housing Across Australia, Stage 1 Report: Outlining the Need for Action,
AHURI].


The PEP1 (1013 dwellings) and PEP2 (477 dwellings) schemes entered into between the NSW DOH
and AMP have been in operation for 8 and 7 years respectively. Existing public housing dwelling
units were purchased by the AMP Society for leaseback to the DOH. Any vacancy after the first 12
months (PEP1) or 2 years (PEP2) must be let to private tenants and properties can be sold at any
time after the completion of the 10th year up to the end of the 21 year term.
The DOH is responsible for the overall management of the publicly let properties. However, a small
number of properties which have been privately tenanted are managed by Stockland Property
Management on behalf of DOH.


Under the conditions of the agreements, the DOH has certain financial obligations and rights:


    to pay a guaranteed pre-tax gross real rate of return to AMP. The subsidy paid by the DOH is
    equal to the difference between actual rents received and the required rate of return. A tax
    saving to AMP accrues because any capital gains derived from the properties are subject to the
    same tax treatment as in a complying superannuation fund, that is, the cost base is indexed.
    This indexation and the capital indemnity which is treated by the ATO as sales proceeds
    effectively results in tax free capital gains to AMP.        Therefore the gross rate of return is
    reduced by the extent of taxation deductions accruing from capital gains tax indexation and
    other direct income deductions.


    to receive from the transaction 75%(PEP1), and 66.             6%(PEP2), of any real capital gains
    accruing from the properties.


    to pay from the capital repayment reserve or elsewhere a capital indemnity to AMP equivalent
    to the difference between net sale proceeds of a PEP property versus the original property price
    plus acquisition costs indexed to CPI+1% (PEP1) or CPI (PEP2). In the event that the net sales
    proceeds plus the capital repayment reserve exceed the required return the excess is returned
    to DOH; and


    to cover operating costs and other risks, DOH manages all properties and charges 0. 5% of
    market value plus 2% of portfolio value for operating expenses (including maintenance).


Under PEP2 a special trust fund, the Rental Housing Assistance Fund (RHAF) was established by the
Government to secure the financial obligations of the State to AMP.             An insurance policy was
effected to secure these obligations under PEP1.




Final Report                                       P. 227
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




In the transaction the taxation treatment obtained by AMP is assumed to be fixed for the course of
its operation, that is CPI indexation and a tax rate of 15% plus other deductions so no tax risk
applies.   However changes to inflation can affect the extent of the capital gains tax indexation
deduction, and therefore the extent to which the real gross rate of return is reduced by CGT
indexation.    Lower inflation and real capital gains reduces CGT indexation and hence increases
subsidy payments. To the extent that the combined rents from public and private tenants does not
achieve the required rate of return subsidies are paid.




Final Report                                    P. 228
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Demand Side Subsidies

Taxation concessions / incentives for low-moderate
income homebuyers.

4A Housing lifeline loans


Housing lifeline loans are designed to deal with short-term – and often acute – housing stress.
They provide a low cost loan to households facing the short-term loss of housing due to unforeseen
circumstances such as unemployment, illness or accident. By providing a form of income insurance
for low-income households, housing lifelines help these households to avoid slipping into long-term
poverty.   Housing lifeline loans address a general market failure to provide finance products for
households suffering unforeseen and undue hardship (Gans et al 2003)


All states in Australia have experience with housing lifeline products, by way of the Mortgage Relief
programs introduced in 1982.       Acute housing needs (i.e. homelessness) are also addressed
through the Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), which is funded jointly by the
Commonwealth, States and Territories (Berry 2001, p. 12).


Housing lifeline loans may be open to criticism with regards to the perverse effects of rising
indebtedness amongst young people.


4B Stamp Duty rebates


This lever would involve a reduction in the amount of stamp duty payable upon purchase of a
dwelling. The rebate would be targeted to low-income households or first home buyers, or both.


Stamp duty rebates would be a State based subsidy.


While stamp duty rebates may be a welcome and potentially well targeted initiative, they are
unlikely to have a significant impact on the supply or affordability of housing, particularly for those
most in need.


4C Deposit assistance


Generally, deposit assistance is a one-off grant designed to supplement the recipient’s savings
towards a home deposit.     Individuals on the fringe of home ownership are most advantaged by
deposit assistance.   Being a fixed amount, deposit assistance provides a greater proportional
contribution to lower cost housing than to more expensive dwellings.


The Commonwealth Government First Home Owners Grant (FHOG) is a recent example of a deposit
assistance scheme.     However, the FHOG has been implemented to offset increases in home
purchaser costs resulting from the introduction of a GST, rather than to enhance first home
ownership affordability per se.




Final Report                                    P. 229
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




The FHOG is available to all first home buyers, regardless of income. It has been argued that this
lack of targeting has contributed to housing price escalations, which have in turn undermined the
impact of the grant.


Targeting the FHOG to means-tested recipients may reduce the total subsidy cost to government
as well as lessening the levers impact on general housing price escalations.


Alternative methods of structuring deposit assistance include:


    Structuring the assistance as a savings incentive;
    Providing contributions in proportion to savings; and
    Providing tax-free interest or an interest rate bonus on savings in a recognised deposit account


All schemes require a cap on the amount of assistance provided and/or means testing to ensure
eligibility.


Whilst the FHOG is a Commonwealth program, deposit assistance may be provided by any level of
government.


4D Below Market Interest Rate Loans


Home loans would be provided to target groups at an interest rate below that available in the
market place.     The subsidy involved in such a product could be provided at any level of
government.


The provision of subsidised loans for targeted groups (SHA tenants for example) has historically
been part of State housing affordability policies. Whilst Commonwealth finance under the CSHA
has been a significant contributor to these schemes, increasingly the SHA’s are required to source
funds form the wholesale debt market. Subsidised loans are also available to other target groups,
such as defence personnel.


Whilst organizations such as ‘Keystart’ in Western Australia and ‘HomeStart’ in South Australia
provide a range of finance services specifically for low income households (low deposit loans for
example), below market interest rate loans are not a product that is explicitly offered30.


4E Reduced threshold mortgage eligibility


Relaxing the mortgage eligibility criteria for targeted groups would allow low-income households on
the margins of home ownership to access finance more readily.          Relaxed eligibility criteria have
been a feature of State Housing Authority loan packages in the past.            Whilst a direct subsidy




       30
          However, given the risk profile attached to HomeStart and Keystart finance recipients, it is
       fair to assume that the rate of interest obtained is in fact lower than that available in the
       market.



Final Report                                    P. 230
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




element is not apparent, the Government absorbs any increase in defaults that may arise. This
implicit subsidy could be provided at any level of Government.


Reducing the threshold for mortgage eligibility may result in some households obtaining finance
that they cannot afford, significantly enhancing rather than reducing housing stress. The number
of households that can be helped into home ownership without this danger of ‘over commitment’
may be modest.


4F Mortgage interest deductibility


The interest paid on a home mortgage would be tax deductible for targeted groups.


In the some countries (for example, the United States, France, Netherlands, and – until recently -
the UK) mortgage interest is a tax-deductible expense for home purchasers. Generally however,
this deductibility is offset by capital gain or imputed rent tax.


In the absence of targeting, this lever is somewhat regressive in that it is of far higher value to
high income, high marginal tax rate households than to those on low incomes.


Mortgage interest deductibility would be a Commonwealth based subsidy.


4G Converting rent assistance to subsidy for home purchase


This program would allow Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA) recipients to convert future rent
assistant payments to a recurrent subsidy that would assist with home loan repayments for a given
number of years. Rather than receive the subsidy as recurrent payments, it may also be possible
to take a lump sum as a deposit on a home. This lever would assist CRA recipients on the margins
of home ownership.


As current CRA payments do not have a ‘limited’ term (a recipient may receive CRA indefinitely),
converting the payments to a recurrent subsidy over a fixed period may actually represent a cost
savings to Government in the longer term. In the shorter term, the lever is cost neutral.


In some Australian states, public housing tenants who wish to purchase the home they live in are
able to convert rental subsidies to loan assistance payments. However, the number of qualifying
households in these schemes is generally small.




Final Report                                      P. 231
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Taxation concessions / incentives for low-moderate
income renters.

4H Direct rental subsidy


Generally, direct rental subsidies are received in the form of a payment towards the cost of rental
housing.       Most commonly, the amount of subsidy is determined by the low-income recipient’s
rental costs and their income. Structuring the subsidy in this way enables the recipient to make
housing choices that reflect individual values concerning housing type, location and affordability.


The Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA) program is a direct rental subsidy for low-income
persons (welfare recipients) housed in the private rental market.


It has been argued that the CRA contributes to higher market rents, whilst at the same time failing
to increase the supply of affordable housing. This argument is somewhat perpetuated by general
inelasticity in the lower cost rental market, where the value of CRA payments has been absorbed
by increases in rental pricing. In markets where housing supply is adequate or in surplus however,
CRA results in increased housing affordability.


It is clear that the scope and scale of the current CRA program is insufficient in bringing the
majority of low-income households out of rental stress, particularly in the higher cost metropolitan
markets. This is partly because the present formula for assistance is insufficiently responsive to
substantial regional differences in rents.


4I Bond Assistance


Target groups in the private rental market would receive a grant to assist with paying the bond
required to secure a rental property.


Bond assistance has been a long-standing component of housing assistance to low-income families
in both State and charity supported housing programs.           Whilst the programs are effective and
desirable, they may not be of sufficient scale or scope to significantly increase housing affordability
over the longer term.


4J Tenancy Laws


Tenancy laws can provide relief from unfair practices and give low-income (and other) tenants
more power in negotiating housing arrangements.            They are a longstanding element of State
housing policy and legislation in Australia.       Tenancy laws may be used to enforce minimum
dwelling standards and maintenance processes, provide for anti-discrimination in the selection of
tenants, set minimum conditions regarding payments and recovery, and provide for dispute
resolution, etc.


Like rent controls, if tenancy laws are unduly restrictive on landlords, they may have the perverse
effect of reducing investment in rental housing, leading to long term under supply.




Final Report                                      P. 232
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




An alternative to ‘prohibitive’ regulation is to provide incentives for the achievement of desired
outcomes.


Whilst appropriate tenancy laws are a necessary and highly desirable element of the housing
market, they are unlikely to effectively address affordability issues in a significant way.




Final Report                                     P. 233
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Fund Raising Regulatory or Tax Measures

Mandated Use or Management of Funds

5A Mandated superannuation funds investment in affordable housing


Superannuation funds would be required to invest in affordable housing products as part of their
portfolio. As the returns on affordable housing investments would most likely be below those of
other investments, superannuation investors would be subsidising affordable housing.


Removing this subsidy element would require Governments to reduce the gap between the
required and actual rate of return to investors.          Other barriers such as high risks, high
management costs, illiquidity, poor market information and the lack of a track record would also
need to be addressed. (Berry 2001, pp. 27-28)


There is potential for superannuation funds to generate very significant increases in the supply of
affordable (and other) housing. However, it is unlikely that the abovementioned barriers can be
removed without some form of subsidisation, which would most likely flow through the taxation
structure attached to the investment.


Without some form of subsidised return, superannuation funds will seek to invest only in the ‘upper
end’ of the affordable housing market (i.e. that part of the market that will return the closest rate
to that available in the broader market).


At present, SHA’s are unable to generate a profit from rental housing that is targeted to benefit
dependent households, even when the housing has been 100% grant funded.                   It is therefore
unlikely that the SHA’s would be able to provide any return on funds received from superannuation
investors. If this investment is to be mandated and the return not subsidised, it may, arguably, be
cast as a tax.


5B Regulation of financial institutions


New financial institution regulations may involve measures designed to regulate fees, charges,
competition and monopolistic behaviour.          Alterations to prescribed asset ratios or other
determinants of borrowing capacity may also be considered.            In the U.S.A for example, the
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) requires all federally regulated banking and financial
institutions to “meet the full range of community credit needs” (Berry, 2001, p. 104).


Whilst the affordable loan products offered under the CRA are not substantially different from those
discussed previously (reduced eligibility thresholds, reduced transaction costs, higher loan to value
rates, etc), CRA driven funding has underpinned a large number of affordable housing projects,
including housing provided by real estate investment trusts (Berry, 2001, p. 105).


It may be difficult to gain support for regulations of the U.         S.   A CRA type, which require
acceptance of marginally reduced returns.



Final Report                                    P. 234
                                 Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




5C Housing first policies


The Queensland Department of Housing provide a useful summary of housing first policies. They
state that “in some jurisdictions, "Housing First" policies require government agencies to consider
the suitability of surplus land and buildings for the development of housing, including a component
of affordable housing, as a priority when contemplating sale or redevelopment. Use for facilities
and    services,   needed   to    improve    the    sustainability   and   amenity   of   nearby   residential
neighbourhoods, is also given priority.


In such policies, the notion of the "highest and best use" for a property incorporates the
contribution the property might make to the achievement of the government’s strategic priorities
and social objectives, as well as calculations of the level of financial return.


This kind of policy could be applied to any sphere of government, and could also be the subject of a
protocol or understanding between State and local governments. Municipal authorities in Toronto
and Vancouver, Canada, and the City of Port Phillip, Victoria, have adopted policies with some of
these features”.


In summary, the Department also make the following observations about housing first policies:


      This type of policy requires an overarching affordable housing or sustainability policy
      commitment by relevant government agencies.              A calculation of the cost benefits and an
      assessment of priorities would inform such a commitment.


      The availability of land in areas of high need could facilitate significant affordable housing
      outcomes. High profile surplus sites in inner (cities) may provide opportunities in this regard.


      A limitation of this approach is that site availability is "opportunistic" and uncertain.          This
      approach, by itself, cannot provide a certain or continuous "yield" in housing or community
      sustainability.


(2003, http://www.housing.qld.gov.au/new_approaches_to_housing/discussion/response.htm)




Development Related Contributions

5D Developer contributions to affordable housing - via Development
Contributions Plans


Under a Development Contributions Plan (DCP), development proponents would contribute towards
the cost of providing affordable housing.          The charge would be pre-notified and levied up-front.
The principles of DCP’s would require that proponents are charged for affordable housing on the
basis that it is infrastructure that is beneficial to (i.e. likely to be used by) their development
(charges are calculated according to the share of beneficial usage). This lever requires affordable
housing to be considered as infrastructure in the same sense as roads, drainage and parkland, etc.
This is a very difficult contention to defend.



Final Report                                         P. 235
                                Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Charges for affordable housing cannot be levied under development contributions plans at present.


5E Developer contributions to affordable housing - as impact mitigation
payments


The relevant authority would condition a development approval to require a proponent to either
include affordable housing as part of their development or provide cash in lieu payment.                This
condition would be applied on the basis that the development is directly and demonstrably
contributing to the loss of affordable housing.


The application of impact mitigation conditions (IMC’s) would depend upon the scope of the
planning legislation in the particular jurisdiction and the extent to which retention of affordable
housing was supported by the legislation as a planning outcome. If upheld, IMC’s could apply only
in an identified area of high need and where social diversity is an identified social or environmental
value.


Impact mitigation contributions can contribute to maintaining or preserving existing levels of
affordable housing. Where further affordable housing is required, other means would need to be
employed.


Such measures can have the perverse effect of penalising owners who have been ‘socially
responsible’ by providing affordable housing in the past, but for various reasons need to redevelop
that housing.


Impact mitigation conditions would be open to appeal on a case by case basis.


5F Developer contributions to affordable housing - as negotiated
arrangements


The relevant authority would negotiate with the proponent in an effort to reach an agreement that
provided for a cash or in-kind contribution to affordable housing.              Proponents would not be
compulsorily required to enter into such negotiations. Consequently, the potential impact of this
lever is difficult to assess.


It may be argued that a system of case-by-case negotiations would be open to abuse if the
processes were not transparent.


Because this approach provides no consistency of outcomes or certainty for stakeholders, any
affordable housing provided may be considered as a bonus.


5G Bonus/ incentive schemes for affordable housing


Proponents would be rewarded with additional development capacity (or are provided with a
dispensation from meeting planning requirements) if they were prepared to make a contribution to




Final Report                                       P. 236
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




affordable housing.     Commonly known as development concessions, measures might include
concessions to density, materials, car parking or open space requirements.


Bonus systems have the potential to compromise recognised environmental attributes and values.
If the ‘pre bonus’ level of allowed development is consistent with local environmental limits, the
provision of a bonus implies a loss of amenity (overlooking or overshadowing, or overloaded local
infrastructure networks for example).       Any loss of environmental quality would be reflected in
reduced land values.    In this way, the general community would be subsidising the provision of
affordable housing.


Density bonuses are the most commonly employed concession in Australia; however some local
authorities have also relaxed other regulations such as car parking requirements and design
standards.


This lever is essentially a more specific sub-component of lever 1F.


5H Betterment taxes


A betterment tax is a specific levy designed to recover all or part of the windfall in land value when
an area is up-zoned or benefits from the spending of public money on improved infrastructure. The
levy is applied upon sale of the property subject to the windfall. Betterment levies seek to recover,
for public purposes, “the value that regulation and major public investment confers on private land
assets” (Fensham & Gleeson, 2001).


Although traditionally used in fringe localities where rural land is being up-zoned to residential land,
betterment levies could also be applied in inner-urban areas where traditional industrial and other
lower value uses are being replaced by residential and commercial uses.              Fensham & Gleeson
(2001)   note   that   inner   urban   areas   benefiting   from   government     intervention,   such   as
neighbourhood renewal areas, are ideal candidates for betterment capture.


Betterment levies have been proposed in Seattle, USA, where they are considered to be “the most
equitable resolution to capital budget constraints” on providing required infrastructure (Gihring,
2001).


Application of a betterment levy would need to be cognisant of some of the practical, political and
administrative difficulties that have been associated with betterment levies in the past (Smith
2000). In particular, it is important that:


    Calculations of increases (or decreases) in prices overall are undertaken in a transparent and
    fair manner;


    The capture of betterment is properly monitored. If not properly monitored, the betterment
    levy may be passed on to the end-consumer, rather than being borne from the unearned
    increment accruing to the land seller;


    The proceeds are clearly accounted for and dedicated to their intended purposes; and




Final Report                                      P. 237
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




    For equity purposes, a ‘worsenment’ (or compensation) fund should accompany the
    introduction of a betterment levy to account for those situations where Local Government
    actions negatively affect the land owner’s development opportunity.


5J Linkage fees – for major non-residential developments


In a description of linkage fees, the Queensland Department of Housing state that:


“Many municipal authorities have established a link between commercial development and housing
need. Impact ordinances (linkage fees) require commercial developers to contribute to the cost of
providing affordable housing (or other facilities providing a community benefit) on the basis that
employment growth in an identified area (such as the inner city) places upward pressure on
housing markets. This approach has been adopted with considerable success in cities with strong
commercial property markets and rising affordability problems”.


The department also state that:


    Linkage programs require detailed data collection and analysis, such as an impact assessment
    study.


    Whilst there is potential for opposition from the development sector, the introduction of a
    linkage program in conjunction with inclusionary zoning provisions for residential developers
    may constitute a more equitable approach to mandatory charging (note that inclusionary
    zoning is inconsistent with the current Sustainable Planning Act 2009).


    A limitation is that the impact levies are "developer-driven", and yield depends on a developer
    making a development proposal.


(2003, http://www.housing.qld.gov.au/new_approaches_to_housing/discussion/response.htm)




Other Contributions or Levies

5K Broad based local government levy for affordable housing


This lever may be couched as an additional levy (tax), or structured and implemented in such a
way as to produce no ‘net loss’ to the payee (i.e. the local community). Typically, the latter option
would involve reducing other local government levies by an amount that corresponds with the new
levy, thus reducing revenue for other services.


If linked to property value, a rates surcharge would have the most impact in areas where the
affordability crisis is most acute and where property owners have enjoyed something of a ‘windfall’
gain from gentrification and betterment. The surcharge could be seen as a way to maintain social
mix in otherwise rapidly gentrifying neighbourhoods.         This nexus would be reinforced if the
affordable housing investment and funding levy were applied in the same locality.




Final Report                                      P. 238
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




5L Hypothecation of ‘Landcom’ dividends


Many jurisdictions retain land and housing development businesses as a legacy of the ‘Land
Commissions’ set up in the 1970’s to curb land price increases through open market competition.
Several of these businesses have developed into robust and profitable enterprises, delivering
sizeable annual dividends to their owner governments. These organisations have been referred to
as Land Management and Development Organisations (LMDO’s) in section 1. 3.


Landcom in NSW, VicUrban in Victoria and the Land Management Corporation (LMC) in South
Australia are examples of currently operating, Government owned LMDO’s.


One method of reconciling the market efficiency role of LMDO’s with their link to the provision of
affordable housing is to hypothecate all or part of their dividend for use in subsidy streams to
support affordable housing projects and programs delivered by other agencies, such as the State
Housing Authorities or AHDV’s (see lever 2A).       Allowing the landcoms to focus on commercial
objectives in their day to day work ensures that clarity of purpose in open market operations is
maintained at the same time as affordable housing outcomes are generated.


As the underlying purpose of landcoms is improved housing affordability, hypothecation of their
dividends is a logical progression. In the absence of such hypothecation, it may be argued that
Governments could satisfy market competition objectives through means other than owning and
operating a land development business.




Ethical Investment and Benevolence
6A Ethical investment stream


Ethical investment is an approach to investing that considers the investment's impact on society
and the environment. (Otherwise known as ‘Socially Responsible Investment’). Generally, ethical
investment streams come from highly diversified portfolios and from investors with philanthropic
motivation. Affordable housing is not traditionally an ethical investment target, however it may be
more actively promoted as a commodity aligned with the principles of ethical investment.


Ethical investors accept a reduced rate of return on their investment in order to contribute towards
a social or environmental objective.


State and community housing organisations have always sought ethical investment streams, with
the latter being particularly dependent on securing this form of investment


The capital market is steadily growing in the ethical investment sector. With effective promotion of
affordable housing as an appropriate vehicle, investors in this segment could be expected to
become more active.




Final Report                                    P. 239
                              Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




6B Joint venture projects with churches / charities / community
organizations


Joint venture projects with non-profit organisations are generally designed to attract “not-for-profit
land, capital or management contributions to the provision of affordable housing” (South Australian
State Housing Plan 2003, p. 56).


In its simplest form, a joint venture could involve the partner organisation making land available at
less than market value.      This may be achieved via the donation of allotments, or via cash
contributions to land purchase. Other projects involve leveraging the equity / capital provided by
Government against contributions made by a range of third parties.


Berry states that “a number of States have developed partnerships with private investors and non-
profit organizations to deliver housing services involving leasing, sale-and-leaseback, and corporate
vehicle arrangements. In Victoria, for example, the Office of Housing’s head-leases dwellings and
farms out management to selected community housing organizations.              The Community Tenancy
Scheme in New South Wales involves housing associations head-leasing from private landlords and
on-renting to low income tenants. Similar schemes exist in Queensland and the A. C. T. ” (2001,
p. 96)


6C Community Housing and Land Trusts


The Queensland Department of Housing provide the following description of community land trusts:


“Community Land Trusts (CLTs) are non-profit organisations operating under a charter to acquire
land for the benefit of the community, and provide residents with access to land and housing. Long
- term leases, which are renewable and inheritable, allow low-income households to build a
permanent home without incurring the financial burden of outright ownership of the land, which
remains with the community.      CLTs are popular in some rural areas of the United States where
sizeable parcels of land are available”.


The Department note that:


    Communal or collective ownership arrangements require a broad degree of community
    acceptance.


    Some local governments make planning provision for "multiple occupancy" of land for
    residential development, usually for large sites in rural or semi-rural areas. CLTs could expand
    on these models.


    CLT’s could provide opportunities to address housing needs in rural areas, however they are
    unlikely to be significant on a broader scale.


(2003, http://www.housing.qld.gov.au/new_approaches_to_housing/discussion/response.htm)




Final Report                                     P. 240
                               Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




6D Joint venture projects between recognised affordable housing
providers, industry bodies, and commercial businesses


This lever is essentially a subcomponent of Public Private Partnerships, with a specific orientation
towards commercial services and supplier arrangements.              Opportunities may exist to broker
agreements between affordable housing providers and commercial businesses associated with the
housing industry. Effectively, arrangements would be oriented towards reducing the costs attached
to the goods and services associated with affordable housing construction.


Businesses would expect to derive marketing and promotional benefits from contributing towards
affordable housing projects.       There may also be taxation or other benefits built into this
arrangement.


While not to be discouraged, as a lever in its own right, such arrangements have limited capacity to
address affordability needs.


6E Sweat equity schemes


Sweat equity provides an opportunity for low-income households to directly contribute to the
construction or renovation of housing for their own use. Schemes provide peer support, training
and supervision to ensure that households have adequate knowledge regarding land purchase,
finance, building design, construction techniques and material selections. Skilled contractors would
undertake licensed trade work (plumbing, wiring, etc.         ) The contribution of ‘free’ labour to the
construction of a dwelling can substantially reduce housing costs.


    Sweat equity schemes can also contribute substantially to skill development, self esteem and
    pride in ownership.


    The relatively high level of management and supervision required for the schemes to operate
    successfully can reduce the cost savings achieved.


    The number of households with the capacity and motivation to undertake self build or sweat
    equity schemes is only a small part of the total quantum of households in need.


    The mechanisms are liable to opposition on the grounds that substandard housing may result,
    or that "blighting" of adjacent properties would occur when a dwelling is left incomplete for a
    long period of time.




Final Report                                      P. 241
                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




References
Bowen-Abbot Point Community Consultation Group (2008), Regional Development Opportunities –
Key Learnings Presentation, Queensland, Australia


Bowen District Growers Association (2006), Bowen Research Station, Queensland, Australia


Bowen Shire Council and the Bowen Collinsville Enterprise (2006), Bowen Shire Economic Profile,
Queensland, Australia


Burdekin Dry Tropics Board and the National Heritage Trust (2005), A Caring for Country Plan,
Queensland, Australia


City of Geraldton-Greenough (2007), Temporary Accommodation (Construction) Camps – Local
Planning Policy, Queensland, Australia


Cuers, Simone and Hewston, Jamaica (2006), Strong Communities Handbook, Queensland
Government, ISBN 1 74107 122 4


Geografia and CCS Strategic Management (2008), Karratha 2020 Vision and Community Plan,
Shire of Roebourne, Australia.


Girudala Community Co-operative Ltd (2009), Girudala Co-Op, Queensland, Australia


Gurran, N (2008), Affordable Housing National Leading Practice Guide and Tool Kit, National
Commitment 2 Working Group, Australia


Haslam McKenzie, F. et al. (2008), A Review of the Contextual Issues regarding Housing Market
Dynamics in Resource Town Booms, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Positioning
Paper No. 105, Western Australia, Australia


Housing and Local Government and Planning Ministerial Council (2006), Framework for National
Action on Affordable Housing


Johnson, R. (2007), Mackay Whitsunday 2017 Scenarios: The Basis of a Regional Economic
Development Plan, Australian Centre for Innovation Limited, Queensland, Australia


MAC Villages (date unknown), Draft Community Relations and the Accommodation Village,
Queensland, Australia


Murdoch University (2009), Housing in the Pilbara, Western Australia, Australia


PIFU (2009), Demographic Analysis of Bowen/Abbot Point Study Area.


PIFU (2009), Draft Non-Resident Worker Population of Bowen/Abbot Point Study Area




Final Report                                   P. 242
                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




PIFU (2009), Full Time Equivalent Population Estimates for Collinsville and Accommodation Uptake
by Non-Resident Workers, Queensland, Australia


Ports Corporation of Queensland (2008), Port of Abbot Point: Statement of Proposals – Land Use
Review, Queensland, Australia


Ports Corporation of Queensland (2008), Report for Abbot Point Coal Terminal X110 Expansion –
Initial Advice Statement for Infrastructure Development Project, Queensland, Australia


Ports Corporation of Queensland (2008), Community Based Projects/Initiatives, Queensland,
Australia


Powerlink Queensland (2006), Strathmore to Bowen 132kV Powerline Project Update, Queensland,
Australia


Queensland Government Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Policy (2002), Bowen
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Development Plan 2002-2007,Queensland,
Australia


Queensland Government Department of Communities (Housing and Homelessness Services) and
Rockhampton Regional Council (2009), Housing Market Report Rockhampton Regional Council,
Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of the Coordinator General (2008), Development Scheme for
the Abbot Point State Development Area, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of Environment and Resource Management (2009), Bowen
State Land Evaluation Project, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Department of Housing (2001), Affordable Housing in Sustainable Communities
Strategic Action Plan, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Department of Housing (2005), Information Paper: The Department of Housing’s Role
in EIS Processes.


Queensland Government Department of Housing (2007), Housing in the Bowen Basin, Queensland,
Australia


Queensland Department of Infrastructure (2007), Abbot Point Coal Terminal Stage 3 Expansion,
Coordinator-General’s Report, Australia.


Queensland Government Department of Infrastructure and Planning (2007) Northern Economic
Triangle Infrastructure Plan 2007-2012, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of Infrastructure and Planning (2007) Northern Economic
Triangle Progress Report, Queensland, Australia




Final Report                                   P. 243
                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Queensland Government Department of Infrastructure and Planning (2009), Bowen/Abbot Point
Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study – Construction Workforce Scenarios,
Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of Infrastructure and Planning (2009), Bowen/Abbot Point
Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study – Operational Workforce Scenarios,
Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of Infrastructure and Planning (2009), Social Infrastructure
Strategic Plan Project – Update No.1, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of Mines and Energy (2008), Significant Mining Resource
Areas in the Whitsunday Regional Shire, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of the Treasury (2007), Whitsunday Shire Economic Profile,
Queensland, Australia


Queensland Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation and Queensland
Department of Housing (2006), A Sustainable Framework for Queensland Min, Queensland,
Australia


Queensland Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation and Queensland
Department of Housing (2006), State Planning Policy 1/07 Guideline for Housing and Residential
Development, Queensland, Australia.


Queensland Government Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation (2006),
Sustainable Futures Network for Queensland Mining Towns, Queensland, Australia.


Queensland Government Department of State Development (2002), Gladstone Growth
Management Initiative – Gladstone Development Region, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of State Development (2002), Gladstone Growth
Management Initiative – Gladstone Development Region: Direct and Indirect Workforce Study,
Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of State Development (2002), Gladstone Growth
Management Initiative – Gladstone Development Region: Workforce and Population Estimates,
Queensland, Australia


Queensland Government Department of State Development (2002), Gladstone Growth
Management Initiative – Gladstone Development Region: Residential Land Study, Queensland,
Australia


Queensland Government (2007), Queensland Housing Affordability Strategy


Queensland Government (2007), Queensland’s State Planning Policy on Housing and Residential
Development



Final Report                                   P. 244
                             Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Queensland Government (2002), Housing Action Plan for Gladstone/Calliope, Department of
Housing and State Development, ISBN 0 09750490.


Queensland Government (2003), Social, Economic and Environmental Assessments: Guideline for
Policy and Planning Proposals, Interdepartmental Working Group lead by the Department of Natural
Resources and Mines, 2nd Edition.


Queensland Government Property Services Group (2007), Outline of the Industry Location Scheme
– An Information Paper, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Rail (2008), Coal Rail Infrastructure Program – Project Update, Queensland, Australia


Queensland Rail (2008), Goonyella to Abbot Point Expansion Early Works, Queensland, Australia


Reitmajer, E. (2009), Merinda camp, motel gets Council approval, Bowen Independent Newspaper,
02/02/09


Rolfe, J. et al (2007), Lessons from the Social and Economic Impacts of the Mining Boom in the
Bowen Basin 2004-2006,Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, Vol. 13, No.2, p134-153


Shire of Ashburton (2005), Transient Workforce Accommodation – Local Planning Policy,
Queensland, Australia


Shire of Roebourne (2009), DP10 – Transient Workforce Accommodation, Queensland, Australia


SunWater (2008), Water for Bowen – April 2008 Alignment, Queensland, Australia


SunWater (2008), Water for Bowen – Project Newsletter, Queensland, Australia


Tenants Advice Service (2006), Response of the Tenants Advice Service to Housing Strategy WA
Discussion Draft, Western Australia, Australia


U-No Solutions Pty Ltd for the Bowen Housing Working Group (2008), 2008 and Beyond: Housing
Needs Assessment for the Bowen-Collinsville Region, Queensland Department of Local
Government, Sports and Recreation ‘Blueprint for the Bush’ Initiative, Queensland, Australia


Unknown Author (2009), Merinda work camp now has own forum, Bowen Independent 08/04/09,
Queensland, Australia


Whitsunday Regional Council (2009), Bowen Planning Scheme Priority Infrastructure Plan
Assumptions and Priority Infrastructure Area, Plan Associates, Queensland, Australia


Whitsunday Regional Council (2008), Draft Negotiated Decision Notice Approval – Merinda Village,
Queensland, Australia


Whitsunday Regional Council (2009), Housing Market Report, Queensland, Australia



Final Report                                     P. 245
                            Bowen Abbot Point Accommodation and Community Infrastructure Study / Appendix




Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Social Sector Reference Group (2008), Report of a Social
Facilities Infrastructure Audit of the Mackay Whitsunday Region, Queensland, Australia


Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Bowen Regional Organisation of Councils (2006), Whitsunday
Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Queensland, Australia




Final Report                                   P. 246

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:10/22/2012
language:English
pages:278