5.Translating Long Sentences 5.1 English long sentences: The United States pays for Brazilian coffee with dollars, which Brazil can then use to purchase wool from Australia, which can likewise buy textiles from Great Britain, which can import tobacco from the United States in the same way. 美国用美元支付从巴西进口的咖啡，巴西用 所得的美元去购买澳大利亚的羊毛，澳大利 亚再用收取的外汇进口英国的纺织品，而英 国再以同样的方式从美国进口烟草。 Monetarists, led by University of Chicago Professor Emeritus Friedman armed themselves with evidence showing that free markets on their own produce as much growth and employment as an economy can sustain. 5.2 Classifying English long sentences: 并列句： Some people think modern economies can just close the gates, but the movement of capital and ideas knows no borders. Some invest only in government bonds; others are slightly riskier, going into corporate borrowings. 复合句 1.名词性从句： （1）主语从句： It is a good thing that they have reached an agreement on the style of the dresses ordered. （2）宾语从句: Operating processes define how a company produces, sells, distributes and supports its products and services. Management processes define how a company directs, co- ordinates and controls these operations. （3）表语从句： The result is that suits have become less a uniform than an expression of individual style. （4）同位语从句： The fact that supermarket chains are running risks entering their unfamiliar area made experts worry. 2. 定语从句 （1）限定性定语从句 Thus, hierarchical control is only effective in relatively stable business environment where change happens slowly. （2）非限定性定语从句 A small unit was set up in the Association to prepare for an international conference on the problems already mentioned, which is to take place in Rome, in September 1981. 3. 状语从句 If the beast of inflation escapes, the increase in interest rates needed to recapture it will then have to be bigger. They will be given an informal oral test during the first week in May so that we can decide the best class fit for them. It is important to sound interested, helpful and alert when you answer the phone. The country’s economy has emerged from recession because the government adopted some flexible policies. Although the net will change the way of the world, today’s pioneering Internet companies are unlikely ever to earn the vast profits needed to justify their current share prices. 并列复合句 ： They track how unemployment has changed over time in the sample as a whole, and then they look at how its evolution differs across countries, according to how rigid their labor markets are. 。 5.3 Basic methods of translating long sentences: 5.3.1 Combination: By comparison the machinery which it replaced was capable of producing only 257 million eggs annually. 5.3.2 Division: The very important oil industry, which has done much to rejuvenate the economy of the South since the end of World War II, made considerable headway especially in the five states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and Texas. That was a principle that Apple tragically failed to understand when it backed off from licensing its graphic computer interface, assuring that its market share would be savaged by Microsoft’s more open Window operating system. 可悲的是，“苹果”公司未能理解一个原 则。它放弃了电脑图形界面的销售许可，任 由微软公司更为开放的视窗操作系统无情侵 占自己的市场份额。 5.3.3 Keeping the order: You may have to make or receive calls to or from regular customers and prospective customers, so a good telephone manner not only makes an impression in business, but also helps to make money. 有时你可能必须与老客户或潜在的客户通电 话，因此礼貌地接打电话不仅给业务伙伴留下 好印象，而且还能帮你赚钱。 The statement declared that the international economic order must be changed or the gap between developed and developing countries would continue to widen. 声明宣称：国际经济秩序必须改 变，否则发达国家与发展中国家之 间的差距将继续加大。 5.3.4 Changing the order: He was puzzled that I did not want the job that was obviously a “step” toward what all Americans are taught to want when they grow up: money and power. It can be frustrating that you have to rely on other people to translate your ideas into reality. A World Bank report released at the time of the conference, which ended on 10 November, insists that Vietnam’s overall growth will depend more on its own policies than on the volume of external financing. Publication of the minutes, for instance, would be warranted above all if they contained key information not obtainable in any other way. Combination of different methods: I would like to point out, however, that our contract does state quite clearly that in the event of unforeseen circumstances, we cannot be held liable if we are unable to meet agreed delivery dates. Some economists argue that, because of uncertainties about whether and how the relationship between growth and inflation has changed, and because forecasters have consistently overestimated inflation and underestimated growth in recent years, the Federal Reserve Board is still right to play safe until more data confirm that inflation is reviving. • It is a melancholy object to those who walk through this great town or travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads, and cabin doors, crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags and importuning every passenger for an alms.这 在他们看来，真是一副凄惨的景象：那些在这 座大城市或是在这个国家旅游的人，常可以看 到街头、路边、小屋门前，拥挤着许多女乞 丐，身后跟着三个、四个或六个小孩，那些小 孩全是衣裳褴褛，栏着过路的人苦苦乞讨。 • It is a melancholy object to those who walk through this great town or travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads, and cabin doors, crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags and importuning every passenger for an alms. 凡从这座大城市走过或是在乡间旅游 的人，常常看到街头、路边、小屋门前，拥 挤着许多女乞丐，身后跟着三四个、五六个 小孩，全都衣裳褴褛，哀求过路人施舍，这 真是一副凄惨的景象。 Ex2. Translate the following sentences: There are various categories of bag ladies: those who live on the streets, claiming they enjoy the freedom from constraints of society; those who became homeless because a relative died or because they couldn‘t keep up rent payments, and they didn’t know where to go or how to apply for relief; and quasi bag ladies who have an anchor point - -a sister or brother whom they can visit once in a while to take a bath. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under god, shall have a new birth of freedom, -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
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