第二章 教育的视野与立足点

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第二章 教育的视野与立足点 Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 2 Educational Perspective and
            Standpoint




                              巴登尼玛
Section 1 The essence of education
1. The point of Superstructure
      This point considers education as the superstructure of society
   for education is a form of idealistic culture; its nature and mutation
   are decided by the social economic foundation and service for it;
   it is influenced by the productivity through social economic basis.
2. The point of production capability
      In this theory, education is regarded as production capability for
   it is a kind of labor force reproduction because it creates labor
   force for the society. Moreover, its development, contents and
   forms are restricted by the advancement of production capability.
   Furthermore, although some of the factors in education are
   decided by the production relationship, the production capability
   decides all the production relationships and the superstructure.
 Section 1 The essence of education
3. The point of double property
     This point combines the two former views so it believe that
   education is double property—superstructure and production
   capability.
4. The point of multiple phenomenon
     The point of multiple phenomenon maintains that the essence of
   education is multiple and complex, combining the property of
   superstructure and production compatibility, and servicing the
   class confliction, economic advancement, culture transmission,
   and the human race development.
5. The point of social practice
     In this point, education is a social practice for cultivating people
   and promoting individual socialize. This view also considers
   education as a conscious social activity for influencing individual
   growth both in physical and mental.
     Section 2 Classify of Education
1.   Free education
       How about education activity in primitive society? I think it
     can be called free education. Free education is the earliest and
     most simple education in human history.
       However, it is not limited in primitive society but enjoyed a
     widely long-term existence in human society as a specific form,
     or system. If we carefully inspect the social education status of
     slavery or feudal society, we can find that free education widely
     exist in most areas in these two history stage and most of the
     people are still in free education.
       The explanation of this phenomenon is quite simple for that
     education itself is a reflection and consequence of natural
     economy. As long as natural economy widely exists in human
     society, education cannot easily break away from the free
     Section 2 Classify of Education
   Some people think that human education is born with
    unambiguous purpose and consciousness. Nevertheless, I cannot
    be convinced by such idea for I think it is not coincide with the
    human history. The human history shows that human education
    was in a unconscious free status in a long-period. More
    specifically, in a very long-period, people had not own the
    condition and capability of identifying and controlling educational
    phenomenon or behaviors from the whole complex social
    activities. The main reason is that for natural education is the
    lowest level in production capability, it largely restricts people’s
    ability of recognizing objective world and social phenomenon,
    including the ability of recognizing and controlling human
    education.
   Both the western and the eastern culture admit that the human’s
    ability of recognizing and changing the objective world is in direct
     Section 2 Classify of Education
2.   Do-for-oneself education
        The economic social foundation of free education
     is natural economy and hand-productivity which are
     base on human experiences, so it is lack of the
     requirements of developing the do-for-oneself
     education. A vivid example is that in present China,
     especially in those poor remote areas, some schools
     still face the problem of low entering percentage.
     The same problem also happens in other countries in
     the world. In these poor remote areas, local people
     have no idea about school, teacher, textbook, study
     or education, their whole education is life education,
     or the free education tied with their living
     Section 2 Classify of Education
   At the end of primitive society, along with social
    production capability grew and social wealth
    increased, people unconsciously accumulated the
    experiences and created new knowledge in long-term
    working and social life. Their culture became rich day
    after day and characters were created, so human
    education finally stepped into a new stage—
    consciously education period. Since then, do-for-
    oneself education began and school education became
    its symbol.
 Section 3 The Interaction of Education
       and Other Social Elements
1. Education and Economy
   1.1 economy restricts education development
      economy is the basis of education development
      the level of social economy decides scope and
       rapid of education development
      social economic level and its structure restrict
       education structure
      social economy restricts content and method of
       education
  1.2 education influences economy advancement
 Section 3 The Interaction of Education
       and Other Social Elements

2. Education and Politics
2.1 the affection of politics
       politic system decides leading rights of education
       politic system decides rights of receiving education
       politic system decides the property of educational
       purpose and the content of ideological education
2.2 education influences politics
 Section 3 The Interaction of Education
       and Other Social Elements
 3.1   the influence from culture
  • Cultural tradition restricts the process of
    education activity and different education
    reflects different cultural background and shows
    diverse cultural tradition. (Cultural tradition
    contains the value system, knowledge
    experiences, thinking pattern and language
    symbol)
  • cultural evolution effects education development
 Section 3 The Interaction of Education
       and Other Social Elements

 3.2   education reacts on culture
  • Education is an effective tool for cultural
    transmission
  • Education forms in the process of culture
    evolution and reacts on the creation and
    transmission of cultural achievements.

				
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posted:10/22/2012
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