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					2. Postmodernism, Representation and History
3. Reflexive Postmodernism vs. Cultural Imperialism


                 Globalization I:
                 Postmodernity

        Post-Industrialism
      and Consumer Society
Starting Questions
   What do you know about Postmodernism?
    And postmodernity? Globalization?
   How are they inter-related? How are they
    related to postcolonialism?
Outline
   Mapping, Definitions and Connections
   From Modernity to Postmodernity –
       Fordism to post-Fordism
       Post-Industrial Society
       Disorganized capitalism
       Service industry and Consumer Society
   Globalization: Economic Issues; Taiwan as
    an example
       Part II– Postmodernism, Representation and
        History (In Country and Forrest Gump as Examples)
       (Read: chap 8.3 Jameson [optional])
Intersections of Theoretical
Discourses and Socio-Economic Systems




                                       Postmodernity



                         Multinational Capitalism
                          Telecommunication


                              Globalization
             Globalism                    Globality
Definitions (1): Postmodernism
& Postmodernity
   Controversial: (chap 7: 359)
       What is the ‘post’ here? What is modernism?
       Variously defined as a period, a mode of thinking, and a
        style?
       Some declare it ‘passé.’
   postmodernity and postmodern conditions—
    poststructuralist views of language, post-industrialism,
    multinational/global capitalism and over-all
    commodification  globalization

   Postmodernism –culture in music, literature,
    architecture, popular culture and politics
       Features:Depthlessness無深度, pastiche 拼貼、
        metafictional (self-reflexive 後設)、ambiguity 模擬兩可、
        questioning meta-narrative 質疑大敘述/真理、eclectic 折衷、
        boundary-crossing 跨界、pluralistic 多元, etc.
    Kate’s handout
      pp. 49-50

Definitions (1): Different Views

    Kate’s handout
      pp. 49-50

Definitions (1): Different Views

Definitions (2): Postmodernism vs.
Postcolonialism
   Similarity --
       De-centering, Questioning Master Narratives and other
        Authorities
       multiplicity in language and culture  parody, ambiguity
        and contamination.
   Contradictions --
       History: e.g. Foucault -- The death of History   Re-
        Writing histories (To be colonized is to be ‘removed from
        history’ Albert Memmi )
       Subjectivity: pastiche 拼貼、contingent 臨時性 
        constructing subjectivities
       Aestheticized politics vs. counter discourse for social
        change
        Global capitalism vs. the only true counter-discourse,
    “past the last post.” 最後的據點; both related to or
    subsumed by issues of globalization
Definitions (3): Globalization
   Definition: the product of processes through which
    goods, services, capital, people, information, and
    ideas flow across borders and lead to greater
    integration of economies and societies.
   Cultural globalization –caused by the spreading of
    English language, media culture, telecommunication,
    migrating people, colonialism, international
    capitalism and international organizations.
    Economic globalization – also caused by
    organization such as World Bank, free trade unions -
    -such as 北美貿易協定NAFTA,關稅暨貿易總協定(G
    ATT)and 世界貿易組織(WTO) –which support
    open and expanded market.  ECFA (Clips:
    revolutions in the 90’s)
    Issues: Global Empire and biopolitics? How are
    local cultures retained and/or transformed.
     Fordism to post-Fordism
     (Barker pp. 99-101)             Post-Fordism
     Keynesianism (State             Investment in the “emerging
      economy)                         countries” (CH [4] 16:40--, 24:00-
     Fordism –                        -
1.    Standardization (large-scale    Flexible, variable production (e.g.
      production of standardized       cell phone faceplate)
      good)                           Just-in-Time stock management
2.    Rational Organization --        Sub-contracting to horizontally
      assembly line; full              related ‘independent’
      employment and centralized       companies.(e.g. Nike, Taiwan’s
      management                       textile industry [next slide];《世界
3.     scientific management;         是平的》 (Outsourced)
      industrial prosperity           Reorganization of labor (pp. 102)
4.    (rigidity of Fordism in          (clip: GVGP: 8:23 Lilliput
      investment, labor organization   strategy; 11:20sweatshop)
      and in social welfare).
紡織業前進東協(ASEAN)
       台灣紡織業外移中國大陸、東南亞並非
    (Sinorama 2009/7)

    新鮮事,但是以往多以「來料加工」的成衣業或大
    宗布料為主
   近年跨海投資東協國家:原本台灣紡織強項、技術
    門檻高的針織布大廠,和最上游端的化學纖維廠
   e. g. 以「針織布」起家的儒鴻(Eclat),是全球知名運動休閒
    品牌愛迪達、耐吉等的主要供應商,專長在各類功能性布料如抗
    菌、排汗、自行車衣料的開發製作。近年為了因應品牌商從設計
    到製造的整體委外(comprehensive outsourcing) ODM(Original
    Design Manufacturer)要求,向下游垂直整合,發展出從布料
    到服裝設計、成衣製作的「一次購足」服務。在其全球布局中,
    成衣廠分設在柬埔寨、越南及非洲賴索托,但核心的織布和染整
    共4個廠,則一直留在台灣。
   2007 儒鴻越南織布染整一貫廠
(2) Neo-Fordism or
Regulation School
        Stresses the role of social and cultural
         relations in stablizing the advanced
         capitalist economies.
         While diversification of companies and
          internationalization happens, labourers and
          consumers are still regulated and conditioned:
    1.     intensification of labour
    2.    Emphasis on lifestyle in consumer culture.
          (biopolitics)
(3) Post-Industrial Society
(Barker chap 5 104)
   A shift from industrial manufacturing to
    service industry
   A shift of emphasis from production to
    consumption
   Capital – information or knowledge
   the dominance of 1) 電腦新貴 or PMC --
    Professorial-managerial class; 2) service
    workers
Disorganized Capitalism
(106-107)
   Concentration and centralization fo industrial,
    banking and commerical capital;
    Flexible forms of work organization
Consumer Society
   (pp. 108 –
   Overall commodification – the lines between high
    arts and popular culture get blurred;
   Economy of Signs: signs replacing use values.
   Lifestyle: Communal values (external validation)
    replaced by personal lifestyles (assemblage of
    goods, clothes, practices, experiences, appearance,
    etc.)
   Against the above argument: consumers re-
    articulation of the social as counter-hegemony (110)
Globalization: Controversial
Issues –economy
   Increasing discrepancy between the rich and the
    poor
   plutocracy (government by the wealthy few)–”The
    Commanding Heights”
   National sovereignty questioned, the farmers suffer.
   Instability in employment (e.g. The newly poor in
    Taiwan)
   exploitation of third-world laborers (e.g. Nike, Disney,
    clip)
   The need to meet the trends (e.g. global brand,
    culture industry, the pulling forces from mainland
    China).
Globalization: Controversial
Issues –economy e.g.
   台灣雖是全球化的參與者,但究竟是「全球化」
    的主導力量?抑或只是「被全球化」所整合?
    如果把全球化當成一個供應鍊條(chain)來看,
    殘酷的事實是,目前台灣多數公司都稱不上是
    全球品牌的企業,只能在供應鍊的上游和中游
    找到自己的位置。但這不必然說明小國就是被
    全球化,畢竟,芬蘭那麼小,也出了一個
    NOKIA;荷蘭也不大,卻早就有一個飛利浦。
    (中國時報,財經產業           920205)
   競合 (Co-opetition); production of parts to
    that of brands
References
   Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. Christopher Barker. Sage:
    2000.
   Globalization defined
    http://progressiveliving.org/globalization_defined.htm
   COMMANDING HEIGHTS The Battle for the World Economy Daniel
    Yergin
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/ (traces the battle
    between State economy and market economy to two economists:
    John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich von Hayek )
   Related Clips:
1) Globalization and terrorism;
2) economic revolutions in 1990’s;
3) Fall of Communism: China’s Opening their market;
4) Mexico case (interconnection of politics and economy);
5) flows
6) capitalism; 7) the poor (e.g. snake kids)
8) For and against economic globalization

				
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posted:10/22/2012
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