LINKING TEACHING AND RESEARCH Oxford Brookes University

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					LINKING TEACHING AND RESEARCH
Prepared For ILT Accredited Course for New Academic Staff at Oxford
Brookes University, Alan Jenkins, December 2001

About Alan Jenkins: I am an educational developer/researcher based in the Westminster Institute of
Education, Oxford Brookes University. In a previous academic incarnation I taught and researched
(human) geography. I now have University wide roles on linking teaching and research and supporting
pedagogic research. Also I am adviser to a national project in the Schools of Planning and Architecture
on Linking Teaching, Research and Consultancy in Built Environment disciplines – Project Link
(http://www.brookes.ac.uk/LINK).

Session Aims and Outcomes
Aims:
To
        explore participants' understanding of research, action research and the link between
         teaching and research
        clarify the distinction between and interconnection of scholarship and research in a
         lecturer's role
        set up outcome 8 (part of the Brookes course, see below)
        strengthen understanding of assessment requirements of the course and how next 2 terms will
         support portfolio development


Outcomes:
Participants will
     explore their views on discipline based pedagogy
     reflect on the interaction of research and teaching in own work and current teaching
         experience
     evaluate a range of suggestions for integrating teaching and research in one's own
         discipline
     start planning an action research project (outcome 8) due for completion by the end of the
         course
     set up an online discussion of participants' plans for action research projects to facilitate
         prospects for collaboration

____________________________________________________________________

SECTION 1: Institutional Commitments

Oxford Brookes Learning and Teaching Strategy (January 2000) states:

“ The University is committed to enhancing the links between research activity and teaching in order to
ensure that students and staff benefit from learning and teaching in a research environment .”
(emphasis added).

Brookes Strategic Policies – Agreed in Principle – September 2001:

Mission: In any restating of its overall mission the University should clearly affirm that a central
feature of the institution is the interdependence of teaching and research.

Curriculum: The revised undergraduate curriculum (i.e. in the context of moving to semester system)
should ensure ‘all degree programmes enable students to: understand, learn and benefit from research
based enquiry, particularly that which is relevant to their discipline(s); where appropriate, undertake




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such research; and acquire and apply research skills appropriate to their level and discipline.’ (emphasis
added).

____________________________________________________________________


SECTION 2: Statements of Belief and Purpose
A UK Perspective

UK Robbins Report argued that University staff should both teach and carry out research on the
grounds that "the element of partnership between teacher and taught in a common pursuit of knowledge
and understanding, present to some extent in all education, should become the dominant element as the
pupil matures .... It is of the upmost importance that the ablest, who are capable of going forward to
original work, should be infected at their first entry to higher education with a sense of the potential of
their studies." (para 555).

A US Perspective

The American scholar Burton Clark argued that "research activity can and does serve as an important
mode of teaching and a valuable means of learning" ...(He further argues that) "student involvement in
research is an efficacious way to educate throughout the education system the great mass of students, as
well as the elite performers, for the inquiring society into which we are rapidly moving" (p242,
emphasis added).

The Classic Connection Reformulated/Coping with Supercomplexity

Barnett (2000, 163), who in previous work had questioned the teaching/research nexus has recently
argued that universities need to be reformulated to help society deal with ‘supercomplexity’. In this
context, he argues that teaching and research “are activities (that) are separate and distinct and are not
to confused. However, research is a strong condition for teaching: being engaged in research of a
frame-developing kind and projecting that research to wide publics is a strong - although not exactly
necessary and certainly not sufficient - condition of teaching that is aimed at bringing about
supercomplexity in the minds of students… Institutions, but also their students, have a right to expect
that their lecturers are engaged in research …"

Teaching Needs Scholarship, Not Necessarily Research?

“Most academics argue that good research is necessary for good teaching. However, there is difference
between academics being engaged in creating new knowledge themselves, and being alert to
developments in their subject, including new discoveries, so that they can interpret and reinterpret the
knowledge base of their subject to inform their teaching. Teaching needs scholarship, and scholarship
depends on, and is distinct from research. What is required is for teaching to be animated by
scholarship, and for scholarship in turn to be informed by research. We propose that HEFCE should
make it clear that its funds for teaching include an element to support scholarship.” (HEFCE, 2000, 4)
(emphasis added).

References

Barnett R (2000) Realizing the University: In an Age of Supercomplexity, Buckingham, Open
University Press.
Committee on Higher Education Higher Education: (The Robbins Report), (1963) London, Her
Majesty's Stationary Office. HMSO.
Clark B. R. (1997) "The modern integration of research activities with teaching and learning", Journal
of Higher Education, 68, (30, 242-255).
HEFCE, (2000) 00/37,Review of Research, Bristol, Higher Education Funding Council for England.




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SECTION 3: Boyer and the Carnegie Foundation’s Formulation of the Four
Scholarships
Boyer (1990, X11) argued that “Research and publication have become the primary means by which
most professors achieve academic status, yet many academics are drawn to the profession precisely
because of their love for teaching or for service”. He argued for a broader conception of ‘scholarship’
that values the various roles of universities and faculty. Boyer identifies four separate, but overlapping
areas of scholarship:
 the scholarship of discovery research;
 the scholarship of integration, including the writing of textbooks;
 the scholarship of service, including the practical application of knowledge; and
 the scholarship of teaching.

References

Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate. New Jersey, The
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

See also
Glassick, C.E. and Huber, M.T. et al (1997). Scholarship Assessed; evaluation of the professorate.
San Francisco, Jossey Bass .

____________________________________________________________________

SECTION 4: What is the Scholarship for and of Teaching?
HEFCE is distinguishing between the scholarship for teaching: and the scholarship of teaching.

The Scholarship for Teaching Might Be

The teacher of a discipline /professional area who keeps up-to-date with current (research)
developments/literature in their discipline …and then revises her teaching /her courses to selectively
incorporate that research.

The Scholarship of Teaching Might Be

The skilled practitioner /teacher.

The skilled practitioner /teacher who reflects on her experience to improve her practice.

The skilled practitioner /teacher who reflects on her experience, and discusses it with colleagues to
improve theirs and her practice.

The teacher of a discipline/professional area who keeps up-to-date with current public discussions and
publications and materials re teaching in the discipline… to improve her practice…(and that of her
immediate colleagues).

The teacher of a discipline/professional area who reads and uses the generic literature/public
discussions on teaching and learning to improve her practice…(and that of her immediate colleagues).

The teacher of a discipline/professional area who contributes to the literature/public discussions on
teaching and learning (in her discipline).

The teacher of a discipline/professional area who contributes to the production of learning materials
(including textbooks and software) that support student learning (in the discipline).




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The teacher of a discipline/professional area who contributes to the generic (research) on teaching and
learning.

The teacher of a discipline/professional area who contributes to the discipline based (research) on
teaching and learning.

Useful Web Sites

The (UK ) Learning and Teaching Support Network
http://www.ltsn.ac.uk/
The (UK) Institute for Learning and Teaching
http://www.ilt.ac.uk/
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (USA)
http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/
Carnegie bibliography on the Scholarship of Teaching
http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/CASTL/highered/bibliography.htm
American Association for Higher Education
http://www.aahe.org/
Developing Scholarship in Teaching (Australia)
http://www.epig.rmit.edu.au/dst/
Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (Indiana University)
http://www.iusb.edu/~josotl/contents.v2.htm

____________________________________________________________________

SECTION 5: The Lack of Interactions between Research and Teaching; the
Evidence from Surveys of Practice
Students Not Tasting Research?

 " . . .The research universities have often failed, and continue to fail, their undergraduate populations,
thousands of students graduate without seeing the world-famous professors or tasting genuine
research." Re-inventing Undergraduate Education: Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates
in the Research University. (1998) Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, p1.

Staff Not Appreciating the Nature of the Connection? Or Perhaps Not Having a Language to
Talk About it?

An Audit of Exeter University (UK) stated:
"The Account argues strongly for the continuing and crucial value of the link between teaching and
research; it acknowledges though that this relationship is more often assumed than explained. The
audit team was told that this was a major question to be addressed, yet encountered staff who
sometimes struggled to appreciate its significance. In practice, the precise relationship of the link
between research and teaching seems not to have been addressed in any concerted way." Higher
Education Quality Council: Academic Quality Assurance Group, (1997, 3). Academic Quality Audit,
The University of Exeter, London, HEQC, p3

No Mission or Mechanisms?

"We found that only about 50% of institutions had any statement (in their teaching and learning
strategies) resembling a commitment or objective in their strategies that research should have any
impact on teaching , and a much smaller proportion (approximately 10%) identified in any detail the
mechanisms by which this might be achieved". J.M Consulting (2000) Interactions between Research,
Teaching, and Other Academic Activities: Bristol, HEFCE (Higher Education Funding Council for
England).




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SECTION 6: The lack of Positive/Causal Interactions between Research and
Teaching; the Evidence from Research
An Enduring Myth

"That good teachers are good researchers is a myth and that, at best, the association between ratings of
undergraduate instruction and scholarly productivity is a small and positive one, with correlations in
the .10 to .16 range. (Terenzini and Pascarella, 1994, p30)

Loosely Coupled

In a meta analysis of these correlations studies of university academics Hattie and Marsh (1996)
considered 58 research articles contributing 498 correlations and found that the overall correlation was
0.06. "Based on this review we concluded that the common belief that teaching and research were
inextricably intertwined is an enduring myth. At best teaching and research are very loosely coupled"
(Hattie and Marsh, 1996, 529) (emphasis added).

Student Dissatisfaction

Astin (1993) and Astin and Chang (1995) in a study of 200 US four-year undergraduate colleges and
using sophisticated measures of student development, concluded that: "a college whose faculty is
research-orientated increases student dissatisfaction and impacts negatively on most measures of
cognitive and affective development." Astin (1993, 363). The few institutions in this study that scored
high on both 'teaching' and 'research' were a few rich, private colleges.

An Enduring Myth/ No Convincing Evidence

"There is little functional interaction between undergraduate teaching and discovery research."
(Ontario Council on University Affairs, 1994, p.18).

"I have not seen any convincing evidence for a causal relationship between teaching and research."
Bahram Beckhradnia, Director of Policy for the Higher Education Funding Council for England
(1998).

References

Astin A.W. (1993). What Matters in College? Four Critical Years Revisited. San Francisco: Jossey
Bass.
Bekhradnia B. (1998). "The Polarisation of Teaching and Research - False Dichotomy, Principled
Policy or Damaging Expedient?", Research and Scholarship, Southampton, Southampton Institute.
Hattie J. and H. W. Marsh (1996). "The Relationship Between Research and Teaching: A Meta-
Analysis." Review of Educational Research 66(4): 507-542.
Ontario Council on University Affairs (1994) Undergraduate Teaching, Research and
Consulting/Community Service: What are the functional interactions? A Literature Survey. Toronto,
Ontario.
Pascarelli E.T. and Terenzini P.T. (1991). How College Affects Students, San Francisco, Jossey Bass
Ramsden P. and Moses I. (1992). Associations between research and teaching in Australian higher
education, Higher Education, 23, pp 273-295.




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SECTION 7: Disconnecting Research and Teaching; The Pressures for Research
Selectivity and the Impacts of Selectivity (The Challenge of a 'Mass Higher
Education System.')
"Despite the evidence of a synergistic relationship between teaching and research, we make no
recommendation about this: it would be wrong to allow teaching issues to influence the allocation of
funds for research." HEFCE, (2000) 00/37, Review of Research, Bristol, Higher Education Funding
Council for England -para 175, 26. "Scholarship should be required of all academics who teach."
HEFCE should make it clear that its funds for teaching include an element intended to enable staff to
engage in scholarship." Ibid.

Misplaced Priorities to Research

Boyer (1990, X11) argued that: "Research and publication have become the primary means by which
most professors achieve academic status, yet many academics are drawn to the profession precisely
because of their love for teaching or for service"

The Pressures for Research Selectivity (with particular reference to the UK?)

Unintended Consequences in the UK - and generally elsewhere - the funds for teaching and research
are separate. In teaching there is (some) equity in funding. However, in research funding is highly
selective. Much university research is funded through the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE). Its
purpose is to produce high-quality research through competitively concentrating it in selected
departments and institutions. It was not expressly designed to have any impact on teaching. Studies
have shown that the RAE has had unintended consequences:
In a HEFCE commissioned research study of the impact of the 1992 RAE on institutional and
individual behaviour, McNay (1997 a and b) used focus groups with staff and institutional managers,
document studies and questionnaires to assess the impact of the RAE.
McNay (1998, 196) in a later, non-official report shows how the funding rewards the RAE offered led,
at the level of the individual, the department and the institution, to "a gradual separation, structurally of
research from teaching .... Department heads reported that: "good researchers spend less time teaching
...and more undergraduate teaching is done by part-timers and postgraduates."(ibid., p199) emphasis
added.

References

Boyer E. L. (1990). Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate. New Jersey, The Carnegie
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
McNay, I. (1997a). The Impact of the 1992 RAE on Institutional and Individual Behaviour in English
Higher Education: summary report and commentary, Bristol, HEFCE: Chelmsford: CHEM/APU.
McNay, I. (1997b). The Impact of the 1992 RAE on Institutional and Individual Behaviour in English
Higher Education: the evidence from a research project. Bristol, HEFCE.
McNay, I. (1998). "The Paradoxes of Research Assessment and Funding". Changing Relationships
between Higher Education and the State. M. H. and B. Little. London, Jessica Kingsley, 191-203.




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SECTION 8: Disconnecting Research and Teaching; (The Challenge of a ‘Mass
Higher Education System.')

The Problems of Class Sizes (UK examples)

In 1963 in the UK the average university lecture had 27 students, a seminar/discussion group 4 and a
practical /laboratory class 9.

1979 one in eight of an age cohort went into higher education; 1990 one in five; now c. one in three
(Gibbs and Jenkins, 1992).

Different Students and Different Motivations

Are there more students with a less well-prepared academic backgrounds; different motivations - less
academic, more vocational? With less motivation /capacity for involvement in research?

Different Disciplines

The rise of the professional disciplines for whose staff research has to 'compete' with professional
practice and consultancy; and whose students may not have any strong motivation for academic
research? even at postgraduate level?

Continued Budget Cuts

Globally in state supported institutions - including in the US?, there have been continued budget
cuts/efficiency gains. This certainly a major issue in UK and Australia. In the UK resources per
student have declined by 38% since 1989 http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/funding/report3.asp.

Different Institutions

Development of diversified higher education system; and for many staff there will be little or no
funding for scholarship and certainly not for high level research. While will their students need
something different from an enquiry/research based approach?

Information Technology and Globalisation

These linked processes are challenging the view of teaching and research linked at individual
institutions; making even more possible the 'physical' separation of research and researchers from
students?

References

Gibbs G. and Jenkins A. (eds) (1992). Teaching Large Classes in Higher Education: how to maintain
quality with reduced resources, London, Kogan Page.
HEFCE, (2000) 00/37, Review of Research, Bristol, Higher Education Funding Council for England.
Jenkins A. (2000). The Relationship between Teaching and Research: Where does Geography Stand
and Deliver, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 24, (3), 325-351.




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SECTION 9: Making Contemporary Connections: Pointers from Recent
Research.
Connections Through Learning and Course Design

Angela Brew and David Boud (1995) criticise the emphasis ion correlation studies and call for "more
fine grained studies" (p 272), focussed on how academics experience teaching and research. They
hypothesise that "if there is a link between the two it operates through that which teaching and research
have in common ; both are concerned with the act of learning" (p261 They suggest that "teaching and
research are correlated when they are co-related" (ibid) and in conclusion suggest that one way to
achieve this is to "exploit further the link between teaching and research in the design of courses."
(p272) (emphasis added).

Up to Date Courses: and Staff are Real People

Neumann, 1994. In a large Australian research - oriented institution, some 28 students in a range of
disciplines and from first year undergraduate to doctoral students were interviewed in depth on their
experiences of teaching and learning. Her conclusions were that: there were tangible benefits to
students of staff research, mainly through students perceiving that their courses were up-to-date and
that staff demonstrated interest in what they were studying. Also, staff research interests gave students
"the opportunity to see their teachers as real people and to be able to glimpse what they do, how and
why" (Neumann, 1994, 335). "

Are Some Students Indifferent?

A related-questionnaire based study at Brookes (Breen and Lindsay, 1999) analysed student views of
(staff research) in the context of their motivations for study/attending university. Students who came to
university for social contacts or to gain a useful qualification were indifferent to staff research.
Students who claimed to be interested in learning for its own sake were more likely to express positive
attitudes to academic research and staff involvement in that research. A third group of students who
described themselves as having no interest in communicating with staff were the only ones who
demonstrated an overall negative view of staff research

Institutional and Disciplinary Cultures are Important

Carol Colbeck (1998) sought to move beyond much of the previous research which treated research
and teaching as separate categories. The behaviour and roles of some twelve academics were studied
in detail, amongst other things seeking to understand how "university, departmental and disciplinary
contexts influence the ways and extent to which faculty integrate teaching and research" (op cit, 649).
Twelve staff in two very different US institutions were studied: (the names are fictions to disguise):
one 'Vantage' a high prestige research university, (according to Carnegie Classification a Research
University 1) and Cosmopolitan University (a Masters University 1). In both universities she observed
staff from two departments from two contrasting disciplines, physics and English studies.

Paradoxically, staff in the less well resourced comprehensive university found it easier in one respect to
link their teaching and research. At Vantage University, 'research' for faculty evaluation was narrowly
(or some would say precisely) interpreted to mean standing as an original researcher amongst peers in
the discipline. By contrast at Cosmopolitan University faculty evaluation for 'research' included the
writing of textbooks and creative works in popular media. Colbeck (ibid, 661) draws a strong contrast
between two physicists. Of her sample of twelve staff the person who demonstrated in how they spent
their time the strongest integration between their teaching and research roles, was a physicist at
Cosmopolitan University "whose research involved writing an introductory textbook incorporating new
pedagogical techniques". By contrast at Vantage university a physicist who previously had written an
acclaimed computer aided physics course text had declined to write a follow up because he knew his
"department colleagues would not recognise the value of such a project". (emphasis added).




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References

Breen, R. and Lindsay, R. (1999). "Academic Research and Student Motivation". Studies in Higher
Education, 24 (1): 75-93.
Brew, A. and Boud, D. (1995). "Teaching and Research: Stabilising the vital link with learning".
Higher Education, 29, 261-273.
Brew, A. (1999,a). "Research and Teaching : changing relationships in a changing context." Studies
in Higher Education, 24 (3): 291-391.
Colbeck C. (1998). "Merging in a Seamless Blend”. The Journal of Higher Education, 69 (6): 647-
671.
Neumann, R. (1994). "The teaching /research nexus: applying a framework to university students'
learning experiences". European Journal of Education, 29 (3): 323-339.

__________________________________________________________________________________

SECTION 10: Research on Teaching /Research Relations at Brookes
Since c1986 a number of studies on student perspectives on (staff ) research have been conducted by a
team of staff in the School of Social Sciences, OCSLD and Westminster Institute. In brief, focus group
discussions have been analysed – with students from a range of disciplines at undergraduate and
postgraduate level – and linked questionnaire based studies of student motivation and research at
undergraduate and postgraduate level. A crude summary of this research showed:
 Student perceptions of staff involvement in research, which was incorporated into their teaching,
    made students perceive their courses as current, stimulated intellectual excitement, giving the
    impression that staff were enthusiastic about what they were teaching.
 Staff integrating their research into their courses also gave students the opportunity to appreciate
    better the role of research in staff lives and the research role of the university.
 However, as with studies in Australia up-to-date knowledge and interest in the subject were not
    seen as substitutes for good teaching practice.
 Students, however, did not see themselves as ‘stakeholders’ in staff research – were often ignorant
    of its existence or purpose with respect to them.
 Also these Brookes students wanted staff research (including absences on sabbatical etc.) to be
    better managed so that negative impacts were minimised.
 Both undergraduate and postgraduate students associate more benefits than disadvantages with
    lecturer research.
 While undergraduates did not see themselves as ‘stakeholders’ in staff research – postgraduates
    did see staff involvement in research as of direct importance and value to them. However, they did
    expect lecturer research to be directly ‘salient’ / i.e. relevant to their concerns.

References

Breen, R. and Lindsay, R. (1999). "Academic Research and Student Motivation", Studies in Higher
Education, 24 (1), 75-93.
Jenkins, A., Blackman, T., Lindsay, R. and Paton-Saltzberg, R. (1998). "Teaching and Research:
Student Perspectives and Policy Implications." Studies in Higher Education, 23 (2), 127-141.
Lindsay, R., Breen, R. and Jenkins, A. (in press). “Academic Research and Teaching Quality –the
Views of Undergraduates and Postgraduates”, Studies in Higher Education, Interim report at
http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/5_research/pedres/lindsay.html




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SECTION 11: So here is an Overall Perspective from the Research Evidence: If
We Want The Connection It Has To Designed - And The Key In Part Lies In
How Students Learn?

Increase the Circumstances and The Rewards

"Based on this review we concluded that the common belief that teaching and research were
inextricably intertwined is an enduring myth. At best teaching and research are very loosely
coupled...."

"The strongest policy claim that derives from this meta analysis is that universities need to set as a
mission goal the improvement of the nexus between research and teaching. The goal should not be
publish or perish, or teach or impeach, but we beseech you to publish and teach effectively. The aim is
to increase the circumstances in which teaching and research have occasion to meet, and to provide
rewards not only for better teaching or for better research but for demonstrations of the integration
between teaching and research."...

"Examples of strategies to increase the relationship between teaching and research include the
following: Increase the skills of staff to teach emphasising the construction of knowledge by students
rather than the imparting of knowledge by instructors ... develop strategies across all disciplines that
emphasise the uncertainty of the task and strategies within the disciplines ... ensure that students
experience the process of artistic and scientific productivity."

Hattie, J. and Marsh, H.W. (1996). "The relationship between teaching and research: A Meta-
analysis," Review of Educational Research, Winter, 507-542, quotations at p529, 533 and 544
(emphasis added).

Connecting Ernest Boyer and Lewis Elton: Focus on Student Learning

Ernest Boyer's work can also be seen as a strong argument for encouraging, even requiring a close
linkage between staff research and undergraduate student learning. In College (Boyer, 1987), Boyer
criticised the dominant passive lecture - based student experience, the separation of undergraduate
education from enquiry or research process-based teaching, and the lack of connections between
research-orientated staff and (undergraduate) student learning. Indeed much of the thrust of the
powerful reform movement that stems from Boyer's and his colleagues work is to bring a 'research as
student' enquiry guided by (research-based) staff into the US undergraduate curriculum (Carnegie
Foundation, 1998) http://notes.cc.sunysb.edu/Pres/boyer.nsf/

Lewis Elton (2001) has recently similarly argued that that there can be a "positive nexus between
research and teaching ...under particular conditions." These he sees less in terms of the outcomes (e.g.
published papers of staff) than in the extent to which students learn through some form of student-
centered or enquiry-based approach e.g. problem based learning.

It's a question of how we conceive and organise teaching and research: This requires actions by
individuals, course teams, departments, institutions and national systems.

"Research has demonstrated that the 'nexus' between teaching and research is potentially a valuable one
for student learning, in particular for those students with a strong academic orientation to their studies.
Realising the link is probably dependent upon staff who see research as enquiry, and teaching as
helping students to construct their understanding; and where the curriculum, including how students are
taught and assessed mirror the research processes (in our discipline)

For this nexus to be realised requires careful planning and organisation. There is some evidence that
course teams can achieve this. However we know little as to how departments, institutions, national
systems and disciplinary communities can achieve this, though there are pointers to action. (Jenkins,
2000, 344) (emphasis added).




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References

Boyer, E. L. (1987). College: The Undergraduate Experience in America. New York, Harper Collins.
Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate. New Jersey, The
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Carnegie Foundation (1998). Re-inventing Undergraduate Education: Boyer Commission on
Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. Stony Brook, Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching. http://notes.cc.sunysb.edu/Pres/boyer.nsf/.
Elton, L (2001). "Research and teaching: what are the real relationships? Teaching in Higher
Education.
Jenkins, A. (2000). "The Relationship between Teaching and Research: Where Does Geography Stand
and Deliver". Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 24 (3), 325-351.

__________________________________________________________________________________

SECTION 12: Institutions May Differ in The Priorities They Attach to - and The
Ways They Link - Teaching and Research. Perhaps This Linkage Should be a
Central Feature of Research Intensive Universities; Perhaps the Nexus Should be
a Feature of All Institutions?

“The analyses reveal ways in which it is possible to work to strengthen the connections between
teaching and research, and highlight that it is valid and important for universities to address the nexus
through measures consistent with their mission, goals and objective. Since universities differ, it is
appropriate that the means also differ…” (Zubrick, A. et al, 2001, 83)

Boyer’s Work (1990) Has Stimulated Discussion and Actions to Link Teaching and Research in
Institutional Planning/Policy

While Boyer’s Scholarship Reconsidered has placed on national/institutional agendas the importance of
teaching/the ‘scholarship of teaching; it has also led to institutional planning and discussions to link
teaching and research.

Research Intensive

The first – and still continuing - focus was on measures to do this in research intensive US universities
and internationally in the research elite. (Otherwise why are students and their parents paying the extra
fees for attending such institutions as Stanford, Penn State, Sydney –and soon Oxford?).

The Boyer Commission (1998) (http://notes.cc.sunysb.edu/Pres/boyer.nsf/) which was set up to
promote implementation of Boyer’s ideas into institutional planning in ‘research universities’, called
for ten key changes in undergraduate education, four of which directly address the teaching /research
nexus, viz.:
1: Make Research – Based Learning the Standard. “Learning is based on discovery based on
mentoring. Inherent in inquiry-based learning is an element of reciprocity: faculty can learn from
students as students are learning from faculty."
2: Construct an Inquiry-Based Freshman Year. “The first year of a university experience needs to
provide new stimulation for intellectual growth and firm grounding in inquiry-based learning and
communication of information and ideas.”
3: Build on the Freshman Foundation. “The freshman experience must be consolidated by extending
its principles into the following years. Inquiry – based learning, collaborative experience, writing and
speaking expectations need to characterise the whole of a research university education.”
7: Culminate with a Capstone Experience. “The final semester should focus on a major project and
utilize to the full the research and communication skills learned in the previous years.”




                  Page 11 of 15 3
Linking Teaching and Research: Prepared for ILT Accredited Course for New Academic Staff at
Oxford Brookes University. Alan Jenkins, December 2001


All Institutions?

More recently there have been discussions and studies on how to ensure the linkage in a variety of
institutions – at different positions on the research hierarchy. See in particular the study by Zubrick et
al (2001) on how the University of Western Australia, Curtin University and Ballarat have developed
strategies to develop the nexus in these three very different institutions.

References

Carnegie Foundation (1998). Re-inventing Undergraduate Education: Boyer Commission on
Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. Stony Brook, Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching. (http://notes.cc.sunysb.edu/Pres/boyer.nsf/)
Zubrick, A. et al (2001). Strengthening the Nexus Between Teaching and Research, Department of
Education Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra.

_____________________________________________________________________

SECTION 13: Institutional Strategies to Link Teaching and Research
Developing Institutional Awareness and Institutional Mission

   State linking teaching and research as central to the institutional mission and formulate strategies
    and plans to support the nexus.
   Make it the mission and deliver it.
   Organise events/research studies /publications to raise institutional awareness.
   (Use Boyer/Carnegie analysis to) develop institutional conceptions and strategies to effect
    teaching/research links

Developing Pedagogy and Curricula to Support the Nexus

   Develop/audit/Teaching policies and implement strategies to strengthen the teaching/research
    nexus.
   Use strategic/operational planning and institutional audit to strengthen the nexus.
   Develop curriculum requirements.
   Review the timetable.
   Develop special programmes/structures.

Develop/Audit/Research Policies and Implement Strategies to Strengthen the Teaching/Research
Nexus

   Develop/audit/Research policies and implement strategies to strengthen the teaching/research
    nexus.
   Ensure links between research centres and the curriculum/student learning and with staff
    scholarship.

Developing Staff and University Structures to Support the Nexus

   Ensure the nexus is central to policies on inducting/developing new staff and for strategies to
    support the professional development of established staff.
   Ensure teaching/research links are central to policies on promotion and reward.
   Ensure effective synergies between units, committees and structures for teaching and research.
   Link with related university strategies.
   Participate in national programmes.
   Support Implementation at School/Department Level.

From: Jenkins, A , Breen, R. and Lindsay, R. (in press). Linking Teaching and Research: A Guide for
Academics and Policy Makers. Staff and Educational Development Association, Birmingham.



                    Page 12 of 15 3
Linking Teaching and Research: Prepared for ILT Accredited Course for New Academic Staff at
Oxford Brookes University. Alan Jenkins, December 2001



SECTION 14: Three Case Studies (From One Discipline – Geography, In
Different Institutional ‘Types’) Of Curricula That Are Designed To Link
Aspects Of (Staff) Research To Student Learning
A Research Based Department

At University College London (an elite research based University - equivalent to a Carnegie Research
1), the Geography Department requires all year one students to do an assignment in term one, in which
students interview a member of staff about their research.
 Each first year tutorial group is allocated a member of staff who is not their tutor.
 Tutorial groups are given by that member of staff three pieces of writing which are representative
     of their work, their CV and arrange a date for the interview.
 Before the interview students read these materials and develop an interview schedule etc.
 On the basis of their reading and the interview, each student individually writes a 1,500 word
     report on a) the objectives of the interviewee's research; b) how that research relates to their earlier
     studies c) how the interviewee's research relates to his or her teaching, other interests and
     geography as a whole (emphasis added). (Dwyer, C. (2001). "Linking Research and Teaching: a
     staff - student interview project": Journal of Geography in Higher Education), 25 (3) , 357-366).
 This exercise has now been done at UCL for over ten years in slightly different forms.

A Teaching Department

While such an assignment may be particularly appropriate to an elite research department? the basic
model for this course was devised at the then Oxford Polytechnic (now Oxford Brookes) which was
then not funded for research.
 The course was a final year synoptic module on the nature of geographic thought/practice.
    Lectures and readings set out the main directions and controversies in the discipline.
 Students were divided into groups and each group allocated a member of staff, who gave them a
    copy of their CV.
 A student group then interviewed that member of staff (with the rest of the students attending),
    about their academic history and views on the nature of contemporary geography.
The student group then wrote up the interview and set that persons' view of the discipline in the wider
context of the contemporary discipline. (Cosgrove, D. (1981). "Teaching geographical thought
through student interviews", Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 5 (1), 19-22).

Going Beyond the Department

   The geography BA degree at Liverpool John Moores University (not a research based University;
    similar to Brookes ) includes a compulsory third year synoptic course on Urban and Geographical
    Thought.
   A required assignment is an essay which "with regards to a key geographer or urbanist, summarise
    the main features of her/his work, show how this relates to methodology, and develop critiques of
    this work from one of the methodological perspectives presented in the module." This assignment
    requires extensive bibliographic work ... and when well prepared by this -and should the scholar be
    still alive! - students may contact the researcher by email...to ascertain specific questions. (They
    are not allowed to do a study of staff in their department).




                  Page 13 of 15 3
Linking Teaching and Research: Prepared for ILT Accredited Course for New Academic Staff at
Oxford Brookes University. Alan Jenkins, December 2001




SECTION 15: A Framework for Linking Student Learning and Staff Research –
From The Perspective Of Student Learning.
Linking Teaching and Research Is Achieved When

   Students learn how research within their disciplines leads to knowledge creation.
   Students are introduced to current research in their disciplines.
   Students learn the methods used to carry out research in their disciplines.
   Students are motivated to learn through knowledge of and direct involvement in research.
   Students carry out research.
   Students participate in research conducted by their lecturers.
   Students learn and are assessed by methods resembling research procedures in their discipline.
   Students learn how research is organised and funded.
   Students become members of a School/Department and University culture within which learning,
    research and scholarship are integrated.
   Students learning is supported by systems and structures at departmental, institutional, and national
    level that facilitate scholarship and research in the pedagogy of the disciplines as well as
    disciplinary scholarship and research.

Linking Teaching and Research Is Also Achieved Through

   University staff at all levels basing practice and policy on knowledge and learning obtained
    through research (and reflections on practice).
   Academic staff using current pedagogic research findings when designing and delivering courses.
   Institutional managers and national policy makers basing policies – including those on teaching-
    research relations – on the best available research and scholarly evidence.

From Jenkins, A, Breen, R. and Lindsay, R. (in press). Linking Teaching and Research: A Guide for
Academics and Policy Makers. Staff and Educational Development Association, Birmingham.

__________________________________________________________________________________

SECTION 16: Strategies For Linking Teaching and Research (and Consultancy)
at The Level of The Module/Course at Undergraduate/Postgraduate Level

This is a basic model that individuals and course teams can adapt and use to consider their current
curriculum and in designing new courses.              Aspects of it are further developed at
http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/link1/cdesign1/cd1.html

Develop Students Understanding Of The Role Of Research In Their Discipline

   Develop the curriculum to bring out current/or previous research developments in the discipline.
   Develop student awareness of learning from staff involvement in research.
   Develop student understanding of how research is organised and funded in the
    discipline/institution.
The three illustrative case studies develop these approaches.

Develop Students Abilities to Carry Out Research/Consultancy in Their Discipline

   Develop the curriculum, in particular how students learn in ways that mirror/support the
    research/consultancy processes in the discipline.
   Assess students in ways that mirror/support the research/consultancy processes in the discipline.
    For example requiring students to have their work assessed by colleagues according to the house
    style of a (fictitious) journal before submitting it to you; this mirrors how academic journals use
    referees to decide on whether an article is to be published.



                 Page 14 of 15 3
Linking Teaching and Research: Prepared for ILT Accredited Course for New Academic Staff at
Oxford Brookes University. Alan Jenkins, December 2001


   Provide training in relevant research/consultancy skills/knowledge.
   Develop student involvement in staff research/consultancy.
   Perhaps, restrict certain research opportunities to selected students? This is the effective
    approach developed in those UK/Australian institutions which require a dissertation for Honours
    Degrees. In the USA which has long operated a mass higher education system, students being
    involved in research with staff is mainly only for those with high grades.

Manage Student Experience Of Staff Research /Consultancy

   Limit the negative consequences for students of staff involvement in research/consultancy. Most
    important here is managing the student experience of the days (and sabbatical terms) when staff
    are 'away' doing research. At a minimum students need clear information as to when staff are
    available/away.
   Evaluate/research student experience of research/consultancy and feed that back into the
    curriculum.
   Support students in making clear to them the employability elements of research and consultancy.
    This is particularly important for those students whose focus is on using a degree to get
    employment - and who may not otherwise appreciate the value of a research based approach.

Other Strategies You Have Developed

From: Jenkins, A., Breen, R. and Lindsay, R. (in press). Linking Teaching and Research: A Guide for
Academics and Policy Makers, Staff and Educational Development Association, Birmingham.

_________________________________________________________________________________

SECTION 17: Departmental Strategies to Enhance the Teaching/Research
Nexus

   Develop disciplinary ( and departmental ) understanding of teaching and research relations
   Make it a central consideration in hiring new staff
   Ensure it is fostered through how staff roles are defined
   Ensure it is fostered through policies for appraisal and staff development
   Develop effective synergies between research centres, course planning teams and postgraduate and
    undergraduate teaching.
   Audit / review department based courses/structures.
   Develop special programmes or structures to foster the nexus.
   Pay attention to issues of departmental culture
   Participate in National ( and International Programmes)

From: Jenkins A, Breen, R. and Lindsay, R. (in press). Linking Teaching and Research: A Guide for
Academics and Policy Makers, Staff and Educational Development Association, Birmingham.




                 Page 15 of 15 3

				
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