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The design of electric bicycle self-charging station systems


A research Paper on The design of electric bicycle self-charging station systems by Jiajia Wanga and Yutao Sun.

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  • pg 1
									                                                                                                Journal of
                                                                                               Science and

2050-2311/Copyright © 2012 IE Enterprises ltd                                        Jour. of Comp. Sci. and Eng.
All right reserved                                                                      Vol. 1, Num.1, 0018–0027, 2012

    The Design of Electric Bicycle Self-charging Station Systems
                                              Jiajia Wanga, Yutao Sunb,b*
                      Anhui University of Finance and Economics, Literature and Media School, Bengbu 233000, China
               Anhui University of Finance and Economics, Management Science and Engineering School, Bengbu 233000, China


In view of the current situation of scattered electric bicycle charging stations and their non-unified management, this paper
analyzes the possibility and development prospects of establishing self-charging stations through the following aspects:
weakness of current electric bike’s charging mode, demands analysis of self-charging system, data analysis of the current
system, technical support of the system design, design and application of self-charging system etc.

Keywords:Electric bike;Charging station;System;Self-help


  Nowadays,there are many different kinds of self-charging stations on the market for electric bikes, for
example: coin style stations, card swiping style stations etc. but all of these charging stations need to be
managed by people, when organizations install stations in large amounts the operation becomes quite difficult to
manage; therefore, establishing a database management system is a very prudent idea.
  In addition, if those charging stations were the same as Automatic Teller Machines people could recharge
according to their needs and at the same time agents would be able to see the earnings on their computers via the
database system and decide whether to keep or change the station locations, according to the earnings. [1]

  * Corresponding author. Yutao Sun
   E-mail address:
   September 2012
                     Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

2. Business Outline

2.1. Introduction of traditional business process mode

   Electric bike charging stations are becoming increasingly popular in small and medium-sized cities, there are
more and more locations installing the charging stations. Currently, many agents are using a fairly inefficient
method for checking the stations takings, that is; to go to the locations and check the machines regularly, it goes
without saying that the work load involved could potentially be massive if there are relatively large amounts of
   For the consumers, the coin style charging stations can also present the ―awkward situation‖ where by
customers attempt to use the charging stations and then realize that they do not have sufficient coins. All of
these issues have helped to identify the possibility for the application of the self-charging system[2][3].

2.2. The application of self-charging system

   Self-help systems are used by people comprehensively every day, for example, systems such as ATMs and
self-inquiry systems in customer service centres are now common place and we can obviously see the speed and
effectiveness of these self-help systems. Introducing a self-charging system will greatly benefit the users of
electric bicycles, achieving the integration from charging money to charging electricity. [5] At the same time, the
system can provide a 24 hour service to the consumers.
   The system centralizes the scattered information into different classifications, achieves category management
etc. through using computer technology. The system can achieve inquiry results, updates and save inquiry result
functions efficiently and conveniently.

3. System Requirements

3.1. System overall requirements

   Some of the key targets that the self-charging system needs to achieve are: development of databases and
advanced development platforms, use of existing software, configuring of certain required hardware, developing
a management system which has an open system structure, easy expansion, easy maintainability with a good
human-computer interactive interface, provide agents with accurate and efficient information in order to
facilitate management to make the final decision. According to feasibility research and users’ requirements and
based on the existing conditions and problems the system uses the C/S structure to facilitate the users and
managers [4].

3.2. System Function Requirement

   The system is equipped with: a landing module, charging station management module, administrator
information management module, charging station information management module, user Information
Management Module, rights management module, password change module seven parts. The main goal of this
system is to achieve systematic, standardized and automated charging management. The purpose of the
development of the system is to improve the administrators’ work efficiency, below are explanations of the main
   (1) User landing module: Users can only enter the system main interface after selecting appropriate user name
and inputting a correct password, and operating within the scope of privileges allowed.
   (2) Charging station management module: The main purpose of the charging station management module is
to increase the number of charging stations, modifying the number values in the original charging station
information table and entering the results into the charging station information table.
   (3) Administrator information management module: The main purpose of the administrator information
management module is increasing, modifying and deleting administrator information, administrator information
inquiry and report form generating (Output query results in tabular form).
   (4) Charging station information management module: increasing, editing, deleting and updating charging
station information, charging station finding (using the charging station serial number as a means for location),
report form generating (Output query results in tabular form).
                     Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

   (5) User information management module: increasing, modifying and deleting user information, user
information inquiry (find user information by user serial number or user name).
   (6) Right management module: managers can change the user’s permissions for using the system, which
include: increasing, deleting and modifying the limits of authority of users.
   (7) Password changing module: the users should change the code of the system to protect the authority and

3.3. System Function Requirement

   In order to guarantee that the system can operate permanently, safely, stably and effectively, a self-charging
management system should satisfy the following functional requirements:
   A. Data Confidentiality
The system is operating under the unified management of the highest administrator, the highest administrator
has the highest authority of the system management, can enter all the system operations, which include:
increasing and deleting administrators and all levels. System managers are divided as guest, basic operators
(many employees), lower-level managers (many), senior manager (one boss) four categories, to achieve the right
control of the system.
   B. Data security
   Using relatively strict calibration for the user to enter the system, the highest system administrator is
responsible for data maintenance and data backup.
   C. Accuracy and Punctuality
   Accuracy and punctuality of system processes must be considered by the system. In the process of system
design and development, the maximum possible workload which the system bears currently and will bear in the
future needs to be considered, in order to make sure that the system process capability and response time can
satisfy user’s requirements.
   D. Easy use and easy maintenance
   The operators may not be very familiar with computer systems therefore the system must be very user
friendly and easy to operate (human-computer interactive interface). To achieve this, it requires the system
developers to use terminology which the users are familiar with and Chinese information expressions, in
addition, it is essential to provide a detailed help file for the possible problems that may occur in the use,
reducing the time which users need to master the system.
   E. Standard Capacity
   The systems involved in the design process of the computer hardware and software knowledge are required to
comply with international, national and industry standards. This facilitates not only the exchange amongst
different developers but also the system maintenance.

3.4. Other Requirement

   In order to ensure that the system can meet the various needs, the system should also meet the following
performance requirements:
   A. Openness and scalability
   Scalability in the system should be fully taken into account, needs of users are changing along with the
development of the times, thus requiring the system developers to adjust and expand the functions according to
the users’ needs, to achieve the openness of system is a solution. An open system, as long as it meets certain
specifications, can complete the expansion of the system through a simple add or change of the system module.
It also can improve the existing system functions by configuring new hardware and updating software,
eventually adapting to the needs of both the era and the users.
   B. Advanced Nature
   With the ongoing developments in computer technology the system should ensure that it is advanced enough
to remain competitive for a long time or at least for as long as possible. This can be achieved through the
openness and scalability of the system, constantly improving and updating the functionality of the system and
using the most modern software, which has strong growth prospects but takes into account the consideration of
   C. response speed
   The response speed of the system in day-to-day transaction processing should be seconds; in order to achieve
real-time results in providing feedback information promptly, the system needs to ensure that speed problems do
not affect the working efficiency.
                           Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

4 System data analysis and design

4.1. System data analysis

  In order to design the software effectively and conveniently, making the operation simple and efficient, the
database must be designed to be relatively simple; a lot of operations are completed in a table with only a small
degree of association between each table. Adding the database into the software development makes the
operation quicker and more convenient, with the data analysis and the data process procedure determining the
entities, characteristics and the connections between the entities in the system.
  The systems E-R chart is as follows:
        用户信息表                                 卡消费记录                           用户卡信息表                          充电站信息表
       PK    id                   PK,FK1 id                                 PK   Cardid                 PK,FK1 Cardid
             name                             consumeStartTime                   residueValue                          address
             identity                         consumeEndTime                     totalValue                            totalValue
             address                          Value                              userID                                totaltime
             tel                  FK2         Cardid

Fig. 1. System E-R Chart

4.2. System database design

4.2.1 The environmental configuration instruction of system database design.

   This system uses the SQL database, the edition is SQL Server2000. The pre-condition of the database design
meets the three paradigm requirement, the data model is very simple, using data attributes of an entity only to
describes this entity; Data non-redundant, each data attribute (except outside) only belongs to one entity; The
data model is used flexibly to respond to future demand changes and not simply designed for today's
development needs. The database design follows the integrity of the entity, data and user-defined, to guarantee
safe input and modify of data. [6]
   The system uses Microsoft Visio2003n as the tool of database design.

4.2.2 Data table and it’s structure

According to the requirements of the system E-R chart and system design, 4 data tables are required in the
design for the self-charging management system database, they are: user information table, user card
information table, card consuming record, charging station information table, [8] they are shown as following:

Table 1. User information table

                                   Field          Category    Explanation               Note

                                   id             integer                               Primary Key

                                   name           Char        Name

                                   identity       Char        Identity Number

                                   address        Char        Address

                                   tel            Char        Contact telephone no

Table 2. User card information table

                        Field                  Category      Explanation                        Note

                        Cardid                 integer       Serial Number                      Primary Key
                           Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

                         residueValue                 float                The residual amount

                         totalValue                   float                Card total charged amount

                         userID                       integer              Holder                                Foreign Key

Table 3. Card consuming record

                         Field                                Category          Explanation                      Note

                         id                                   integer                                            Primary Key

                         consumeStartTime                     Datetime          Charging start time

                         consumeEndTime                       Datetime          Charging finish time

                         Value                                float             Charging amount

Table 4. Charging station information table

                                          Field                 Category       Explanation            Note
                                          id                    integer        Serial Number          Primary Key
                                          address               Char           Address
                                          totalValue            float          Total Amount
                                          totaltime             Datetime       Total Time

5. System function analysis and design

5.1. Structure analysis of system function


                                          登录系统                   客户信息                   用户卡管理

                                                                   修                增    修       删
                                      重                   添                删                                 权          密
                                                                   改                加    改       除
                                      新           退       加                除                                 限          码
                                                  出                客                用    用       用
                                      登                   客                客                                 变          修
                                                                   户                户    户       户
                                      录                   户                户                                 更          改
                                                                                    卡    卡       卡

Fig. 2. Structure of system function

5.2. Analysis of system business process

   Administrators input the information of the administrator, charging station and users etc. into the self-
charging system, the system will feedback the information to the administrator, users using the system can make
inquiries and generate reports. In the process of use, administrators can increase, delete and modify information
according to the needs. In addition, the system also can generate user information reports, charging station
information reports and administrator information reports etc.

5.3 Structure design of system application

  Firstly, the structure application is used to achieve the standardized technology of information system. This
system adopts C/S structure but any system should reflect on the following 5 layers:
  a. Presentation layer: Performance of user input and output
                     Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

   b. The presentation of logic layer: Process which must be carried out in order to generate performance
   c. The application of logic layer: All the logic and processes which are needed to support the real business
applications and regulation.
   d. Data process layer: All the commands and logic which are needed to store and visit the data of connected
   e. Data layer: The data which is actually stored in the database.
   The Client/Server system is a type of distributed computing program, where the presentation layer, the
presentation logic layer, application logic layer, data processing layer and data layer are distributing between the
client PC and one or more servers, the client’s computer can be any combination of personal computer,
workstation, laptop, pocket PC [7].

5.4 The achievement and description of the system function module

   Through the detailed investigation and analysis of the system, self-charging management system should
possess a few system function modules with each respective module being independent. This system uses a
modulated design, giving the whole system strong operability and easy scalability. In the achievement of the
system function relatively independent modules connected to each other through the data stream reduce the
degree of coupling between each module, improving the operating speed and security of the system.
   The system has a landing module, charging station management module, administrator information
management module, charging station information management module, user information management module,
right management module, password alter module and help information module 8 parts. A brief description of
each module follows:

5.4.1 Landing module

   This module is the connector between the user entering and using the software, setting up different
management permissions to different users, people who have different limits of authority can use different
functions, the highest system administrator has all of the authorities, the system permission category is broadly
divided into four categories: the highest system administrator, advanced administrator, basic operator, the
default minimum permissions--tourist visit.
   The module mainly completes the login and logout of the system. Login is to match the selected username
and password with the existing username and password in the authority table, if they match; the logged-on user
is given the appropriate permissions. The highest administrator can increase, modify and delete the information
in the authority table, but all of the users (except passing guest) in the authority table can modify their password
to aid in data security but only the highest administrator can operate the permission setting of each user.
    Implementation method: uses the AD0 method to connect the login to the database, uses ADO Query and
ADO Table components to achieve the matching job which is whether the input of user name in the authority
table and the username and password match the relevant field in the authority table, thus completing the
authority management to different user.

5.4.2 Charging station management module

   This module is to manage the charging station. Every time one piece of information is added, the number in
the corresponding information table should change with the change of the number in the module, completing the
number of additions and subtractions.

5.4.3 Administrator information management module

   Mainly completes the operation of basic information of the administrator, this includes the operations of
increasing, deleting and modifications of administrator information. In addition, the administrator information
management module also can complete the query and output of administrator information, which includes name
queries and serial number queries.
   Selecting different methods can generate different query results, thus it is easier to find. Module functions
also include; exporting query results by Excel form format, completing output and storage of different query
results. In addition, it generates dynamic name lookup when inquiring for the administrator’s name, it can
complete the corresponding inquiry by entering only the first letter or a few key letters and this can reduce the
information inputting time greatly, simplifying the operation.
                     Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

5.4.4 Charging station information management module

   The settings of the charging station information management module mainly include the serial number and
name of the charging station, including an update on the charging station information—increasing, deleting and
modifying etc. basic operations. And it also uses the dynamic simplified inquiry operation on the inquiry
function of the charging station information-- lookup by name and by serial number, the charging station
information management module can also export and store the query results, it is convenient to store the
different query results by category.

5.4.5 User information management module

  The settings within user information mainly include: user serial number, name, telephone number, address
and identity number. It can increase, delete and modify the user’s information, the user information management
module also performs report generation.

5.4.6 Authority management module

   Authority management module is designed for the highest administrator, it divided the operation system as
passing guest, basic operator, information manager etc operator identity, give different authorities to different
managers, allow them to complete the operations which are relative to their own identity. The highest
administrator can also alter the authority control of each administrator according to the needs, they can even
increase or delete user and change the user’s password.

5.4.7 Password modify module

  Can change the login password of any users (except passing guests), on one hand, it is convenient for users,
acting as a reminder, helping them to remember. On the other hand, it guarantees the security of its own login.

5.4.8 Help information module

   Help information module completes the helping file according to the user’s need; it can transfer the helping
information at any time to complete the relevant operation when users have any query about the operation, it can
find out the useful information by a single click on show through entering a few letters of the word which you
want to find.

6. System instructions for use

6.1. System installation and configuration instructions

6.1.1 The system operating environment

   Firstly, it should select the development tools and environments. The selection of development environment:
The Delphi7.0 which the Boland has developed is based on the development tool of the Windows application
program; it is the development tool which is widely used and easy to learn. Delphi7.0 provided a great amount
of control, these controls can be used in the design of a friendly interface and achieve the various functions,
reducing the workload of programmers greatly, at the same time simplifies the design process of the interface.
   This could effectively improve the operational efficiency of the application program. Therefore, Delphi7.0 is
a relative good choice to achieve this system. SQLServer2000 which is used by this system is a RDBMS based
on C/S module, it has higher reliability and we are going to use SQL Server 2000 as the database management
system [9] [10].

6.1.2 System installation steps

  The system installation is very easy, a simple statement of the installation steps are as follows:
  a. Install SQL Server2000 database. Selecting self-defined installation when installing, single click on
                           Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

―Server and client tools’ option, clear ―default‖ Checkbox in ―Instance name‖ dialogue and input new
named instance name, selecting ―Typical‖ or ―Minimum‖ option in ―installation type‖ dialogue box, accept
default setting in ―sever account‖ dialogue box, input domain password, use the mixed mode in the
―Authentication Mode‖ dialog box, for example, use sa as username, password is 123, it can be modified
in practical application at any time.
   b. Install directly under the installation wizard .

6.1.3 System Configuration

   a. Hardware environment requirements
   Processor——Intel Celeron or Compatible machine,1 GHz or higher;
   Memory——Windows XP requires 256 MB;
   Windows 2000 requires 128 MB;
   available disk space——at least 20MB;
   b. Operation system——Any of the following Microsoft Windows operation system
   With Service Pack 4;
   Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition;
   Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition;
   With Service Pack 2’s Windows XP Home Edition;
   c. Database management system
   Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition;
   Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Developer Edition or Personal Edition.

6.2. System Operating Instructions

6.2.1 Landing module

  The users open the software, first appears the landing module, users can only enter the main interface by
correctly entering their username and inputting the corresponding password, and single clicking on the confirm
button, if any correct password is inputted or the selected username and password are inconsistent the system
will automatically give tips, then user can single click on cancel to re-input. (Default settings: username=guest,
password=empty). Landing interface is shown as figure 3.

Fig. 3. User landing interface

  Users identify their user identification through the landing module and are given different authorities
according to the different identities, entering the main window after correct identification; the system can
complete all the operations of corresponding identities [11].

6.2.2 Charging station management module

  After entering the charging station information management module, users can select the page to be edited
according to their needs, they can complete the inputting of a record by a single click on the ―new‖ button,
complete a deleting operation by a single click on the ―delete‖ button, they can also single click on the ―amend‖
option to enter the editing state of the record. Also the charging station management module includes query and
report generation.
                        Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027

6.2.3 Authority management module

   The authority management module is the module set for top administrators; it can be used to authorize the
increase, deletion, password changes, and permission changes of users. It is shown as figure 4.

Fig. 4. Authority management

6.2.4 Password change module

  The password change module is a secure login to protect users (in addition to passing guests), on one
hand users can change their password according to their own needs and on another hand it can prevent
password disclosure. The Password change module interface is shown in figure 5.

Fig. 5. Authority management

    Firstly, it matches the original password and the authority table in the database, next it resets the password if
it is correct, it also gives information tips if this does not match, gives information tips if two reset password are

6.2.5 Help information module

   The help information module can be seen as : providing simple inquiry help to users, helping users
understand and become familiar with the system in a short time period and operating it in an effective way.
Interface is shown as figure 6.

Fig. 6. Authority management
                        Jiajia Wang et al / Journal of Computational Science and Engineering 1:1 (2012) 0018–0027


  The work is supported by Anhui University of Finance and Economics Scientific Research Project, Project
Serial No: ACKYQ1229


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  Yutao Sun, 1980, male, Master’s degree, lecturer. Main research direction: Natural Language Process, Text
Excavation etc.

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