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Catherine Anne Boleyn of Aragon Jane Seymour divorced beheaded died Henry VIII and his wives… "divorced, beheaded, died, Katherine Parr divorced, beheaded, survived." Anne of Cleves Kathryn Howard divorced beheaded survived Catherine of Aragon • the youngest surviving child of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain • When she was 3 years old → engaged to Arthur, the son of King Henry VII of England. He wasn’t even two years old! • Married Arthur when she was 16; at the wedding she was escorted by Arthur's younger brother, Henry. • Less than six months later… Arthur was dead • King Henry VII didn’t want to lose Catherine’s dowry, so 14 months after her husband's death, she was engaged to Arthur’s brother --- the future Henry VIII • King Henry VII died, and Henry VIII became King and married Catherine • Catherine had a hard time bearing children; she was pregnant at least 7 times but only one child survived…a girl, Mary – 2 boys had been born alive, but died within two months • Henry wanted a male heir! • Henry had at least two mistresses, and fell in love with one of his mistresses sister: Anne Boleyn • Catherine was 42 years old and was no longer able to have any more children… • Henry desperately wanted a son; he found a passage from the Bible saying that if a man takes his brother's wife, they shall be childless; he began to petition the Pope for an annulment. • Catherine did not want a divorce; she appealed to the Pope. It helped that her nephew was Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. • In 1533 Anne Boleyn became pregnant. Henry had to act! • He rejected the power of the Pope in England and had the Archbishop of Canterbury grant the annulment. • Catherine and her daughter Mary were forced out of the royal home and lived in lesser manors with just a few servants • When Catherine died she was buried with the ceremony due for her position as “Princess Dowager”, not as a Queen of England Anne Boleyn • Anne caught Henry VIII’s eye while she was a lady in the court • He wanted to have her as a mistresses; she refused→ “Queen or nothing!” • Proof of Henry’s love: he hated writing letters --- 17 love letters to Anne • Anne known for her temper and quick tongue • Anne was not popular with the people of England • After she became pregnant they were secretly married – Henry didn’t believe he was ever married to Catherine • Anne had a lavish coronation --- brought by 4 miles of barges -- - dressed in cloth of gold • Henry and Anne were sure the baby was a boy --- names were being chosen, and the birth announcement had already been written with 'prince'… THEN…. • Princess Elizabeth was born! • Anne had 2 miscarriages --- she was desperate for a male! • Henry was already eyeing one of her ladies-in-waiting, Jane Seymour! • Anne's enemies plot against her! • Several people close to the Queen were arrested, then her own brother was arrested! • Soon the Queen herself was arrested! • The charges against her: adultery, incest and plotting to murder the King • All were found guilty and sent to the Tower of London • Anne and her brother were sentenced to beheading • Her associates punishment: they were to be hanged, cut down while still living and then disemboweled and quartered. • this was later commuted and they were beheaded with Anne’s brother Anne awaiting her fate in the Tower of London How do you execute a Queen? • An expert swordsman with a sharp sword rather than the traditional axe. • "I heard say the executioner was very good, and I have a little neck." • Had the dignity of a private execution • She kneeled at the block. Her ladies removed her head cover and tied a blindfold over her eyes. • The sword had been hidden under the straw. The swordsman cut off her head with one swift stroke. • She was buried in an unmarked grave near the Tower Jane Seymour • Within 24 hours of Anne Boleyn's execution, Jane Seymour and Henry VIII were formally engaged • Jane gave Henry what really wanted… a boy! • The baby was named Edward and Christened – Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, was godmother – Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, was also at the Christening • Jane attended her son's christening, but soon died. She died just two weeks after her son was born. • Henry had already been preparing his own tomb, so he buried Jane there. In the end, she would be the only of Henry's six wives to be buried with him. Anne of Cleves • Henry VIII remained single for over two years after Jane Seymour's death! • It was time for another political marriage • Henry was looking for Protestant alliances • They were married, but it was not a good match; it only lasted 6 months • Henry did not find his new bride the least bit attractive and is said to have called her a 'Flanders Mare'. • She may have found him unattractive – Henry VIII was grossly obese • Both wanted divorce; marriage annulled • Good terms (she was given a castle, the former home of Anne Boleyn) • Remained friendly terms: honorary title as 'King's Sister' and kept contact with Henry’s children Kathryn Howard • First cousin to Anne Boleyn • Kathryn was a lady in waiting to Anne of Cleves • caught Henry's attentions…young and beautiful… • Henry married her sixteen days after he was free of Anne… she was his fifth wife • Henry was 49 and his bride was no older than 19. • Kathryn was not faithful to Henry; the Archbishop informed the King of Kathryn's misconduct • At first, Henry did not believe the accusations, but he allowed an investigation… • Enough evidence was found --- Kathryn was executed at the Tower and buried near her cousin Anne Boleyn Katherine Parr • Katherine was widowed twice before marrying Henry • She was well educated and modest • Henry and Katherine Parr were married 18 months after Kathryn Howard's execution • Henry's health was not good; Katherine acted as nurse • She also acted as mother-figure to Mary, Elizabeth and Edward • Katherine outlived Henry, who died January 28, 1547. • Prince Edward became King Edward VI… the Tudors continue to rule……… What’s next for the Tudors? • After Edward VI there will be “Bloody Mary”, Mary I, who attempts to revisit Catholicism • Then there’s the Good Queen Elizabeth… – Elizabeth’s forces defeat the Spanish Armada in 1588 --- She’s the longest ruling Tudor! – Although she does have her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots executed… – Alas, Mary’s son, will become James I, the first of the Stuart family’s rule of England! The End…. Is that great, or what?! “24” and The Hills have NOTHING on Henry VIII and the Tudors!
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