Catherine Anne Boleyn
divorced beheaded died
Henry VIII and his wives…
"divorced, beheaded, died, Katherine Parr
divorced, beheaded, survived."
Anne of Cleves
divorced beheaded survived
Catherine of Aragon
• the youngest surviving child of Ferdinand and
Isabella of Spain
• When she was 3 years old → engaged to Arthur,
the son of King Henry VII of England. He wasn’t
even two years old!
• Married Arthur when she was 16; at the wedding
she was escorted by Arthur's younger brother,
• Less than six months later… Arthur was dead
• King Henry VII didn’t want to lose Catherine’s
dowry, so 14 months after her husband's death,
she was engaged to Arthur’s brother --- the future
• King Henry VII died, and Henry VIII became King
and married Catherine
• Catherine had a hard time bearing children; she was
pregnant at least 7 times but only one child
survived…a girl, Mary
– 2 boys had been born alive, but died within two months
• Henry wanted a male heir!
• Henry had at least two mistresses, and fell in love
with one of his mistresses sister: Anne Boleyn
• Catherine was 42 years old and was no longer able
to have any more children…
• Henry desperately wanted a son; he found a passage
from the Bible saying that if a man takes his
brother's wife, they shall be childless; he began to
petition the Pope for an annulment.
• Catherine did not want a divorce; she appealed to
the Pope. It helped that her nephew was Charles V,
the Holy Roman Emperor.
• In 1533 Anne Boleyn became pregnant.
Henry had to act!
• He rejected the power of the Pope in
England and had the Archbishop of
Canterbury grant the annulment.
• Catherine and her daughter Mary were
forced out of the royal home and lived
in lesser manors with just a few
• When Catherine died she was buried
with the ceremony due for her position
as “Princess Dowager”, not as a Queen
• Anne caught Henry VIII’s eye while she was a lady in the court
• He wanted to have her as a mistresses; she refused→ “Queen
• Proof of Henry’s love: he hated writing letters --- 17 love letters
• Anne known for her temper and quick tongue
• Anne was not popular with the people of England
• After she became pregnant they were secretly married
– Henry didn’t believe he was ever married to Catherine
• Anne had a lavish coronation --- brought by 4 miles of barges --
- dressed in cloth of gold
• Henry and Anne were sure the baby was a boy --- names were
being chosen, and the birth announcement had already been
written with 'prince'… THEN….
• Princess Elizabeth was born!
• Anne had 2 miscarriages --- she was
desperate for a male!
• Henry was already eyeing one of her
ladies-in-waiting, Jane Seymour!
• Anne's enemies plot against her!
• Several people close to the Queen
were arrested, then her own brother
• Soon the Queen herself was arrested!
• The charges against her: adultery,
incest and plotting to murder the King
• All were found guilty and sent to
the Tower of London
• Anne and her brother were
sentenced to beheading
• Her associates punishment: they
were to be hanged, cut down while
still living and then disemboweled
• this was later commuted and they
were beheaded with Anne’s
her fate in
How do you execute a Queen?
• An expert swordsman with a sharp
sword rather than the traditional axe.
• "I heard say the executioner was very
good, and I have a little neck."
• Had the dignity of a private execution
• She kneeled at the block. Her ladies
removed her head cover and tied a
blindfold over her eyes.
• The sword had been hidden under the
straw. The swordsman cut off her head
with one swift stroke.
• She was buried in an unmarked grave
near the Tower
• Within 24 hours of Anne Boleyn's execution, Jane
Seymour and Henry VIII were formally engaged
• Jane gave Henry what really wanted… a boy!
• The baby was named Edward and Christened
– Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, was godmother
– Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, was also at the
• Jane attended her son's christening, but soon died.
She died just two weeks after her son was born.
• Henry had already been preparing his own tomb, so
he buried Jane there. In the end, she would be the
only of Henry's six wives to be buried with him.
Anne of Cleves
• Henry VIII remained single for over two years after Jane
• It was time for another political marriage
• Henry was looking for Protestant alliances
• They were married, but it was not a good match; it only
lasted 6 months
• Henry did not find his new bride the least bit attractive and
is said to have called her a 'Flanders Mare'.
• She may have found him unattractive – Henry VIII was
• Both wanted divorce; marriage annulled
• Good terms (she was given a castle, the former home of
• Remained friendly terms: honorary title as 'King's Sister'
and kept contact with Henry’s children
• First cousin to Anne Boleyn
• Kathryn was a lady in waiting to Anne of Cleves
• caught Henry's attentions…young and beautiful…
• Henry married her sixteen days after he was free of
Anne… she was his fifth wife
• Henry was 49 and his bride was no older than 19.
• Kathryn was not faithful to Henry; the Archbishop
informed the King of Kathryn's misconduct
• At first, Henry did not believe the accusations, but he
allowed an investigation…
• Enough evidence was found --- Kathryn was
executed at the Tower and buried near her cousin
• Katherine was widowed twice before marrying Henry
• She was well educated and modest
• Henry and Katherine Parr were married 18 months
after Kathryn Howard's execution
• Henry's health was not good; Katherine acted as
• She also acted as mother-figure to Mary, Elizabeth
• Katherine outlived Henry, who died January 28,
• Prince Edward became King Edward VI… the
Tudors continue to rule………
What’s next for the Tudors?
• After Edward VI there will be “Bloody
Mary”, Mary I, who attempts to revisit
• Then there’s the Good Queen Elizabeth…
– Elizabeth’s forces defeat the Spanish Armada
in 1588 --- She’s the longest ruling Tudor!
– Although she does have her cousin Mary,
Queen of Scots executed…
– Alas, Mary’s son, will become James I, the
first of the Stuart family’s rule of England!
Is that great, or
“24” and The Hills
on Henry VIII and