The Enlightenment by dffhrtcv3

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									     The
Enlightenment
          What Was the
         Enlightenment?




The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in
    Europe during the 18th century that led to
             a whole new world view.
       An Overview of the 18c
   Political History >>> Reform

   Intellectual History  Newtonian Physics
                          Reason

   Cultural History  Individualism

   Social History  Increased Literacy
                    “Age of Aristocracy”

   Economic History > Mercantilism
                       to Capitalism
               18c Politics
   BRITAIN – Constitutional Monarchy

   FRANCE  Royal Absolutism
              (cultural and religious unity)

   PRUSSIA, HABSBURG EMPIRE,
     RUSSIA  “Enlightened Despotism”

   OTTOMAN EMPIRE – traditional
                        empire
        An intellectual and cultural movement…

   The methods of natural science could be used to
    examine and understand all aspects of life.

   The scientific method was capable of discovering the
    laws of human society as well as those of nature.

   It was possible for humans to create better societies and
    better people. (progress)

   The enlightenment did not have much appeal for the
    poorer classes. They were just trying to survive and the
    enlight. threatened their popular beliefs.
The Characteristics of the Enlightenment

   Rationalism  reason is the arbiter of all
                  things.

   Cosmology  a new concept of man, his
                existence on earth, & the
                place of the earth in the
                universe.

   Secularism  application of the methods
                 of science to religion &
                 philosophy.
   Scientific Method
    – Mathematical analysis
    – Experimentation
    – Inductive reasoning.


   Tolerance  No opinion is worth
                  burning your neighbor
                  for.
   Optimism & Self-Confidence
    – The belief that man is intrinsically
      good.
    – The belief in social progress.


   Freedom
    – Of thought and expression.
    – Bring liberty to all men (modern battle
      against absolutism).


   Education of the Masses
   Legal Reforms
    – Justice, kindness, and charity  no
      torture or indiscriminant incarceration.
    – Due process of law.


   Constitutionalism
    – Written constitutions  listing citizens,
      rights.
Enlightenment Principles
                                        Religion, tradition,
                                         and superstition
                                         limited
                                         independent
                                         thought
                                        Accept knowledge
                                         based on
                                         observation, logic,
                                         and reason, not on
                                         faith
                                        Scientific and
                                         academic thought
A   meeting of French Enlightenment     should be secular
               thinkers
Enlightenment Thinkers
                     The Philosophes
   French term for philosopher

   They were an influential group of intellectuals.

   Asked philosophical questions about the meaning of
    life, God, human nature, good and evil, cause and
    effect

   The philosophes brought Enlightenment ideas to the
    ignorant people and brought the Enlightenment to
    its highest stage of development in France.

                          video
Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679)
   Applied rational analysis
    to the study of
    government

   Attacked the concept of
    divine right, yet
    supported a strong
    monarchy

   Believed that humans
    were basically driven by
    passions and needed to
    be kept in check by a
    powerful ruler
John Locke (1632-1704)                        Letter on Toleration,
                                               1689

                                              Two Treatises of
                                               Government, 1690

                                              Some Thoughts
                                               Concerning
                                               Education, 1693

                                              The Reasonableness
                                               of Christianity, 1695
 Natural rights: life, liberty, property
        John Locke’s Philosophy

► The individual must become a
  “rational creature.”

► Virtue can be learned and practiced.

► Human beings possess free will.

     they should be prepared for freedom.
     obedience should be out of conviction,
      not out of fear.
   Legislators owe their power to a contract
    with the people.

   Neither kings nor wealth are divinely
    ordained.

   There are certain natural rights that are
    endowed by God to all human beings.
    – life, liberty, property!
John Locke’s Philosophy con’t

► The doctrine of the Divine Right
  of Kings was nonsense.

► He favored a republic as the
  best form of government.
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
         (1712–1778)
   Philosophized on the
    nature of society and
    government

► Emile, 1762.

► The Social Contract,
    1762.
   claimed that children must develop
    naturally and spontaneously

   The Social Contract argued that the
    general will of the people is sacred and
    absolute.
     Baron de Montesquieu
        (1689–1755)
•   French noble and
    political
    philosopher

•   The Spirit of the
    Laws

•   Separation of
    powers
Montesquieu’s Philosophy

► Three types of government:
   Monarchy.
   Republic.
   Despotism.

 A separation of political powers
  ensured freedom and liberty.
      Montesquieu (continued)
•   Separation of
    powers

                        Frontspiece   to
•   Constitutional      The Spirit of the
                        Laws
    monarchy
Voltaire (1694–1778)

              Most famous philosophe
              Wrote plays, essays,
               poetry, philosophy, and
               books
              Attacked the “relics” of
               the medieval social
               order
              Championed social,
               political, and religious
               tolerance
   Voltaire challenged traditional Catholic theology and
    exhibited a characteristic philosophe belief in a
    distant God who let human affairs take their own
    course. Deism
   He opposed legal injustice and unequal treatment
    before the law.
   He was skeptical of social and economic equality; he
    hated religious intolerance.

►     “I may not agree with what you have to say,
      but I will defend to the death your right to
      say it.”
                 Video\Voltaire__1694_1778_.asf
                         Deism

   Deists believed in
    God but rejected
    organized religion
   Morality could be
    achieved by
    following reason
    rather than the
    teachings of the
    church


                         Lord   Edward Herbert of Cherbury, founder
                                          of deism
Diderot and D’Alemebert




    Editors of the Encyclopedia
             The Encyclopedia
Examined all of human knowledge and attempted to teach
people how to think critically and rationally.




             An original edition of the Encyclopedia
   28 volumes.

   Alphabetical, cross-referenced,
    illustrated.

   First published in 1751.

   1500 livres a set.

   Banned by the Catholic Church
Pages from Diderot’s
   Encyclopedie
Pages from Diderot’s
   Encyclopedie
Pages from Diderot’s
   Encyclopedie
Women and the Enlightenment

                     Changing
                      views
                     Role of
                      education
                     Equality

       Mary                      Olympede
   Wollstonecraft                  Gouges
Mary Wollstonecraft

             Declaration of the
              Rights of Man
             A Vindication of the
              Rights of Women
           Wollstonecraft
 Education (continued)
   Women’s rights
    movement
                            Titlepage of
                            Wollstonecraft’s
                            Thoughts on the
                            Education of
                            Daughters
         Olympe De Gouges

   Criticized the French
    Revolution
   The Rights of
    Women
 “Declaration of the
  Rights of Woman
  and the Female
  Citizen”
 Executed in 1793
        Spreading Enlightenment Ideas

   Enlightenment ideas--including new ideas about
    women's rights--were spread in the salons of
    upperclass women.

   Madame Geoffrin's salon was famous; she was
    the unofficial godmother of the Encyclopedia.

   These salons seemed to have functioned as
    informal "schools" for women.
A Parisian Salon
        The Salonnieres




  Madame                        Madame
  Geoffrin    Mademoiselle   Suzanne Necker
(1699-1777)      Julie de     (1739-1794)
                Lespinasse
              (1732*-1776)
Madame Geoffrin’s Salon
“Enlightened Monarchs”
              Most of Europe ruled by
               absolute monarchs
              Receptive to Enlightenment
               ideas
              Instituted new laws and
               practices

                Enlightened Monarchs
           • Frederick II, Prussia
           • Catherine the Great, Russia
           • Maria Theresa, Austria
           • Joseph II, Holy Roman Empire
           • Gustav III, Sweden
           • Napoleon I, France
               Enlightened Despots
   Many philosophes believed that "enlightened"
    reform would come by way of "enlightened"
    monarchs.

   The rulers seemed to seek the philosophes'
    advice.

   The philosophes distrusted the masses and
    believed that change had to come from above.

   The most influential of the new style monarchs
    were in Prussia, Russia, and Austria.
Frederick the Great

        1712 -– 1786.

         He saw himself
         as the “First Servant of
         the State.”
        • Had a strong interest
          in Enlightenment
          works
        • Induced Voltaire to
          come to Prussia

         Video\Frederick the Great
          allowed religious freedom and
 Frederick
 promoted education, legal reform, and
 economic growth

 Allowedthe Junker nobility to keep the
 middle-class from power in government.

 Frederickallowed the repression of
 Prussian Jews--who were confined to
 overcrowded ghettos.
            Frederick the Great
               (continued)
                                                         • Wanted
                                                           to make
                                                           Prussia a
                                                           modern
                                                           state
                                                         • Reforms




Painting   titled “Frederick the Great and Voltaire.”
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
(ruled 1762–1796)
          Russian ruler
          Well-versed in
           Enlightenment
           works
          “Westernizing”
           Russia
         Domestic reforms
         Peasant revolt
   German Princess Sophie Friederike
    Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst. 1729 – 1796

   Catherine II imported Western culture to
    Russia, supported the philosophes, and
    began a program of domestic reform.

   The Pugachev uprising in 1773 led her to
    reverse the trend toward reform of
    serfdom and give nobles absolute control
    of their serfs.
Maria Theresa (ruled 1740–
          1780)

                   Austrian ruler
                   Government
                    reforms
                   The serfs
                   Son—Joseph II
Maria Theresa and Joseph II
Joseph II (ruled 1765–1790)
   Ruled as coregent
    with his mother
    until 1780
   Joseph’s reforms
     • Religious
       toleration
     • Control over
       the Catholic
       Church
     • Abolition of
       serfdom
              The Austrian Habsburgs

   Maria Theresa introduced reforms
    – limited church power
    – revised the tax system and bureaucracy
    – reduced the power of the lords over the serfs.


   Her successor, Joseph II, was a dedicated
    reformer who abolished serfdom, taxed all
    equally, and granted religious freedom.

   Because of opposition from both the nobles and
    the peasants, Joseph's reforms were short lived.
           The Legacy of the
            Enlightenment
    Government
    Society
    Education




The   signing of the U.S.
       Constitution
        Influence of the Enlightenment
   In France, the rise of judicial and aristocratic
    opposition combined with liberalism put
    absolutism on the defensive.

   In eastern Europe, the results of enlightened
    absolutism were modest and absolutism
    remained strong.

   By combining state building with the culture and
    critical thinking of the Enlightenment, absolute
    monarchs succeeded in expanding the role of
    the state in the life of society

								
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