The Development of Ideologies by dffhrtcv3


         Political Ideologies
 Systematic belief systems that mobilize
  people into action
 Pragmatic applications of normative
 An ideology is a more or less consistent set
  of beliefs about the nature of the society in
  which individuals live, and about the proper
  role of the state in establishing and
  maintaining that society
 “An ideology may be—but need not necessarily be—
  coherent, systematic, and rational. If it is fairly persistent
  and pervasive, in the sense that a particular point of view or
  orientation occurs whenever an individual, group, or
  organization engages in action or discussion on any given
  subject, the bias takes on the shape of an ideology” (Groth,

 An ideology is a value or belief system accepted as fact or
  truth by some group.
 Ideologies mobilize people into action, transcending
  differences in class, race, ethnicity, and culture
         The Birth of Ideologies
 Classical Liberalism was first systematic ideology; opposed the
  existence and dominance of elites in society
 Aimed to overthrow/replace the Organic Hierarchy of Medieval
  1. Organic Hierarchy: structure of society is marked by unequal
  resources and power; it is organic in that the various components
  were linked by mutual obligation and duty
  2. Feudal Society: very rigid, not reflective of social mobility.
  Social positions—high or low—were inherited, and with it a set
  of obligations and rights specific to the rank
  3. Transformation of Feudalism varied; Britain: end of 17th
  century; France: 1789; Germany: mid-19th century
  Key Question: How and Why was the System of Feudalism
                The Reformation
 Attack on natural law and divine right
 Attack on intellectual unity and hegemony of Roman
    Catholic Church prevalent in the Middle Ages
   Initiated moral revolution: poverty was no longer seen as
    virtuous; accumulation of wealth become widely viewed as
    manifestation of upright character
   Weakness of Church allowed other socio-political changes
    to develop; move from Christian pluralism to secularism
   Rulers used religion as a useful pretense, or the basis of a
    duty, to make war against rulers of the opposite conviction
   Challenge to the religious and theological status quo took
    political form—Revolution against the traditional
    (Catholic Church)
   The Enlightenment: The Age of
Its central premise: human experience—whether in the
   natural world or social life, is accessible to human reason
   and explicable in rational terms.
 Introduced processes of manufacturing and reorganization
   of social labor around the production for the market
 individuals have the ability to reason: popular sovereignty
   and individual rights
 constitutionalism and introduction of liberal democracy
 age of skepticism: disposition to take nothing for granted;
   to question and challenge existing ways of thought
 adoption of scientific methodology
 Revolution against traditional philosophy and science
          The Market Economy
The exchange of goods, services, and labor in transactions between
 Prompted decline of feudal order: immediate consumption or
  authoritative transfer of goods and services
 Number of buyers and sellers grew
 Development of merchant middle class
 Economic production for the purpose of exchange: move from
  use to exchange production
 Individuals obtain the goods for consumption in market place
 Market economy moves beyond producing basic utensils, tools,
  and luxury items
 Ordinary individuals became concerned with the acquisition of
      The Politics of Ideologies
The transformative role of the Reformation, the
  Enlightenment, and the Market Economy required new
  beliefs to justify the new and undermine the traditional
 An ideology is a comprehensive set of beliefs and attitudes
  about social and economic institutions and processes
 Ideologies are used to defend or alter a political system or
  order; it can provide a defense or critique

 Ideologies address a variety of issues, among the we can
  usually find the following:
Beliefs about Society and the Place
           of Individuals

A. Human nature
B. Relationship of individual to society
C. The role of God/the Church in society
D. Hierarchy versus Equality
 Beliefs about the State and about
the Nature and Structure of Power
 The purpose of government
 Form of government (structure of power),
  f.ex. absolute monarchy, representative
 Idea of Justice, i.e. the rule of law, rights,
   Beliefs about Specific Areas of
        Governmental Policy
 Economic policy—private versus public ownership,
  regulation of the market, redistribution of wealth
 Social policy—education, welfare, health care
 Public morality/social order—crime and
  punishment, firearms control, sexuality, gender,
  and race
 Foreign policy—interventionism versus
  isolationism, nationalism versus
       Means of Transition
 Peaceful transition
 Education
 Revolution
 Military overthrow; coup d'état
Weber’s Classification of Authority
 Type             Basis                           Example

 Traditional      Custom and                      Monarchy
                   established way of
                   doing things

 Charismatic      intense commitment              Many
                   to the leader and his message   revolutionary

 Legal-Rational   rules and procedures            bureaucracy;
                   merit not connections           representative
                   the office, not the person      democracy
                Classical Liberalism
 The individual is more important than the state and becomes a citizen
    of the state only through consent
   The individual is rational and capable of making his or her own
    decisions; this makes the individual capable of autonomy and self-
   Progress and social mobility is possible; change is not to be feared
   State power should be limited
   Economic inequality is not necessarily bad
   Economic freedom (freedom to make economic choices) is more
    important than economic equality
   Advocates free trade based on comparative advantage: the principle
    that says states should specialize in trading those goods that they
    produce with the greatest relative efficiency and at the lowest relative
    cost (relative, that is, to other goods produced by the same state)
      Key Assumptions of Classical
1.   Valorization of the individual
2.   Role of government should be minimal; popular sovereignty
3.   Emphasis on individual rights and constitutionalism
4.   Individual political liberty is seen as important as economic
     Laissez-faire: doctrine of minimal governmental intervention
     in the market
5.   upholds principles of equality before the law and equality of
6.   assumes that government, politics, and social life in general
     will avoid any types of extreme excesses
     examples: Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill,
     John Locke
  Advent of Modern Liberalism
 Emerged in the early 20th century; took off with added
  impetus with FDR’s New Deal in the 1930s
 Unfettered economic system exploited the poor and
  protected the rich
 Development of concentration of capital; interfered with
  the “invisible hand” (Adam Smith)
 J.M. Keynes—government was right to correct certain
  market inadequacies
    1. fiscal policies: economic policies that involve gov’t spending
     and taxing
    2. monetary policies: economic policies that involve control of
     and changes in the supply of money in a state economy
            Keynesian Theory
 Maintains that the government can stabilize the
 economy—i.e. can smooth out business cycles—by
 controlling the level of aggregate demand.

 Aggregate demand: the money available to be spent on
  goods and services by consumers, businesses, and
 Aggregate demand can be manipulated through
  monetary and fiscal policies
              Modern Liberalism
 Government intervention into individual and social life is often
  necessary to prevent some individuals from denying freedom to others
 Liberty should be understood in broad, expansive, positive terms; as
  the liberty to seek out ways to develop human potential and contribute
  in a meaningful way to society
  1. negative freedom/liberty: freedom from interference by other
  people; freedom of restraint; freedom to be left alone
  2. positive freedom/liberty: power and resources to fulfill one’s
  potential; let to the development of social or welfare liberalism
 Economic inequality is to be regarded with suspicion, as a condition
  likely to undermine the welfare of those who have lower incomes and
  thus to erode their chances of being free (freedom being defined as
  expansive liberty)
  1. Redistribution of Resources: a narrowing of material inequalities
  brought about through a combination of progressive taxation and
  welfare provisions.
 Off-shot of classical liberalism
 The belief that the realm of individual liberty should be maximized.
  This is commonly associated with limiting the influence of public
  authority (state, gov’t) in the lives of individuals.
 Use of civil society and market to maintain social order and advance
  economic prosperity

Libertarians tend to support the following policies:
  1. Legalization of drugs
  2. Prohibition of censorship of books and movies
  3. Support for gun ownership
  4. Support for abortion rights
  5. Support for gay rights

Libertarians: William Belsham, David Nolan, Ron Paul
 Disposition to preserve what exists; support for the existing order/status quo
 Human nature: humans are different in terms of intelligence; humans are
  prone to irrationality and thus need guidance by traditional authorities
 Some are born to rule; have paternalistic obligation to those less fortunate.
  Noblesse oblige: the obligations of the nobility toward the less fortunate
  (responsibility of power); to protect them from severe or unduly hardship
 Values community over individual; organic society: various components are
  linked by mutual obligations and duties
 Social hierarchy –structure of unequal resources and power is natural and
 Tend to emphasize religion, high standards of morality; moral teachings
  should be transmitted through the family, religious, and governmental
Examples: Plato, Edmund Burke, Benjamin Disraeli
                     Edmund Burke
 Rejects government’s role to protect natural rights
 Government should not stress the natural rights of individuals because it
  engenders expectations in people
 Rights are too easily confused with promises of power
 Government should safeguard human needs rather than natural rights
 Humans have natural urge toward order and control
 Humans need moral guidance to make social existence meaningful
 Ethics cannot and should not be deduced from reason because reason can be
  used to justify good or bad moral behavior
 Reason cannot be adequate for individual decision making and self-guidance
 Traditional values need to replace reason; the workability of ethical norms
  should be derived from history
 Traditional values provide foundation for moral absolutism (not moral
  relativism) and thus are basis for ethical certainty
 Pursuit of social morality takes precedence over pursuit of individual freedom;
  freedom needs to be bound by common moral standards
                The New Right
 Counter-revolutionary movement against the post-1945
  culture of interventionism and the spread of liberal,
  progressive social values. Rose to prominence in the 1970s
  as a result of failure of Keynesian social democracy
 Thatcherism and Reaganism in 1980s
 Seeks marriage of neoliberalism (return to classical
  economic liberalism) and neo-conservatism; objective:
  strong but minimal state
  neoliberalism: free-market economics (Friedrich Hayek
  and Milton Friedman)
  Nanny state: a state with extensive social responsibilities;
  the term implies that welfare programs are unwarranted
  and demeaning to the individual
         New Right Continued
 Religious Right (1988): Pat Robertson and Ralph Reed of
  Christian Coalition; Family Research Council (FRC)
  monitors political candidates for pro-family positions
Public Policy Positions:
1. Antiabortion policy
2. Opposition to legalization of gay rights (extreme: gay
3. Support for school prayer
4. Opposition to sex education in public schools
5. Opposition to pornography and its commercialization
6. Social problems are caused by rampant social immorality
               New Right Continued
 Neoconservatives:
1.   Embraces 19th century conservative social values
2.   Restore hierarchical, authoritative social order emphasizing family, religion,
     and the nation-state
3.   supports using American economic and military power to bring liberalism,
     democracy, and human rights to other countries (Bush Doctrine)
4.   Authoritative structures basis for social stability, discipline, and respect
5.   Minimal bureaucratic welfare state acceptable
6.   Economic protectionism may be necessary to preserve national interest
7.   Worried about emphasis on multicultural and multireligious societies—lead
     to domestic conflict and instability
8.   Disdain for international and supranational institutions such as the UN and
     the EU

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