VIEWS: 41 PAGES: 12 CATEGORY: Periodicals POSTED ON: 10/21/2012
Most eBook uploaders incluging myself almost always scan & upload full books and magazines. For a change, I have decided to upload scanned magazine articles in this post! Whenever I come across good articles, I usually scan them & share with my close friends who have similar likes. These articles have been taken from Indian editions of Popular Science, Geo amd BBC Knowledge. All are in PDF format with OCR. If you like them, please leave a comment so that in future I can share some more with you! 01. 2011 Invention Awards 02. African Masters, European Slaves 03. Awesome Labs 04. Big Science 05. Flesh and Blood 06. Moonstruck 07. No Pulse 07. The Ages of the Eternal City 09. The Climate Engineers 10. The Man Who Would Stop Time
-- . ^ry ^ ; ..^.fH.- • K'rv \T-1 s S - "faV 'JU SK »S2pÉ2 To improve our view of a vast and complex universe, scientist are creating increasingly ambitious new tools. The work is not easy. Truly big science requires decades of expensive co; itions. But the instruments that help us discover. We rank the 10 most epic among thém THE COUNTDOWN RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER A TIME MACHINE TO REVEAL THE ORIGINS OF THE UNIVERSE When gold ions speeding inside the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) on Long Island, New York, smash into each other, these collisions can produce temperatures of up to 7.2 trillion degrees Fahrenheit, so hot that protons and neutrons melt. As those particles disintegrate, the quarks and gluons of which they are comprised freely interact to form a new state of matter, called a quark-gluon plasma. As the material cools after the collision is over, protons and neutrons re-form, producing 4,000 subatomic particles in the process. Using the RHIC, scientists are trying to re-create the conditions that existed during the first millionth of a second after the big bang. SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: To better understand how matter has evolved in our universe, physicists at the RHIC send gold atoms through several accelerators, stripping away their electrons so they become positively charged ions. Those ions launch into two circular tubes and race at up to 99.9 percent of the speed of light before they collide. In examining the remnants of these collisions, the scientists have found Annual • PLASMA SENSOR The RHIC's • PARTICLE TRACKER The PHENIX that particles at this post-big-bang budget: STAR detector will collect data detector records the tracks of par- stage behave more like a liquid on quark-gluon plasmas. ticles such as photons and muons. $160,000,000 instead of the predicted gas. Construction cost: WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: RHIC $671,000,000 scientists are currently developing Staff: 700 devices that accelerate protons Physical and more precisely guide them to size: 4-km irradiate and kill cancerous tumors circumference in humans. Engineers have also Scientific used the heavy ion beam to punch utility: 6" tiny holes in plastic sheets, making What's in it filters that can sort substances at for you: 2* the molecular level. Down the line, Wow factor: 4* we might see more-efficient energy- storage devices based on the *on a scale superconducting magnet technology of 1 to 10 used in the RHIC. -GREGORY MONE NEPTUNE THE WORLD'S LARGEST UNDERSEA OBSERVATORY Oceans cover nearly three camera provides still photographs quarters of the Earth's surface and video of animals and their PLACE The ship Ile de Sein and contain 90 percent of its life, behaviors, which scientists could carried Neptune parts to sea. yet they are almost entirely use to gauge changes in the local unexplored. Neptune, an ocean- ecosystem. Hydrophones positioned observatory network that consists on the seafloor record dolphins and of some 883 km of cable and 130 whales to track their numbers and instruments with 400 sensors, migration routes. And a remotely all of it connected to the Internet, operated crawler named Wally will provide the first large-scale, drives over the seabed to monitor around-the-clock monitoring of an underwater methane deposits, ocean system, including animal life, which could exacerbate global geology and chemistry. climate change and also be a potential source of energy. TEST The Vertical Profiler analyzes SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: Neptune s conditions in the water column. battery of instruments, which lie WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: Armchair as far as 367 km off the coast of (and professional) scientists the Canadian province of British worldwide can tune in over the Columbia on the Juan de Fuca Internet to see streaming » tectonic plate, offer a real-time view video of Wally the crawler 1 of the area. A tethered float, outfitted rolling over the seafloor, 1 with radiometers, fluorometers watch deep-sea tubeworms and conductivity sensors, ferries waving in the currents of a % up and down the 396-m water hydrothermal vent, or listen /j^ column from the seabed to the to a humpback-whale / SAMPLE Rovers examine tube- surface, sampling the column's s o n g . - B R O O K E BOREL / worms around a hydrothermal vent. chemical and physical conditions to determine how it changes over time. A remotely operated vehicle called ROPOS installs instruments and gathers data. Its high-definition CRAWL Wally will examine the seafloor 853 m below the sur- face in the Pacific Ocean. Positioned on hundreds of square kilometers of desert outside of g a m m a - r a y bursts in faraway nebulae and, in 1989, received NATIONAL Magdalena, New Mexico, the Very Large Array (VLA) is one of the radio transmissions f r o m the Voyager 2 satellite as it passed IGNITION Annual budget: largest telescopes in the world. Its 27 individual radio antennas, each Neptune, giving us the first up- close photos of the gas giant and FACILITY $15,000,000 of which is 25 m in diameter, f o r m a its moons. The VLBA measures A GIANT LASER FUSION EXPERIMENT y Construction Y with a r m s 22 k m long and gather shifts in the Earth's orientation in cost: signals f r o m some of the brightest the universe. By focusing on distant, Considered the world's largest and $300,000,000 objects in the universe. Its sister virtually fixed objects—such as most energetic laser, the National Staff: 280 project, the Very Long Baseline quasars—over time, scientists Ignition Facility, located in Livermore, Physical size: Array (VLBA), is a line of 10 radio can detect any apparent changes California, stretches the length 27 antennas antennas that extends 9,218 km in Earth's orientation in space. of three football fields, stands 10 on 65 km from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. This orientation can be t h r o w n stories tall, and generates two of track The VLA and VLBA create detailed slightly out of place during major million joules of ultraviolet energy. Scientific images of celestial objects as close earthquakes, like the one that That blast can cause the laser's utility: 8 as the moon and as far away as the struck Japan earlier this year. target to reach temperatures of WIIFY: 3 edge of the observable universe. more than 100 million degrees and Wow factor: 6 WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: Pick a pressures of more than 100 billion SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: Because radio chapter in a modern astronomy times the Earth's a t m o s p h e r e - waves can penetrate the cosmic textbook, and you w i l l find some similar to conditions found in the dust that obscures many objects, material or theory based on data cores of stars and gas-giant planets. the VLA and VLBA can see things collected by the VLA and VLBA. The that optical telescopes can't. Using VLBA also gathers data on the paths SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: When the 192 the VLA, scientists have studied of near-Earth asteroids, which could individual beams that make up the black hole at the center of the help scientists predict if one is on a the NIF laser converge on a target Milky Way, searched for the origins collision course with our planet.-B.B. that contains atoms of deuterium THE COUNTDOWN MOBILE NETWORK Thé VLA's radio antennas sit on tracks so scientists can change the array's configuration. Annual budget: $30,000,000 Construction cost: $928,000,000 Staff: Hundreds Physical size: 20 m diameter, 5 m tall Scientific utility: 7 WIIFY: Wow factor: 10 JUNO Â JUPITER 0R8ITER ON A SUICIDE MISSION 3k l i i Œ f c s S ^ ; Just before Juno enters characteristic makes the Jupiter's orbit in 2016, the planet a valuable window spacecraft, pulled by the into the solar system's gas giant's tremendous origins. Measurements of gravity, w i l l reach Jupiter's magnetic field speeds of 2,23,333 km could finally resolve the (hydrogen with one neutron) and tritium (hydrogen with an hour, making it one debate over whether the two neutrons), the atoms' nuclei fuse and create a burst of the fastest human- planet has a rocky core. of energy. NIF scientists are trying to refine this process Annual made objects ever built. Juno's magnetometers to produce, for the first time, a net energy gain from Once in orbit, the craft wilt characterize the budget: fusion reactions. They are also using their research to w i l l make 33 passes depth and motions of $140,000,000 around the planet and the metallic hydrogen study what happens to nuclear weapons over time, a crucial question when judging the safety and reliability Construction then dive directly into ocean found in the of the U.S. stockpile. Finally, because conditions in the cost: it. On its suicide run, interior, which generates laser's target mimic those in the cores of massive stars, $3,540,000,000 it w i l l plow through the strongest magnetic scientists hope to understand how fusion produced some Staff: 1,000 Jupiter's hydrogen field in our solar system of the heavy atomic elements, such as gold and uranium. atmosphere until it aside from that found Physical size: burns up like a meteor. around the sun. Finally, - 52,669 a microwave radiometer WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: If you happen to be storing nuclear weapons in your home, NIF data could help you square m SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: w i l l measure the amount determine whether your stockpile is reliable. Otherwise, Scientific While Juno circles of water in Jupiter's some NIF proponents say that it could provide fusion utility: 4 Jupiter, a suite of nine deep atmosphere, a power—although a fusion power plant probably won't be WIIFY: 2 instruments w i l l study key to understanding based on giant lasers.—KATHERINE BAGLEY the planet's many layers. how the planet was Wow factor: 8 Jupiter was the first originally formed. planet in the solar system to form, and because it WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: is so large, its gravity Study of Jupiter's complex has retained original weather patterns could material found in the help us predict our own, early solar system, but for the most part this primarily hydrogen is pure scientific research. and helium. This - J E N N I F E R ABBASI ÈJtmm DOME OF LIGHT Above, the booster synchrotron rïrigât the ALS. Below, the storage ring and the individual experiment bearrttines ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE THE ULTIMATE MICROSCOPE Since 1993, researchers at the Advanced Light Source, than we thought. That same year, Roger D. Kornberg Annual (ALS) a particle accelerator in Berkeley, California, have of Stanford University w o n the Nobel Prize in budget: been sending a photon beam a million times as bright Chemistry for w o r k at the ALS on the 3-D structure $54,200,000 as the sun's surface into proteins, battery electrodes, of RNA polymerase enzymes. The s t r u c t u r a l data Construction superconductors and other materials to reveal their allowed him to describe how DNA is translated cost: atomic, molecular and electronic properties. into RNA during a process called transcription. $154,000,000 Staff: 223 SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: The ALS is one of the brightest WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: Work at the ALS on a protein Physical sources of soft x-rays, which have the right associated with melanoma aided the development of size:723906 wavelengths for spectromicroscopy, a scientific a novel medication to combat the disease. The drug is square m technique that reveals both the s t r u c t u r a l and currently in Phase II and III clinical trials. Other data Scientific chemical makeup of samples only a few nanometers f r o m ALS could lead to high-capacity lithium battery utility: 10 wide. In 2006, scientists at the ALS helped determine electrodes, which would increase the battery's charge WIIFY: 10 that dust captured f r o m the tail of a comet f o r m e d capacity. Finally, understanding the physical and Wow factor: 2 near the sun very early in the solar system's history, electronic structure of flat sheets of carbon, called showing that the cosmic ingredients that originated graphene, could s p u r the development of atomic-scale in our corner of the universe started mixing earlier transistors and much faster computer processors.-J.A. FIAT LUX The ALS produces x-rays in a device called an undulator, seen here. •iimnnimuivJI? INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AN ORBITAL LABORATORY It takes $2 billion a year and thousands of employees to keep the lights on at the International Space Station (ISS). So far, 201 people f r o m 11 countries (and seven well-heeled tourists) have visited the ISS, which has supported the longest continuous human presence in orbit: 11 years this November, with about a decade more to come. The ISS also plays host to the Alpha Annual Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), the largest, heaviest budget: instrument ever to be flown in space. $2,310,000,000 Construction SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: On the ISS, scientists and cost: astronauts from NASA and its international partners $4,500,000,000 test spacecraft components and support systems that Staff: 1,000- could be used for long-distance human spaceflight. 2,000 They also examine human physiology, studying the Physical size: effects of weightlessness on bone density and red- 9,855 blood-cell production and how the immune system cubic m changes during long periods in space. As of May, Scientific researchers have had access to the AMS, an instrument capable of detecting strangelets, quarks that have been utility: 3 WIIFY: 6 SPALLATION made in particle accelerators but have never been observed in nature. Wow factor: 6 NEUTRON WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: Research performed on the SOURCE ISS led to the discovery that salmonella bacteria A MOVIE CAMERA FOR MOLECULES become more virulent in space. That discovery, and the identification of the genes that cause the change, are Every month, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak fueling the development of the first vaccines to combat Ridge, Tennessee, draws between 25 and 28 megawatts salmonella and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of power from the electrical grid and uses about 33 aureus (MRSA) bacteria, the staph infection that has million gallons of water to stay cool. During operation, plagued thousands of hospital patients.-J.A. the particle accelerator in the SNS sends bursts of two Annual budget: $168,000,000 Construction ' cost: ! $1,410,000,000 ! Staff: 500 j Physical size: N/A ; Scientific i utility: 10 ! WIIFY: 10 | Wow factor: 1 I [,:; . ON A PEDESTAL Technicians at ; the SNS use a special boom to perform maintenance on the ; machine's ! hazardous components. I quadrillion neutrons per pulse have very little energy, neutrons sends packets of neutrons at a down into a target chamber. These interact only weakly with matter. rate of 60 pulses per second, it dense clouds of neutrons deflect As the neutrons pass through a can record how structures change off materials to reveal how atomic sample, they scatter off the atomic over time, like shooting individual structures change over time. nuclei in the sample. That interaction frames of a movie and then stitching changes the energy and direction those together into motion. SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: The SNS of those neutrons, and 14 different sends neutrons hurtling toward a instruments, positioned a few feet WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: Better sample at up to 97 percent of the from the sample, record those batteries. Scientists are using these speed of light. But unlike particles changes in trajectory. Software atomic-scale movies to monitor in a collider, neutrons do not create then adds up all the scattering data batteries as they charge and large explosions when they hit their to produce the atomic structure discharge in real time. It w i l l also be sample. Because they are small and of the sample. Because the SNS used to study protein structure.-G.M. | THE COUNTDOWN LARGE HADRON COLLIDER A PROTON ACCELERATOR TO FIND and visualize the paths, energies THE ELUSIVE GOD PARTICLE and identities of subatomic particles, which may answer some Buried 100 m beneath the border of these questions. The ATLAS of Switzerland and France, the project's detector, for example, Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the is searching for collision events world's largest particle collider. Annual in which there appears to be an The facility requires 700 gigawatt- budget: imbalance of momentum—an hours of energy and some $1 $1,200,000,000 indication of the presence of the billion annually to run. More than Construction supersymmetric particles thought conducted at the Relativistic Heavy 10,000 researchers, engineers and cost: to make up dark matter. The Ion Collider [#10 on our list]. students from 60 countries on six $7,820,000,000 Compact Muon Solenoid project continents contribute to the LHC's Staff: 2,500 complements ATLAS by searching WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: Though six standing projects, which are Physical for supersymmetry and the elusive the LHC has brought black-hole designed to unlock the fundamental size: 28-km Higgs boson. LHC-Forward will alarmists out of the woodwork, physics of the universe. circumference simulate high-energy cosmic the project will have little effect Scientific rays, and LHC-Beauty will provide on our day-to-day lives, unless SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: What exactly utility: 8 information on why the universe your family and friends are the is dark matter? Are there extra WIIFY: 1 is made up of matter rather than type to discuss the origins of dimensions in space? Does the Wow factor: 9 antimatter. TOTEM tracks proton the universe over dinner.-K.B. Higgs boson, commonly referred collisions and provides data on to as the "God particle," exist? the proton's inner structure. And • HEAT SEEKER A calorimeter How did the universe form? The ALICE will track quark-gluon in the ATLAS detector measures LHC's six particle detectors record plasmas, similar to experiments the energy of particles. • MOTION SENSOR GPS stations EARTH5C0PE A TELESCOPE TO PEER DEEP INTO THE HEART OF OUR PLANET pinpoint areas of ground movement down to the thickness of a dime. Designed to track North America's caused by tectonic shifts below. Annual behind geological events such geological evolution, EarthScope Seismic sensors next to the active budget: as earthquakes and volcanic is the largest science project on San Andreas Fault in California $25,000,000 eruptions, leading to better the planet. This earth-sciences record its tiniest slips, while rock Construction detection. So far, data f r o m the observatory records data over 6.3 samples pulled f r o m a d r i l l site that cost: project has s h o w n that rocks in the million square km. Since 2003, its extends three kilometers into the $197,000,000 San Andreas Fault are weaker than more than 4,000 instruments have fault reveal the grinding and strain Staff: 110 those outside it and that the plume amassed 67 terabytes of data— on the rocks that occur w h e n the Physical size: of m a g m a under the Yellowstone that's equivalent to more than a t w o sides of the fault slide past each i.3 million park's supervolcano is even bigger quarter of the data in the Library of other during an earthquake. And square km than previously suspected.-B.B. Congress—and add another terabyte over the course of 10 years, s m a l l Scientific every six to eight weeks crews have hauled a moveable utility: 10 array of 400 seismographs across WIIFY: 10 SCIENTIFIC UTILITY: Researchers the country using backhoes and Wow factor: 10 * ' • *'• * • are using EarthScope, which sweat. By the time the stations ... consists of many kinds of reach the U.S. East Coast next experiments, to examine all year, they w i l l have collected data facets of North America's f r o m almost 2,000 locations. geological composition. Across the • DRAGNET Earthscope deploys continental U.S. and Puerto Rico, WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU: Collectively, GPS stations, strain meters, and 1,100 permanent GPS units track EarthScope's m e a s u r e m e n t s permanent and mobile seismic deformations in the land's surface could help explain the forces stations across the U.S.
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