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_ESL_ Literacy


									Language Skills:

        Students: Jasmine Pai
                  Candace Liu

Teaching Children
Literacy Skill in a
Second Language

 Teaching reading skills to non-
  native speakers of English
  involves unique problems and
  challenges at all conceivable
  levels of instruction.

 For both NES and ELL learners,
  the teaching of writing and oral
  skills is increasingly being
  integrated with reading
  Reading as a Complex,
   Interactive Process
1. Automatic recognition skills

2. Vocabulary and structural

3. Formal discourse structure
4. Content/world background

5. Synthesis and evaluation

6. Metacognitive knowledge
   and skills monitoring

Fluent readers recognize
 and get meaning from words
 they see in print, and use
 their knowledge of the
 structure of the language to
 begin forming a mental
 notion of the topic.

Fluent readers use the
 semantic and syntactic
 information from the text
 together with what they
 know from personal
 experience and knowledge of
 the topic to form hypotheses
 or predictions about what
 they are reading and what
 they are about to read.
For ELLs to read fluently,
 they must develop the ability
 to bring all of these elements
 together simultaneously and

Sometimes there are gaps in
 ELLs readers knowledge of
 the language or culture.

 Becoming Literate in a
   Second Language
Oral Language Skills and
 Academic Literacy Skill
Children in L1 generally are
 fairly fluent in speaking.
Words are learned to read have
 already presented in their oral
 language vocabularies.
ELLs, do not necessarily have
 oral ability in the L2 yet and
 generally can’t fall back on an
 oral knowledge of what they
 are learning to read or write.
The language or vocabulary
 they encounter in reading is
 often completely new to them.

ELLs’ informal oral language
 skills usually develop more
 quickly than their academic
 language and reading/writing
 abilities (Collier,1989).

Even though ELLs are at a
 beginning level in their L2
 development, they may not need
 to wait until they are orally fluent
 to begin learning to read and
 write.                           11
The Role of the First Language
 in Literacy Development
If children already understand
 the symbolic role of characters or
 letters or are familiar with some
 of the functions of print in society,
 this awareness can help them
 move to the next stage in their
 literacy development (Luccas
 and Katz,1994; Cummins 1991).
Varied Experiences,
 Background Knowledge, and
 Cultures of ESL Students
ELLs bring different world and
 background knowledge, as well
 as different degrees of topic
 familiarity, to the task of reading
 and writing, something that is
 likely to influence their
 comprehension of what they read
 (Steffensen and Joagdev, 1984).  13
1. Ts need to incorporate
   “responsive teaching” (Faltis
   and Hudelson.1994),by being
   prepared to employ a variety of
   teaching approaches and
   techniques with ELLs.
2. The importance of learning as
   much as possible about the Ss’
   cultural backgrounds and
   experiences.                 14
3. Using various methods to
   activate the Ss’ schemata, their
   knowledge of and beliefs about
   events, situations, and actions,
   based upon their experiences
   (Rumelhart,1980) through such
   activities as prereading
   discussions, pictures, diagrams,
   drawings, videos, or role-

4. Choosing (or having the
  children choose) reading
  material on topics that are
  familiar, which they can identify
  with because they relate to their
  own cultures, backgrounds and
  present lives, or which are of
  high general interest (Faltis and
  hudelson 1994).

 First Language Literacy
 Younger ESL children:
1. Their NES peers are also
   developing literacy skills for the
   first time.
2. Classes are usually oriented
   toward facilitating the natural
   emergence of literacy.

Older ESL learners:
1.They may bring greater cognitive
  development, more real-life
  experience, or even more
  maturity to the task of learning to
  read and write.
2.To provide reading materials that
  appeal to their age level and
  interests, even if they are at
  beginning levels of reading and
  writing ability.
Assumptions about Print :
1. pictures with text
2. read left to right, front to back,
   top to bottom
3. separate words from each other
4. quotation marks
5. punctuation marks
6. written language has different
  rules and conventions from oral
Is There an Optimal Way to
Teach Reading and Writing
Two large categories
 Weaver(1994) :
Part-centered approaches


 (Code-Emphasis) Method
View reading instruction as
  moving from learning the “parts”
  and building up to the “whole”.

1. Phonics approaches
2. So-called linguistic approaches
3. A sight word approach
4. Basal reader approach

(Meaning-Emphasis) Approaches
  Emphasize the overall
   construction of meaning from
   connected or whole texts, and
   draw on the reader’s and writer’s
   schemata and personal

 1. Language Experience
    Approach (LEA)
 2. A Literature-Based Approach
 3. Whole Language Approach 22
1. Dictate a “story”

2. Ts or children read the story

3. Various extended activities

4. Be able to read other’s writing.

The Phonics/Whole Language Debate
    Numerous studies have attempted to
    determine the relative effectiveness of many
    many of these methods. The results have
    often been inconclusive or even contradictory.

     View of Bond and Dykstra,1997
    1. Systemic emphasis and teaching
       of word study skills are necessary;

2. Eclectic programs is better
   than orthodox approaches;

3. Not all reading programs work
   equally well;

4. Various methods and materials

5. Writing component

6. Adopting certain elements from
   other approaches.
View of Strickland,1998
     1.Support the Balanced approach

     2.Skills and meanings should
       always be kept together.

     3.Systemically predetermined

4.Intensive instruction.

5.Regular documentation and

6.Language arts instruction.

    Standards and Second
Language Literacy Development
    Some of standards recognize
     that their Ss have extremely
     diverse cultural, ethnic, and
     linguistic backgrounds, many do
     not address the key role of
     language in the acquisition of

Depending on where on is, there
 are now multiple standards that
 one may be expected to meet
Ts who attempt to teach to them
 must still apply a great deal of
 judgment in identifying exactly to
 what degree of sophistication or
 accuracy a child must.

  Strategies to Facilitate Second
Language Literacy Development &
 Help Students Achieve Standard

      Expose Ss to the Many
       Uses of Print around Them
      1. Label items in the room.
      2. Focus attention on the print.

3. Manage aspects of classroom
   business in writing.
4. Establish a regular place to
   post announcement or
5. Record class discussions on
   chart paper.
6. Create areas in the room for
   specific literacy purposes.
Provide Opportunities for
 Children to Read More
 Extensively on a Subject

1.Extensive reading can be very

2.Internet research and projects
  are excellent sources.

Provide Authentic Purpose
 for Reading and Writing
E-mail messages

Dialogue journal

Research projects

Class to class information
 exchange via internet
Provide Scaffolding for Learning
   Temporary supports (before
     ELLs are able to do

    Decrease or remove supports.
     (after ELLs are able to do

Use Oral Skills to Support
 Reading and Writing
Encourage cooperative groups.

Explain orally before writing.

Report what they discover and

Put the same information into
 written form.
Focus Ss’ Attention on
 Reading and Writing



3 elements involved in reading:
 the text, the reader, and the
The various component
 knowledge areas which
 readers use.
Ts need to be familiar with
 various approaches to teach
 reading so that Ts can make a
 wise choices about how to
 teach.                        37

Profiles in Diversity and Strength
 Adults like these have different
 histories, circumstances, and
 purposes for wanting to develop and
 improve language and literacy skills.
To understand the possibilities for
 language and literacy instruction, it’s
 necessary to know something about
 learners, their resources, needs and
 goals for learning ENG.           39
What is English as a Second
 Language (ESL) Literacy?




 Many Learners, Many Literacies
  NALS was designed to measure 3
  areas of knowledge or skill:

1. Prose literacy
  (new stories, poems)

2. Document literacy
   (job application, transportation schedule)

3. Quantitative literacy
   (order forms)                       41
Contexts for Literacy Instruction
     Four Themes or Purposes for
      Language and Literacy
    1. Access: information

    2. Voice: express ideas and opinion

    3. Independent Action: solve

    4. Bridge to Future: how to learn42
Basic Adult ESL/Literacy and
 Lifelong Learning
 Adults have pursued their desire to
 improve language and literacy skills
 for :
1. Personal
2. Professional
3. Academic

  through a wide range of venues to
  learn language skills.
Family or Intergenerational
The terms have been used to describe
 how literacy is valued and used in the
 lives of children and adults.

Also been used to describe
 educational programs designed to
 strengthen literacy resources by
 involving at least 2 generations for a
 variety of stated goals (Weinstein, 1998).
Family Literacy Program Goals
 and Models
To support parents in promoting
 children’s school achievement.

To foster a love of reading.

Put forth for some programs.

To reconnect the generations in
 positive ways.
Issues and Agendas in Family
Many family programs is to
 improve children’s school
 achievement, more to family life
 than school success.
A majority of family literacy
 programs are designed in a way
 that seems to foster participation
 primarily of children and their
 mothers.                        46
Many family literacy programs
 often grow from sources in early
 childhood education.
When adults are asked about the
 family issues that concern them
 most, they rarely mention their
 toddlers—the targeted
 participants of most federally
 funded family literacy programs.

   Pre-Employment and
    Workplace Literacy
Goals of Pre-employment
 and Workplace Program
To get a job

To survive on a job

To thrive on a job
Issues and Agendas in
 Literacy for Workers:
 Workplace or Workforce
Workplace education:
 to improve productivity in a given
Workforce education:
 is more oriented toward education
 of the whole person in their roles.
Civic ESL/Literacy Education

Today, the INS administers an
 exam that evaluates the
 applicant’s knowledge of U.S.
 history and government by
 quizzing applicants from a list of
 100 Qs, as well as testing basic
 knowledge of spoken and written
 ENG. (Becker,2000)
 Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy
 To assist learners in preparing
  to take the naturalization exam.
1. Question Division

2. Information gap activities

3. Flash cards
 Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy
 To encourage learners who have
  been naturalized to exercise their
  newly earned franchise with the
1. A mock election

2. Voting basic

3. How and where to find
 Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy
 Many forms of civic participation.

1. Examine their beliefs

2. Identify and analyze issues

3. Build skills and strategies

Issues in Civic ESL Literacy
Some poignant ironies that
 emerge in the conflict between
 preparing learners to be active.
The schism illuminates the irony
 that the citizenship exam, as it’s
 currently conceived and
 administered, does little to
 promote engagement for learners
 in the life of their communities.
 Orientations to Curriculum
      and Instruction
Mastery or Transmission of
 Mastery-Based Orientation:
  focuses on linguistic structures,
  language skills, specific content,
  and/ or competencies.

Mastery or Transmission of

 Content-Based Approaches:
  focuses on specific subject matter.

Competency-Based Education:
 an instructional objective
 described in task-based terms.

Meaning-Making or Constructivism
    Participatory or Freirian Approach:
1.   use of generative words and themes
2.   the notion of teachers as facilitators
3.   use of problem-posing

Meaning-Making or Constructivism
 Whole Language Approach:
  learners work together to read and
  write for and with each other and
  evaluate products together.

  Project-Based Learning:
   learners investigate a question, solve
   a problem, plan an event, or develop
   a product.
 What Works? Continua for
  Observation and Inquiry
 These questions can guide our own
 inquiry, as we observe “what works”
 for different learners and different

 What is the relative emphasis on
  four skills?

 How much emphasis is given to
  linguistic versus nonlinguistic
  outcomes?                       59
What is the extent of focus on
 structure versus meaning-making?

How much time do learners use
 language and literacy in the class?

Is curriculum predetermined or
 does it evolving learner interests?

To what extent do learners know
 the objectives of the lesson and
 have an opportunity for input?
Promising Directions in Adult
  ESL Literacy Instruction
Take an Inquiring Stance
 practitioners who learn about
 learners are in the best position to

Balance Skills and Structures
 with Meaning-Making and
 Knowledge Creation
 good at teaching language
 structures and functions.

Develop “Vision-Making” Muscles

 What is our purpose?

 What are we hoping to make
  happen for learners who enter our
  classroom when they come in
  and after they have left?

Demand Mutual Accountability

 Teachers and learners would be
  responsible for each other.

 Create Communities of Learners
  and Communities of Teachers
 Whether in person or on-line, can
  provide support in one of the most
  challenging but rewarding
  endeavors imaginable.

Reading for Academic Purpose:
 Guidelines for the ESL/EFL

  Reading for Academic Purposes:
Guidelines for the ESL/ EFL Teacher
       Introduction:
        The central means for learning new
       information and gaining access to
       alternative explanations and
       The foundation for synthesis and critical
       evaluation skills
       The primary means for independent

 Purposes for Reading
 English for Academic
  Purposes (EAP) reading
 To search for information
 For general comprehension
 To learn new information
 To synthesize and evaluate
A Definition of Reading
 • 10 characteristics of a fluent
    read rapidly,
    recognize words quickly and automatically
    a large vocabulary store,
    integrate new information with their own
    recognize the purposes for reading
    comprehend the text
    shift purpose strategically
    use strategies
    repair miscomprehension
    evaluate information                 69
10 Implication for EAP reading
    1.  Build a large recognition vocabulary
    2.  Provide explicit language instruction
    3.  Address the range of skills
    4.  Introduce discourse-organizing
    5. Become strategic readers
    6. Give opportunities of reading
    7. Make extensive reading
    8. Motivate to read
    9. Integrate reading and writing
    10. Develop content-based instruction
L2 Readers and Sociocultural
 Factors in Learning to Read
     • L2 reader: weaker linguistic skills, more
       limited vocabulary

     • The social and cultural backgrounds of
       L2 Ss differ from L1 Ss’.

     • Ts must be sensitive and guide Ss’
       reading in different ways.

6 Goals for an Effective Reading
      1)   Conducting needs analyses

      2)   Planning (or Fine-Tuning) reading curricula

      3)   Selecting appropriate text materials and
           supporting researches

      4)   Diversifying Ss’ reading experiences

      5)   Working with texts by means of pre-, during-,
           and post-reading framework

      6)   Addressing the complex nature of reading
           through meaning instruction
1. Conducting Needs Analyses
   Ss’ motivation and attitudes, goals, and
    language abilities, reading experiences

2. Plan (Fine-tune) reading curricula
 comprehension of key texts, extensive
   reading, strategic reading, increase Ss’
   recognition vocabulary, fluent reading,
   analyses of difficult material, and study
   of discourse-organization features.

3. Select appropriate text
  materials and supporting
 Based on Ss’ levels
 Some challenge to develop expertise and
  pride in what Ss are learning

4. Diversify Ss’ reading experiences
 Ss read in different occasions for
 various purposes.

5. Work with texts by means of a pre-,
  during-, and post reading framework
        Prereading instruction
          access background information
         provide specific information
         stimulate interest
         set up expectation
         model strategies
        preview, skim, answer the Qs, explore
         key vocabulary, review
During-reading instruction
 Understand difficult concepts
 Make sense of complex sentences
 Consider the relationships among ideas/
  characters in the text
 Read purposefully/ strategically

 outline/ summarize key ideas
 examine emotions and attitudes
 determine sources and seek clarification
 look for the answers
 write down predictions

Postreading instruction
extend ideas and information

 Complete a graphic organizer
 Expand / change a semantic map
 Compare information with the lecture
  listened previously
 Rank the importance of information
 Answer the Qs

6. Address the complex nature of reading
     through meaningful instruction
          Vocabulary development
          Careful reading of text
          Awareness of text structure &
           discourse organization
          The use of graphic organizers to
           support comprehension
          Strategic reading
          Fluency development
          Extensive reading
          Student motivation
          Integrated-skills tasks
     Vocabulary Development
•    T should preview the text and
     identify words unfamiliar to Ss.

•    3 categories to place words
1)   + +: necessary & useful
2)   + -: necessary, not useful
3)   - -: not necessary, not useful

•    Ss learn words on their own.
 Collect words from texts, recycle
   vocabulary from past texts, discuss the
   words, experiment with words, share new
   words                                79
 Careful Reading of Texts
  • Careful reading activities focus on
    Qs to recognize main idea, analyze
    supporting information.

  • Activities:
   Fill in the blanks
   Write a summary
   Compare the information
   Determine the attitude of the writer
   List examples

       Awareness of Test Structure
         and Discourse Organization
    • A consistent effort to guide students to
      see the ways that texts are structured
      will help them build stronger
      comprehension skills.

    •   Identify the sentences
    •   Examine headings and subheadings
    •   Add information
    •   Underline transition phrases

 Awareness of Test Structure
   and Discourse Organization
     • Explain pronouns
     • Examine an inaccurate outline and
       adjusting it
     • Reorganize a scrambled paragraph
     • Create headings
     • Identify clues

   Use of Graphic Organizers to Support
    Comprehension and Discourse
    Organization Awareness
       •    Use graphic representations to assist
            students in comprehending difficult

       •    Options for teaching:

       1)   Use s circle with arrows

2) Venn Diagram

3) Flowchart

 Strategic Reading
• Major goal  the development of strategic
  (1) automatic routines to resolve reading
  comprehension difficulties

  (2) a more elaborate set of problem-solving

• Strategic readers understand the goals of a
  reading activity, have a range of well-practiced
  reading strategies at their disposal.
 Strategic Reading
Common Strategies:
1.   Previewing
2.   Predicting
3.   Summarizing
4.   Learning new words through analysis
5.   Using context to maintain
6.   Recognize text organization
7.   Generating appropriate questions
8.   Clarifying meaning
9.   Repairing miscomprehension
 Fluency Development
  •   Fluency involves :
     rapid and automatic word recognition

     the ability to recognize basic
      grammatical information

     the rapid combination of word
      meanings and structural information
      to create larger meaning units

 Fluency Development
•    Reasons why not promoted in L2
1.   Reading fluency depends on knowing a
     fairly large number of words.
2.   The development of words is an essential
3.   Oral reading is a helpful support for
     reading development.
4.   Lots of ways to promote fluency without
     requiring a significant investment in
 Fluency Development
• “Extensive reading activity” can
  develop overall fluency, rate,
  and word recognition.

• Fluency-
 (1) Rereading practice

 (2) Rereading for other purposes

• Rate
(1) Timed reading
(2) Paced reading

• Rapid recognition skills
(1) word-recognition exercises
(2) flashcard practice
(3) rereading practice

 Extensive Reading
 • Extensive reading should be a central
   component of any course with the
   goal of building academic reading

 • Students can engage in to improve
   their reading abilities by the
   sustained silent reading of level-
   appropriate texts.

       ~14 Ideal Conditions~
1.   Provide time for extended silent reading

2.   Create opportunities for all types of

3.   Find out what and why Ss like to read

4.   Make materials interesting, attractive,
     and level-appropriate

5.   Build a well-stocked, diverse class library

6.   Allow Ss to take texts home to read

7.   Create incentives
     ~14 Ideal Conditions~
8.    Have Ss share and recommend materials

9.    Keep records of reading completed by Ss

10. Seek out class sets of texts

11. Make use of graded readers

12. Read interesting materials aloud to Ss

13. Visit the school library regularly

14. Create a reading lab and designate time
      for lab activities
   Student Motivation
-- Another key to successful reading, but
   typically ignored in the reading instruction

-- A complex concert with many associated
• interest, involvement, self-concept, self-efficacy

-- It’s an individual trait, related to a person’s
   goals and beliefs

-- It makes a real difference in Ss’ reading
   development and Ts consider hot to
   motivate Ss to engage in actively

 Student Motivation
►    8 Ways to develop positive motivation
1.   Discuss the importance of reading and reasons
     for different activities.
2.   Ts need to talk about what interests them as
     readers and why.
3.   All activities should be related to course goals
     which Ss have been introduced.
4.   All readings tasks should have lead-ins
5.   Ts need to build Ss’ knowledge base

 Student Motivation
6.Ts need to select texts and adapt activities with
     Ss’ reading abilities.

7. Ts should nurture “a community of learners”
     among Ss.

8. Ts need to look for ways to help Ss encounter
     “flow” .
    Flow is a concept that describes optimal
    A primary to encounter flow is by becoming
     engaged in reading.
    Flow experience lead Ss to seek our reading as
     an optimal experience, resulting in intrinsic
     motivation regularly.                        96
 Integrated-Skills Instruction
   • Reading is used to carry out further
     language- and content-learning tasks.
    Writing activities can be developed from
     reading resources.

   • The goal for EAP curricula should be the
      use of reading as a resource for
      integrated-skills tasks.
   • Integrated-skilled activities
   -- open up valuable opportunities for
      extensive reading
   --encage Ss in complex tasks
   --learn connected, coherent, and simulating
      content knowledge                     97

Extensive and intensive Reading
    • Extensive reading
      T encourages Ss to choose for
     themselves what they read and to do
     for pleasure and general language

    • Intensive reading:
     T chooses, directs, and design to
      enable Ss to develop specific
      receptive skills.
Extensive Reading Materials
• A successful extensive reading program
  is that students should be reading
  material which they can understand.
 read for pleasure

• Some materials succeed because the
  writers work within specific lists of
  allowed words and grammar.
 Ss at the appropriate level can read with
 ease and confidence.

Setting up a Library
• We need to build up a library
  of suitable books.

• If books persuaded, we
  should code them for level
  and genre.

The Role of the Teacher in Extensive
         Reading Programs

    • The role of teacher is essential
      and crucial.
     encourage Ss to read
     promote reading at the right time
     persuade Ss its benefits
     show how exciting and interesting
     reading can be
     make Ss choose the books they like

Extensive Reading Tasks
• Ss should be allowed to choose reading
  materials which they like and feel
  interested in.
• Ts should encourage them to report
  back on their reading in a number of
 set aside a time at various points in a
 put comment sheets into the books for Ss
  to write in

     Intensive Reading

•   The roles of the teacher:
1. Organizer: tell Ss what the purpose of
    the reading is, give them clear
    instructions about how to achieve it, and
    how long they have to do.

2. Observer: observe Ss’ reading process
    without interrupting their reading, then
    this will give us valuable information

The roles of the teacher
3. Feedback Organizer:
• Ts should give Ss feedback when they
  finished the task, and check if they have
  completed the task successfully or not.
• It is important to be supportive when we
  give the positive feedback.
This action may sustain their motivation.

4. Prompter:    prompt Ss to notice language
  features, direct them, clarify ambiguities,
  and make them aware of issues of text

     Intensive Reading:
   The Vocabulary question
• Ts always encourage Ss to read for
  general understanding without worrying
  about the meaning of every single words.

• Ss are desperate to know what each
  individual word means.

 Ts can give Ss a chance to ask questions
  about individual words, give Ss a chance to
  look them up.
Time on vocabulary checking
 1. Time limit
 2. Word/phrase limit
 3. Meaning consensus

Reading lesson sequences

 • Reasons of intensive reading
 practice specific skills
 reading for general understanding
 read texts for communicative purposes
 as sources of information
 identify specific uses of language

Examples of reading sequences
Example 1: Aka Diaz
Ss predict the content of a text from a few
  tantalizing clues
• T divide 5 Ss in a group, give each S one key word
  from the text.
• By discussing their words and phrases, each group
  has to try and predict what the text is about
• T would read it aloud before Ss read the text for
  themselves to answer the detailed comprehension

      It involves speaking and reading.

Examples of reading sequences
  Example 2: Going home
  T can use the broad-based reading ‘kit’ to help Ss read a
   The use of the general questions ensures that Ss will
    approach it.

             1.   What is the text about?
             2.   Who was it written by?
             3.   Who was it written for?
             4.   What is the writer’s intention
             5.   Do you like the text?

Examples of reading sequences

     Example 3: Village of snakes
     a modified cloze text
     • Ss are given a text and asked to fill in
       the blanks as they read.
     • After T has checked the answers with Ss,
       they read the text again to gain more
       detailed Qs.

Examples of reading sequences

      Example 4: The right film
      • Ss can search for information in an
        entirely realistic and enjoyable by the
        computers and the Internet.

      • Ts don’t have to spend too much time
        looking for the reading information

Examples of reading sequences

      Example 5: The neighbor’s cat
       Ss do a reading puzzle before going on to
        use the reading for a discussion or a
        role-playing task.
       Ss have to put the paragraphs in correct

       The reading puzzle leads into an
        imaginative task.

Examples of reading sequences
      Example 6: The other Bruce
      Ss build up a picture of one of the
        characters by reading a text and using
        the information in it.
       By making imaginative leaps, Ss relate to a
        reading passage in a completely different,
        personal way.
       The words are allowed to create pictures
        for them.

Examples of reading sequences

       Example 7: Fire hero
       Ss study a reading text to identify
         facets of its construction.

Thanks for Your

              ~The End~


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